Psikologi Islam dan Panggilan Bagi Pengislaman Psikologi

Psikologi Islam Dan Panggilan Bagi Pengislaman Psikologi-Free PDF

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Islamic Psychology and the Call for Islamization of Modern Psychology 157. Keywords Islamic psychology Islamization Modern psychology Para. digm Human Nature, Peralihan paradigma psikologi moden meninggalkan manusia moden dalam. keadaan kebingungan dalam isu isu yang berkaitan dengan apa yang sepatutnya. menjadi kebimbangan utama psikologi dan pemahaman yang betul mengenai. topik sifat manusia Sebaliknya psikologi Islam yang digalakkan oleh para. sarjana Islam bersama sama dengan proses pengislaman ilmu dan pendidikan. mempunyai akarnya dalam idea falsafah para sarjana Islam terdahulu. Kemunculannya semula yang bermula kira kira dua dekad yang lalu dilihat. sebagai satu inisiatif untuk memperkenalkan kefahaman Islam ke atas manusia. kepada idea idea yang bercanggah secara berleluasan dalam bidang psikologi. moden Pendekatannya yang kebanyakkannya berunsur falsafah kembali. kepada idea idea tentang manusia yang disebut dalam dua sumber utama Islam. iaitu Qur an dan ad th Psikologi Islam dengan idea idea yang komprehensif. tentang sifat manusia dilihat oleh para sarjana Islam sebagai perspektif yang. baru dalam psikologi yang boleh mengisi kekurangan yang wujud dalam. psikologi minda moden manusia dan menjelaskan kekaburan yang mengelilingi. teori teori Barat tentang manusia Karya ini merupakan satu percubaan untuk. menganalisis dan menyatukan psikologi barat dan psikologi Islam dari segi. semulajadi pembangunan sumbangan dan masalah, Kata Kunci Psikologi Islam Pengislaman Psikologi Moden Paradigma Sifat. Introduction, Modern psychology as discipline of study originated and devel. oped in the Western world It is quite natural for Psychology to represent. on all the psychological issues the Western thought and life Like many. other disciplines of study and philosophical ideas the world almost in its. entirety welcomed modern psychology as the most viably research. oriented discipline of study It still remains unchallenged in the educa. tional institutions the world over Its simple reason is that the world fol. lows blindly all that come from the West In the presence of Western. Modern Psychology there seems hardly any need for the alternative Psy. 158 Mohd Abbas Abdul Razak Nik Ahmad Hisham, chology Muslim scholars have always been conscious of this dominance. of modern psychology and have contributed to the development of Is. lamic psychology with a view to minimize the harms caused and also ex. pected to be caused by modern psychology to the Muslim thought and. behavior But little is known about Islamic psychology This paper is an. attempt to highlight the existence of Islamic psychology and some of its. salient features In a contrastive manner the paper will explore some of. the differences that exist between the modern and Islamic psychology. Metamorphosis of Western Psychology, According to Webster 2003 long before the emergence of the.
controversial theory on the origin of man by Charles Darwin 1809. 1882 psychology like all other natural sciences had its roots in religion. More precisely he states that Western psychology had initially been a. branch of the Christian theology Webster further asserts that the very. word psychology was coined by the theologians of the fifteenth century. who were then engaged in the study of the human soul Although the. secular version of psychology emerged in the nineteenth century it. somehow retained many of the earlier notions on man and the human. mind Ideas on man presented by Western psychology during that time. were an amalgamated one taken from Plato 428 348BC Jesus and Paul. 5 67AD In spite of this the one commonality found in the Platonic and. Christian traditions on the concept of human nature was the idea that man. is made up of a dual entity one of which is the physical body that is. similar to the animals in nature and the other is the presence of a mind. spirit or soul which is uniquely present in man only and its origin goes. back to God 1, Furthermore at the very outset psychology in the West was not. interested in the investigation and discussion on the impure animal body. of man but rather focused on the entity of the soul which is entrapped. within the human body In addition to that psychologists paid much at. tention to the cognitive phenomena like memory intelligence and per. ception which are all related to the human soul By the end of the nine. Richard Webster Freud London Weidenfeld Nicolson 2003 pp 3 4. Islamic Psychology and the Call for Islamization of Modern Psychology 159. teenth century this trend in the Western psychology changed when Sig. mund Freud 1856 1039 introduced his psychoanalysis paradigm into. the mainstream of Western psychology With its emergence psychoanal. ysis started to wreck and challenge the traditional outlook of Western. psychology Freud took psychology away from its mere focus and dis. cussion on certain selected topics to deal with the whole issue of human. existence Controversial enough to state he gave the topics on sexuality. and sexual impulses great importance in the psychological growth of. man Previously such topics were deemed as an intellectual pollution by. Plato and other ancient philosophers Contrary to the earlier notions on. sex and sexuality Freud treated such topics as essentially important ideas. that formed the cornerstone on which the new science of psychoanalysis. was erected Generally though many felt that Freud s ideas were not in. line with the traditional thoughts on man a small segment of scholars. approved his new and controversial line of thoughts They further. claimed that it was Freud who revolutionized psychology particularly. the Western thoughts on sex and sexuality For these innovative ideas. Freud has been called by his proponents as the true intellectual revolu. tionary Some even went to the extent to accolade him with praises as the. Darwin of the mind 2, Psychoanalysis which started as a small movement later became a. world wide phenomenon Despite heavy criticisms hurled against it the. movement was able to make inroads into the Western society in propa. gating its concept on human nature and sexuality Slowly but surely it. started to show its influence through the works of writers play writers. novelists movie makers artists and others By coming up with new per. spective in the area of psychology Freud suggested to the West his new. and unprecedented ways of understanding love hate childhood family. relations civilization religion sexuality fantasy and dreams The grow. ing number of psychoanalytic societies being established in many capi. tals of Europe and other parts of the world made Freud s movement an. Mohd Abbas Abdul Razak Contribution of Iqbal s Dynamic Personality