Q U E A F R I C A I E De E An Velopem A F R Ic D-Free PDF

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AfDB State of Infrastructure,in East Africa African Development Bank. Acknowledgments, This report was prepared by a team led ICA composed of Mohamed Hassan Expert TA and Peter Cardy Fernandes. by Charles Leyeka Lufumpa Director Manager Callixte Kambanda Chief Infrastructure Expert. Statistics Department comprising Infrastructure Specialist Christina. Maurice Mubila Chief Statistician ESTA 1 Sonja Hoess Water Financing Expert The report was prepared under the gen. and Tito Yepes Consultant ESTA 1 Kobina Michael Kane Technical Assistant eral guidance of Mthuli Ncube Chief. Expert in Infrastructure Momok Wada Economist and Vice President at the. The report was reviewed by staff in the Institutional Financial Infrastructure African Development Bank. Infrastructure Consortium for Africa,A f r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k. Statistics Department, Africa Infrastructure Knowledge Program April 2013. State of Infrastructure,in East Africa AfDB,1 Key messages.
This brief outlines some of the Figure 1 However this positive trend Access to electricity for cooking This. principal ongoing infrastructure challenges has been lagging in recent years with a remains a major infrastructure problem. facing the East African subregion 1 with significant differential observable between in East Africa which has the lowest access. a particular focus on water sanitation urban and rural areas On a positive note to electrical power of all the African subre. energy surface transport and ICT The internal disparities between lagging and gions although performance is improving. progress made to date is evaluated in the leading areas within a single country are However in most East African countries. light of recent studies and new data The narrowing Sanitation also shows signs of firewood and charcoal remain the most. discussion is set against the backdrop of the positive progress commonly used fuel by far. ongoing Africa Infrastructure Knowledge,Program AIKP which is a successor pro. gram to the African Infrastructure Country, Diagnostic AICD and is being led by the Figure 1 Access to improved water and sanitation by subregion of. African Development Bank The AIKP population,adopts a longer term perspective than 80. the AICD and provides a framework for 70,generating infrastructure knowledge on a. more sustainable basis The Bank will take,the leading role in the regular collection.
and assessment of infrastructure indicators 40,the production of knowledge products and 30. timely policy analysis of emerging infra,structure trends on the continent to guide. future policy and funding decisions Data,are currently being collected and validated 0. and country reports will be generated in Western Eastern Southern Central. 2013 A new consolidated East African Improved water Improved sanitation. Community EAC report is scheduled for,Source AICD 2011 5. publication at the end of 2013, At the subregional level on most measures Figure 2 Access to electricity urban of population.
East Africa s infrastructure ranks behind,that of the Southern African Development. Community SADC and the Economic,Community of West African States. ECOWAS However in some areas e g,water sanitation and internet density. East Africa s performance is comparable to,that of Southern Africa the regional leader. Access to improved water and sanita,tion East Africa s overall performance.
for this indicator is comparable to that of ECOWAS CEMAC COMESA EAC SADC Low income Middle. the regional leader southern Africa see countries income. Source AICD 2011 37,1 Includes East African Community EAC coun. tries of Burundi Kenya Rwanda Tanzania and,Uganda as well as Sudan and Ethiopia. A f r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k,AfDB State of Infrastructure. in East Africa African Development Bank, Energy production is the most significant and foreign investment However to date considerably to the time and cost of trans. problem across all of the infrastructure scant progress has been made in this porting goods in East Africa However. sectors in East Africa The subregion has direction in October 2012 the EAC sectoral coun. the lowest generation capacity after Central cil cleared the legal content of two bills. Africa see Figure 3 and the smallest per Surface transportation costs associated for tabling to the East African Legislative. capita generation in the whole of the con with logistics in East Africa are higher than Assembly later in the year The two bills. tinent It is clear that East Africa would in any other region in the world This is will establish the operation of the planned. benefit greatly from intraregional energy mostly attributable to administrative and one stop border posts and the application. trade and integration which offer signifi customs delays at ports and hold ups at of a uniform vehicle weight axle load limit. cant win win opportunities reduce costs national borders and checkpoints along for the region Vehicle Load Control Bill. and ensure greater reliability of supply This the road networks Capacity constraints This should speed up customs procedures. would improve the business enabling envi faced at the ports coupled with extremely and regularize truck loads to reduce dete. ronment and stimulate trade and domestic lengthy import and export procedures add rioration of the road networks. East African road corridors are in rea,sonably good condition compared with.
Figure 3 Installed generation capacity by regional economic community the other African subregions Figure. MW 4 Indeed there has been a marked,10 000 improvement over the last five years with. an increase in the proportion of paved,sections Strong regional differences are. noticeable among the road networks,East Africa s ICT sector is characterized by. high costs and low penetration see Figure,5 However a trend of falling prices and. higher penetration has been observed in,areas that have access to submarine cables.
The most pressing issue for the subregion, ECOWAS CEMAC COMESA EAC SADC is to complete the fiber optic backbone. which will provide broader coverage to all, Source Eberhard et al 2009 in AICD 2011 37 of East Africa Around 3 565 kilometers of. fiber optic cable are needed to complete,the network This represents an investment. Figure 4 Roads in good condition by subregion requirement of US 96 million Despite the. 100 cost this would give high rates of return,particularly for Sudan 116 and Uganda. 60 There are significant growth opportunities,for East Africa to improve its infrastruc.
ture particularly in productivity related,areas namely energy production logis. tics and ICT 2 For instance the Africa,Infrastructure Country Diagnostic AICD. study AICD 2011 estimated that if the, Central Western Eastern Southern subregion s overall infrastructure were. Source Teravaninthorn and Raballand 2009 in AICD 2011 10 2 Productive infrastructure may be defined as in. frastructure that facilitates the production of goods. and services thereby boosting a country s GDP,A f r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k. Statistics Department, Africa Infrastructure Knowledge Program April 2013.
