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QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 396. 1 1 Discrete Wavelet Transform, It decomposes the image into different frequency ranges such as low frequency middle frequency and high. frequency In same way the image can further be decomposed into n levels Here we are using 3level decomposition. for better result, In two dimensional applications for each level of decomposition we first perform the DWT in the vertical direction. followed by the DWT in the horizontal direction After the first level of decomposition there are 4 sub bands LL. LH HL and HH For each successive level of decomposition the LL sub band of the previous level is used as the. input To perform second level decomposition the DWT is applied to LL and so on. LL2 HL2 HL,Figure 1 DWT decomposition,1 2 Quick Response Code. It is two dimensional barcode consists of black modules arranged in white background It can store large. alphanumeric information and easily readable by scanner A QR code is capable of being read in 360 degree from. any direction thus eliminating interference The QR Code system has become admired outside the automotive. industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity than that of the UPC barcode. It is higher information density,It is small in size than that of Barcode. Data can be restored even if the symbol is partially dirty or damaged. Some features that describe how QR code is better in comparison with conventional barcodes have been listed out in. following table,Table 1 Comparison of QR code and Barcode.

QR Code Barcode,UPTO 7089 numeric 10 20 digits,40 digit Numeric approx 10 digit Numeric approx. 5 mm 5mm 50 mm 20 mm,Supports 360d Horizontal reading. A S Tonne and V S Bale 397, QR code is used for Advertising Business cards Social networking Branding registration. II PROPOSED METHOD,2 1 Watermark Embedding, The step of embedding process are outlined as follows. Step of watermark image with secret key, 1 The watermark image was produced as a bit sequence of watermark S The data and background values were set.

to 1 and 1 respectively, Where N is the total number of pixels in the watermark image. 2 The pseudo random sequence P whose each number can take a value either 1 or 1 was randomly generated. with a secret key for embedding and extracting of the watermark. Step of QR code image, 1 The two level DWT of image i t was computed for QR code image. 2 A watermark was then embedded in sub band LH2or HL2 or HH 2 According to the rule. Where is input image is output image with watermark is a magnitude factor which is a constant determining. the watermark strength, 3 After that the inverse DWT IDWT was then applied to obtain the watermarked image. 4 Compute PSNR, The quality of the watermarked video compared to original video was measured based on the Peak. SignaltoNoiseRatio PSNR, QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 398.

2 level DWT,Watermar Pseudo KEY,LH2 HL2 HH2,2 level IDWT. 2 level IDWT,Figure 2 Watermark Embedding Process,2 2 Watermark Extraction. The watermark extraction algorithm did not use the original QR code image A prediction of the original value of. the pixels is however needed Thus a prediction of the original value of the pixels was performed using noise. A S Tonne and V S Bale 399, elimination technique In this paper we use an averaging3 3 mask whose elements were fixed to 1 9 The extraction. process are outlined as follows, 1 The predicted image could be obtained by smoothing the input image with a spatial convolution. mask The prediction of the original value can be defined as. Where c is the size of the convolution mask The watermarked image and the predicted image were DWT. transformed independently, 2 The estimate of the watermark is indicated by the difference between as.

3 The sign of the difference between the predicted and the actual value is the value of the embedded bit. 4 COMPUTE NC, To evaluate the performance of the algorithm a similar measurement between the original watermark S and the. extract watermark S was computed by using normalized correlation NC. Watermarked Smoothing Predicted,2 level DWT,2 level DWT. Select sub band LH2 or HL2 or HH2 Select sub band LH2 HL2 HH2. Figure 3 Watermark Extracting Process using DWT, QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 400. NC and PSNR having mathematical representation as,IV CONTOURLET TRANSFORM. Contourlets form a multiresolution directional tight frame designed to efficiently approximate images made of. smooth regions separated by smooth boundaries The Contourlet transform has a fast implementation based on a. Laplacian Pyramid decomposition followed by directional filter banks applied on each bandpass sub band. Contourlet transform is a double filter bank structure It is implemented by the pyramidal directional filter bank. PDFB which decomposes images into directional subbands at multiple scales In terms of structure the contourlet. transform is a cascade of a Laplacian Pyramid and a directional filter bank. Block diagram of embedding and extraction of data in contourlet domain is shown in Fig 4 The secret data is first. encrypted using proper algorithm and then embedding algorithm is applied. 4 1 CONTOURLET, Contourlet form a multiresolution directional tight frame designed to efficiently approximate images made of.

