Public Expenditure Review of the Basic Education Sector in

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Acronyms and abbreviations 6,Executive summary 7,Policy recommendations 20. Priority recommendations 20,Additional recommendations 25. 1 Introduction 29,1 1 Country context and motivation 29. 1 2 Objectives of the Botswana Public Expenditure Review 29. 1 3 Macro fiscal developments 30,1 3 1 Economic growth 30. 1 3 2 Demography the labor market and the economy 33. 1 3 3 General fiscal situation 35,1 4 Fiscal magnitudes and education 37.
2 Overview of the Education System 42,2 1 Sectoral goals and priorities 42. 2 2 Structure of the system 43,2 2 1 Educational offer 43. 2 2 2 Education administration structure 44,2 2 3 Early Childhood Care and Education ECCE 44. 2 2 4 Primary and secondary education 46, 2 2 5 Education for children with special education needs 41. 2 2 6 Tertiary education including teacher education 41. 2 2 7 Boarding schools Hostels 42,3 Key school education performance indicators 43.
3 1 Historical education context 43, 3 2 Participation indicators Enrollment and Grade attainment 45. 3 3 Grade repetition 49,3 4 School quality and achievement 49. 3 4 1 Performance on international assessments 49,3 4 2 Performance in national examinations 51. 3 4 3 School inputs 52,3 5 Equity 54, 3 5 1 Differentials in enrolment repetition and grade attainment 54. 3 5 2 Equity in resource allocation 56, 3 5 3 Spatial differentials in enrolment repetition and drop out 57.
3 5 4 Student achievement differences 58,3 6 Summary 60. 4 Institutional analysis 62,4 1 Institutional framework 62. 4 2 Management and institutional challenges 62,4 3 Fragmented decision making 65. 4 4 Organisation of the budget 66,4 5 Human resources and their management 68. 4 6 Monitoring of education quality 73,5 Education sector financing 75.
5 1 Education budget 75,5 2 Financing sources 77,5 3 Budget planning and execution 77. 5 4 Efficiency of spending 79,5 4 1 Allocative efficiency of spending 79. 5 4 2 X efficiency of spending Conversion of spending into educational outcomes 85. 5 4 3 External efficiency of spending on education 85. 5 5 Decentralized financing 85, 5 6 Private education spending and Affordability 86. 5 7 Education spending and policy priorities 89, 5 8 Cost drivers educational performance and investment needs 90. 5 9 Adequacy and sustainability of public expenditures 90. 6 Summary findings 92,Policy recommendations 95,Priority recommendations 95.
Additional recommendations 100,Bibliography 105,Appendix A 108. Appendix B 109,Appendix C 115,Appendix D 117,Appendix E 118. LIST OF FIGURES, Figure 1 GDP per capita at constant 2006 prices 1966 2017 31. Figure 2 Real GDP growth rates 1966 2017 32, Figure 3 Human Capital Index and GDP per capita for a selection of countries 34. Figure 4 Government debt 2000 2017 36, Figure 5 Central government debt ratios most recent 3 year averages 2011 2016 36.
Figure 6 Government expenditure on all education as of GDP and as of government expenditure 37. Figure 7 Government education spending ratios as of GDP most recent 3 year averages 2011 2016 38. Figure 8 Government education spending ratios as of government expenditure most recent 3 year. averages 2011 2016 38, Figure 9 Government expenditure on education nominal and real real values in 2006 million pula 40. Figure 10 Real growth rate of government expenditure on all education 2000 to 2017 40. Figure 11 Government recurrent and development expenditure on education 2000 to 2017 41. Figure 12 Educational offer by level standard grade and age range 43. Figure 13 Preschool enrolment rates by age for selected districts 2015 16 46. Figure 14 Total enrolment by level 1999 2017 47, Figure 15 SES quintile breakdown of 18 25 year olds by university attendance 2015 16 41. Figure 16 School attainment by birth cohort 2011 44. Figure 17 Participation in education by age 2011 2015 16 44. Figure 18 Percentage of population with post school education by age group for a selection of districts. Figure 19 Gross Enrolment Rate GER by school level 1998 2014 46. Figure 20 Net Enrolment Rate NER by school level 1998 2014 46. Figure 21 Enrolment by grade 2007 and 2017 47, Figure 22 Grade repetition rate in primary grades by gender 2012 2017 49. Figure 23 Reading scores of southern and eastern African countries in Grade 6 in SACMEQ III 2007 50. Figure 24 Average unweighted percentage of candidates across schools in a region achieving A B or C. in PSLE 2015 17 51, Figure 25 Average unweighted percentage of candidates in a region across schools achieving A B or C. in Junior Certificate examination 2015 17 51, Figure 26 Average unweighted percentage of candidates in a region achieving at least C scores in five or.