State of Infrastructure,in East Africa AfDB,raised to the level of the top performing. African country Mauritius GDP would Figure 5 Internet subscribers and main telephone lines by regional. grow by 6 In this respect increased economic community. power generation capacity would make 2 0,the biggest contribution to growth. Despite potentially huge gains to be made,from boosting productive infrastructure. there remain substantial challenges across 1 0,all sectors Principal among these is the. lack of a regional vision for infrastructure,provision even though it remains one of the 0 5.
critical determinants of success Recently,some efforts have been made towards a 0 0. regional vision however it is still too early CEMAC ECOWAS COMESA EAC SADC. to assess their real impact and success For Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants. example the East African Community Main telephone lines outside largest city per 100 inhabitants. developed a Master Plan for the energy, sector aiming to achieve a regional vision Source AICD 2011 48. that goes beyond the power system capacity,supporting an institutional arrangement. A f r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k,AfDB State of Infrastructure. in East Africa African Development Bank, 2 Social infrastructure access to water sanitation WSS and electricity.
2 1 Water and Sanitation, Although East Africa s overall per Table 1 Benchmarking the EAC with other regional economic. formance in WSS water and sanitation communities of population. supplies has witnessed a positive trend and,Western Eastern Southern Central. is comparable with that of the regional leader, Southern Africa progress has slowed in Improved water 63 71 68 53. recent years A further drag on momentum Improved sanitation 35 42 46 28. is the significant access differential between, urban and rural areas On a positive note Source AICD 2011 5. disparities between lagging and leading areas,within individual East African countries are.
narrowing Access to improved sanitation is Table 2 Water and sanitation access rates by country and place. also showing positive signs of residence,Country Year Rural Urban Total. With respect to access to improved sources, of water and sanitation 3 East Africa s per Improved Water. formance is comparable with that of the Burundi 2010 27 4 77 2 31 9. regional leader Southern Africa see,Table 1 Ethiopia 2011 35 0 92 7 48 1. Kenya 2010 53 1 87 5 61 5,Nonetheless as shown in Table 2 there. Rwanda 2010 31 9 68 8 37 1,are significant differences in access rates.
between the urban and rural areas Most Tanzania 2010 65 5 83 8 70 3. East African countries have attained rel Uganda 2011 85 6 96 4 87 6. atively high levels of access to improved,Improved Sanitation. water and sanitation in urban areas but in, many rural areas households are still with Burundi 2010 0 2 26 2 2 6. out improved access As a large majority Ethiopia 2011 1 5 7 5 2 8. of East Africans reside in rural areas the,Kenya 2010 13 2 55 6 23 5. national access rates are still low in some, countries e g Burundi and Rwanda par Rwanda 2010 0 7 5 6 1 4. ticularly in the area of improved sanitation Tanzania 2010 2 3 33 3 10 4. Uganda 2006 2 6 21 4 6 3,Furthermore access to improved water sup.
plies is losing momentum in most East Source Based on national Demographic and Health Surveys. African countries see Figure 6 a Whereas Indicates the most recent year for which data are available. Rwanda Tanzania and Uganda recorded,substantial increases in access rates during. the 1990s during the subsequent decade, the rate declined in Rwanda and Tanzania only a minor increase during the next dec expenses arising from operational inef. Uganda s progress also stalled registering ade compared with its achievements in the ficiencies which have curbed expansion. 1990s The case of Ethiopia shows a con in services Such inefficiencies are a more. 3 According to the World Bank definition an tinuing decline throughout both decades significant problem in rural areas where. improved water source is a household connection, public standpipe borehole protected well or spring scale economies are not easily achievable. and rainwater collection Unimproved sources in This deterioration in access to improved Another negative factor is the low access. clude vendors tanker trucks and unprotected wells,and springs. water has been affected by excessive to financing sources since traditionally. A f r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k,Statistics Department.
Africa Infrastructure Knowledge Program April 2013. State of Infrastructure,in East Africa AfDB, Figure 6 Changes in access rates to improved water and sanitation 1990s and 2000s. a Improved water b Improved sanitation,2 Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Uganda. 1990 s 2000 s Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Uganda, Source Based on national Demographic and Health Surveys. Note Figure 6 b Data unavailable for Ethiopia, these only cover about half of the invest narrowing of the differentials between steady rate in most countries the subregion s. ment needs In view of these constraints leading and lagging areas is true for all performance as a whole falls well below that. countries are forced to consider adopting other countries in East Africa in respect of the rest of the continent with firewood. low cost technologies One counterintui of improved access to water and charcoal still the most commonly used. tive finding of our research is that despite fuel for cooking. a clear financing gap most countries in 2 2 Access to electricity. Eastern Africa still underprice water provi Access to electricity is a major problem in Access to electricity and other improved. sion for connected customers even though East Africa While it has been improving at a energy sources for cooking is extremely. these customers could afford cost recovery,tariffs Finally another factor for deterio.
rating access to an improved water supply, could be the rapid population growth and Figure 7 Differentiated access to improved water for lagging and leading. therefore rapidly growing demand which regions within selected countries 1990s and 2000s. outstrips supply 3 5,Access to improved sanitation see Figu. is to complete the fiber optic backbone which will provide broader coverage to all of East Africa Around 3 565 kilometers of fiber optic cable are needed to complete the network This represents an investment requirement of US 96 million Despite the cost this would give high rates of return particularly for Sudan 116 and Uganda 304

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