smooth regions separated by smooth boundaries The Contourlet transform has a fast implementation based on a. Laplacian Pyramid decomposition followed by directional filterbanks applied on each bandpass subband. Table 2 PSNR vs NC,Sub PSNR NC Extracted,band watermark. LH 43 0615 0 95,HL 43 1514 0 96,HH 44 2675 0 99,A S Tonne and V S Bale 401. Table3 Watermark Extraction,Alpha 10 Alpha 15,Alpha 25 Alpha 30. Alpha 35 Alpha 40 Alpha 45,Text Image,Cover image,Find suitable Inverse contourlet. Contourlet Embedding,sub band Decomposition,Decomposition algorithm.

Stego Image,Text Image,Extraction Contourlet,Algorithm Decomposition. Figure 4 Watermark Embedding Extracting Process using COUNTOURLET TRANSFORM. V SIMULATION RESULTS,Table 3 PSNR and NC of QR decode Image using DWT. PSNR NC DECODE QR,5 46 1926 0 9794,10 40 1720 0 9903. 15 36 6502 0 9942,20 34 1514 0 9963,25 32 3132 0 9972. 30 30 6296 0 9981,35 29 2906 0 9991,40 28 1308 0 9993.

45 27 1078 0 9994, QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 402. Table 4 PSNR and NC of QR decode Image using Contourlet Transform. PSNR NC DECODE QR,5 46 4564 0 9810,10 40 4359 0 9936. 15 36 9141 0 9969,20 34 4153 0 9985,25 32 4771 0 9991. 30 30 8935 0 9993,35 29 5545 0 9994,40 28 3946 0 9996. 45 27 3717 0 9996,Figure 5 QR image,Figure 6 Watermarked image.

A S Tonne and V S Bale 403,Figure 7 Watermarked QR image. Figure 8 Predicted image,Figure 9 Extracted watermark. QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 404. EXTENSION RESULTS,Figure 10 QR image Contourlet transform. Figure 11 Watermarked image Contourlet transform, Figure 12 Watermarked QR image Contourlet transform. A S Tonne and V S Bale 405,Figure 13 Predicted image Contourlet transform.

VI CONCLUSION,Figure 14 Extracted image Contourlet transform. This paper presented a digital watermarking technique which improves the characteristics of watermarking which is. based on DWT Counterlet Transform Whereby a binary image is watermarked an embedded in a QR Code. image The embedding process is presented in a LH HL or HH sub band based on wavelet transform The. experimental results demonstrated that the algorithm can be recovering the watermark with an acceptable visual. quality The objective measures such as PSNR NC and MAE are subject to magnitude factor As the future work. the quality of the watermarked video Compared to original video was measured based on the Peak Signal to Noise. Ratio PSNR Normalized Correlation NC and Mean Absolute Error MAE Performance of Counterlet. Transform as compared to DWT is better in noise reduction edge preservation and image enhancement. REFERENCES, 1 Denso wave incorporated http www densowave com qrcode indexe html. QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 406. 2 Lumini A and Maio D 2000 A wavelet based image watermarking scheme In Proc Int Conf Information. Technology Coding and Computing pp 122 127, 3 Alattar AM 2004 Reversible watermark using the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform. IEEE Trans Image Process 13 1147 1156, 4 Jun Chou Chuang Yu Chen Hu Hsien Ju Ko A Novel Secret Sharing Technique Using QR Code. International Journal of Image Processing IJIP Volume 4 Issue 5 pp 468 475 2010. 5 QRCode http en wikipedia org wiki QR code, 6 ENSO Wave Incorporated What is a QR Code 2013 http www qrcode com en Accessed 10 Feb 2013.

7 M J Shensa The Discrete Wavelet Transform Wedding Trouse and Mallat Algorithms IEEE Trans on. Signal Processing vol 40 no 10 October 1992 P Kieseberg code security In Proceedings of the 8th. QR Code Water marking Algorithm Based on Dwt and Counterlet Transform for Authentication 396 1 1 Discrete Wavelet Transform It decomposes the image into different frequency ranges such as low frequency middle frequency and high frequency In same way the image can further be decomposed into n levels Here we are using 3level decomposition

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