more subjects in BGCSE 2015 7 52, Figure 27 Secondary schools by enrolment and number of streams 2017 53. Figure 28 Percentage over age by grade and gender 2014 55. Figure 29 Grade attainment by gender location and SES quintile among persons aged 18 22 2015 16 56. Figure 30 Enrolment and teachers in secondary schools 2018 57. Figure 31 Percentage over age for selected grades by region 2014 58. Figure 32 Education funding flow 64, Figure 33 Public school teachers by gender and contract status 2017 71. Figure 34 Average annual leave days per teacher by sector and school level 2017 71. Figure 35 Teacher education levels by grade level TIMSS 2011 2015 72. Figure 36 Percentage of teachers who report professional development in previous 2 years by topic grade. and subject TIMSS 2011 2015 72, Figure 37 Total hours in professional development during previous 2 years by subject Grade 8 teachers. TIMSS 2015 73, Figure 38 Expenditures in 1000s of Pula for MOESD and MOBE 2016 2018 75. Figure 39 Annual household spending per student as percentage of annual per capita spending in household. by level 2015 16 89,LIST OF TABLES, Table 1 Composition of GDP at current prices percentages 2005 2014 32.
Table 2 Dependency ratio Children 0 19 as percentage of population aged 20 64 1990 2030 33. Table 3 Employment by industry showing highest level of education attained 2009 10 35. Table 4 Botswana education spending and resources in comparative perspective 2017 or closest year 39. Table 5 Pre primary enrolment compared to enrolment in Standard 1 2018 45. Table 6 Enrolment by grade and year 48, Table 7 Percentage of different age groups that has left schools without completing Standard 5 2014 43. Table 8 Gross and net enrolment ratios 2014 46, Table 9 Primary and secondary enrolment teachers and pupil teacher ratio by region 2017 54. Table 10 Gender parity index GPI in secondary school by grade for selected years 55. Table 11 Resource differentials across various dimensions TIMSS 2015 57. Table 12 Performance in TIMSS Grade 9 Mathematics assessment by gender parental education SES. quintile school quintile and school location 2015 59. Table 13 Demand and supply of teachers Numbers remaining unemployed and number appointed between. 15 August 2015 and 31 May 2019 69, Table 14 Budget and expenditure of MOESD and subsequently of MOBE 76. Table 15 ETSSP estimates of unit cost at different levels of education 2012 13 80. Table 16 Estimated unit cost of primary and secondary education 2018 Pula per pupil 81. Table 17 Official teacher salary scales by salary grade in pula and US 2018 82. Table 18 Personnel costs by region and per pupil in secondary schools 2018 83. Table 19 Average availability of core primary textbooks by region 2015 84. Table 20 Amount spent by all households containing persons in education on education 2015 16 in Pula. per year 87, Table 21 Average total education spending per student by level of schooling and household characteristic. 2015 16 in Pula per year 88,ACRONYMS AND ABBREVI ATIONS.
BEC Botswana Examinations Council, BGCSE Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education. BIUST Botswana International University of Science and Technology. BOCODOL Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning. BOTA Botswana Training Authority,BTEP Botswana Technical Education Program. CEDA Citizens Entrepreneurial Development Agency,GFCF Gross fixed capital formation. DCD E Department of Curriculum Development and Evaluation. DPS Deputy Permanent Secretary,DPSM Directorate of Public Service Management. DSE Department of Secondary Education,DTSM Department of Teacher Service Management.