Theory to. Islamic Psychology A Contrastive Analysis with Freud and Selected Mainstream. Western Psychology Selangor IIUM 2011 pp 134 135,160 Mohd Abbas Abdul Razak Nik Ahmad Hisham. international one to these days With its huge success in changing the. perception of the people it is not an exaggeration to say that the twenti. eth century in the West is known as the Freudian century 3. The behaviorist school of psychology came to exist in the West at. the same time as the emergence of psychoanalysis Among the great fig. ures in this school of psychology were Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 J B. Watson 1878 1958 and B F Skinner 1904 1990 Unlike the psycho. analysts the behaviorists have a different concept of human nature alto. gether In their concept of human nature much emphasis has been laid on. explaining that man is nothing more than an outcome of his own envi. ronment 4 In the behaviorist concept the environment refers to the physi. cal as well as the social condition of family society and the country at. large Behaviourism as a school of thought in psychology has its roots in. John Locke s 1632 1704 theory of associationism J B Watson 1878. 1958 the founding father of Behaviourism shared the same idea with. Locke which says that a child s mind is a tabula rasa at birth so pure. and clean like the tablecloth waiting to be written on by its experiences 5. With the assumption that a child is a tabula rasa at birth this school of. psychology does not entertain the notion that a child is born with some. form of innate knowledge According to them man is nothing more than. a mechanical object that can be conditioned and programmed to do any. task J B Watson strongly believes that a child comes to this world in a. state of neutrality without any inborn potentials He further believes that. under the most conducive environment the child can be moulded into any. desired type of personality good or bad through the system of education. and by the nurturing of the parents and teachers 6. Humanistic psychology which appeared as an alternative force to. the previous schools of psychology in the West started in the 1950 s and. has gained much influence through its concept of human nature The. See Pamela Thurschwell Sigmund Freud London Routledge 2001. Mohd Abbas Abdul Razak Human Nature A Comparative Study between Western. and Islamic Psychology Selangor IIUM 1997 p 184, Hayes N Foundations of psychology New York Routledge 1995 p 249. John Broadus Watson The ways of behaviorism New York and London Harper. Brothers 1928 p 104, Islamic Psychology and the Call for Islamization of Modern Psychology 161.
main icons of humanistic psychology were Abraham Maslow 1908. 1970 and Carl Rogers 1902 1987 In tracing the reason for its estab. lishment one would discover that the main underlying factor was no. more than a reaction to the unsatisfactory concepts of human nature. given by the earlier philosophical and psychological schools of thoughts. in the West A further elaboration on its dissatisfaction towards the ear. lier schools of psychology can be detected from the quotation below. The movement can be viewed as both a protest and a new programme. even as a new school and a system Its protest is directed against the. entire orientation of psychology since Hobbes and Locke against its. Newtonian and Darwinian models of man against its mechanistic de. terministic and reductionist character While both Freudian and Be. haviourism emphasize Man s continuity with the animal world Hu. manistic psychology pays special attention to characteristics and ca. pacities which make man uniquely different from animals 7. Very particularly humanistic psychology was not happy with. Freud s concept of human nature that depicted man as an animal full of. sexual and aggressive energy that drives him wild and reckless in the. pursuit of his selfish motives As a response to psychoanalysis humanis. tic psychology emphasized strongly on the parts of human nature that are. uniquely of human potentials such as reflection reasoning judgment. self awareness rationality and creative imaginations Moreover human. istic psychologists believe that every individual has a freedom of choice. a tendency to enjoy interpersonal relationship can have his or her own. intention and purpose in life and also able to undergo spiritual experience. otherwise called as peak experience in one s life 8. Islamic Psychology in the Past, By going back to the Islamic history and civilization one will. come to realize that there are no documents available on when Islamic. psychology really came to exist as a discipline of its own Besides that it. has no chronological events during the period of its development like. Misiak H Sexton V S Phenomenological Existential and Humanistic. Psychologies New York Grune Stratton 1973 p 115, Abraham Maslow Toward a psychology of being New York D Van Nostrand 2nd. edn 1968 p 5,162 Mohd Abbas Abdul Razak Nik Ahmad Hisham. what was experienced by Western psychology The reason for this is that. Islamic psychology did not experience any shifting of paradigms like. what happened in the field of psychology in the West Contrary to the. Islamic approach Western psychologists at one time used the philosoph. ical approach and at another time they used the scientific approach aided. by laboratory scientific tools and even computers The latest develop. ments in Western Psychology show that psychologists are reverting back. to some philosophical ideas due to their inability to find satisfactory an. swers in some areas of psychology by merely using scientific approach 9. Although both Western and Islamic psychologies are different in. many ways they have one thing in common they have a similar sort of. beginning Before both psychologies came to exist as a discipline of their. own they were within the realm of philosophy Islamic psychology was. within the realm of Islamic philosophy and likewise Western psychology. under Western philosophy which was once considered as the mother of. all knowledge in the West Very particularly in the West before the ad. vent of psychology as a discipline of its own topics related to man and. his disposition which were though psychological in nature were dis. cussed under a branch of philosophy known as mental philosophy 10. Similarly during the medieval period of Islam when Islamic civi. lization was at its peak thriving with many scholastic works topics on. human nature man s relation with God the material world and other. vital topics related to the existence of man were discussed in a polemical. manner within the realm of Islamic philosophy by early Muslim philoso. International Islamic University Malaysia IIUM Journal of Islam in Asia Vol 9 No 1 June 2012 Islamic Psychology and the Call for Islamization of Modern Psychology

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