DTTD Department of Teacher Training and Development. ECCD Early Childhood Care and Development,ECCE Early Childhood Care and Education. ETSSP Education and Training Strategic Sector Plan. EU European Union,GER Gross enrolment ratio,GoB Government of Botswana. HRDC Human Resource Development Council,JCE Junior Certificate Examination. MELSD Ministry of Employment Labour and Skills Development. MOESD Ministry of Education and Skills Development. MoFDP Ministry of Finance and Development Planning. MLGRD Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. MTEF Medium Term Expenditure Framework, MTERT Ministry of Tertiary Education Research and Technology. NER Net enrolment ratio,NDP National Development Plan.
NGOs Non Government Organizations,PER Public Expenditure Review. PS Permanent Secretary,PSLE Primary School Leaving Examination. RNPE Revised National Policy on Education,SACU Southern African Customs Union. SSS Senior Secondary School,TRT Thematic Reform Team. TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training. UB University of Botswana,EXECUTIVE SUMMARY,COUNTRY CONTEXT ACHIEVEMENTS TO DATE.
1 Botswana is an upper middle income country that has experienced substantial and sustained. economic growth of 8 3 per annum over the more than half a century since independence in 1966 with the. result that the country s GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold over this period as Executive Summary. Figure 1 illustrates This impressive growth performance is set to continue The National Development Plan 11. envisages average annual GDP growth of 4 4 from 2017 18 to 2022 23. Executive Summary Figure 1 GDP per capita at constant 2006 prices 1966 2017. Source Authors calculations based on data obtained from MFDP. 2 Botswana s fiscal authorities have been prudent in managing public finances Fiscal outcomes have. remained sound and Botswana s public debt burden is very low by international standards The level of. government spending is moderate by international standards and government revenue levels are well. above average Recent analyses e g IMF Article IV consultations have found that the fiscal position will remain. sustainable in the short to medium term but cautioned that in the long term it may become difficult to sustain. current levels of government spending if the expected depletion of the country s diamond resources occurs. 3 Botswana has used the fiscal benefits that mining development generated to effectively lay the. foundation for sustained economic development This included the rapid expansion of the education system. approaching almost universal primary and junior secondary education Executive Summary Figure 2 shows that. more than 90 of children up to the age of 16 are engaged in education Primary enrolment which numbered. only 67 100 in 1966 had grown to 320 000 by the turn of the century Attainment levels of the adult population. consequently rose strongly In the process Botswana has created an education system with a high degree of equity. in resource allocation with resource flows to remote rural areas not significantly lower than to urban schools. This education system has made it possible to sustain economic growth that has transformed the economy to the. point where Botswana has reached upper middle income status. Executive Summary Figure 2 Participation in education by age 2011 2015 16. Source Analysis of 2011 Census data and 2015 16 BMTHS. 4 The Education and Training Sector Strategic Plan 2015 2020 ETSSP an ambitious plan for the. period 2015 to 2020 sets out proposals for addressing key challenges in education from the lowest to the highest. level This includes a strong emphasis on pre primary teacher education enhanced participation of parents and. expansion of TVET The plan puts much emphasis on the availability of good data for strategic planning as well. as transformation of the management system for education Unfortunately fiscal resource commitments have not. been adequate to apply the recommendations of the ETSSP. 5 While educational expansion has been very successful the government has been increasingly. concerned about the quality of education Low scores on international and regional assessments TIMSS. SACMEQ etc stand out but low quality also holds back the desired expansion of Senior Secondary education. because of high failure rates in the Junior Secondary Examination JCE in Form 3 Grade 10 For the education. system to support inclusive and sustained economic growth now requires a transition to quality education. 6 Improved education quality is also increasingly important to continue the transformation to a. modern economy Botswana s performance on the Human Capital Index a summary measure that reflects the. amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18 lies considerably below the level. one would expect for an upper middle income country Executive Summary Figure 3 shows the human capital. index of a selection of countries against GDP per capita Botsw. Public Expenditure Review of the Basic Education Sector in Botswana June 2019 This report was jointly produced by UNICEF and the World Bank

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