Promoting Human Rights In India-Free PDF

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OUR MISSION, Inspired by the Jewish commitment to justice American Jewish World Service. AJWS works to realize human rights and end poverty in the developing world. AJWS promotes civil and political rights advances sexual health and rights. defends land water and climate justice and aids communities in the aftermath of. disasters We pursue lasting change by supporting grassroots and global human. rights organizations in Africa Asia Latin America and the Caribbean and by. advocating for U S and international policies for justice and equality worldwide. ABOVE Street scene in Delhi All photographs by Jonathan Torgovnik unless noted. FRONT COVER Young women dance in rural Rajasthan taking part in activities organized by AJWS grantee Vikalp designed to. increase their confidence and their understanding of their rights. In Pune Maitreyi Shankar center black vest talks to. wastepickers women who earn their living sorting, trash and recyclables With support from AJWS grantee. Kashtakari Panchayat the women are demanding fair,wages and seeking education for their daughters. PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN INDIA, With 36 states and territories and 1 3 billion people India is the world s largest democracy and second most. populous nation It is also one of Asia s leading economies boasting a bounty of natural resources and robust. agriculture industry and service sectors In recent years this prosperity has brought dramatic urban renewal to the. streets of major cities and ushered in a new era of tech sector jobs and rising wealth. Despite this boom India is also known for pervasive poverty and widespread human rights violations Gender. inequality is rampant and India has the highest number of brides married before age 18 in the world Due to. widespread discrimination people considered to be lower caste1 as well as sexual religious and ethnic minorities. have limited access to jobs education and health and other services contributing to an ever widening gap. between the very rich and the very poor Meanwhile the launch of various development projects driven by India s. aspiration for economic growth has displaced many rural communities to areas where they struggle to survive. American Jewish World Service is supporting 94 Indian organizations working to address these challenges. end poverty and achieve greater equality for all Our work in India focuses on safeguarding the sexual health. and rights of women girls LGBTI people and sex workers ending the harmful practice of child marriage and. enabling rural communities to prosper and live with dignity through greater access to the land food and water. they need to survive and thrive By supporting national and grassroots groups working in these three critical areas. we are helping build a more tolerant just and equal Indian society. E stablished in ancient times India s caste system divided society into a rigid social hierarchy consisting of five distinct groups the four castes and the. untouchables Though the caste system was officially abolished in the mid 20th century discrimination based on caste continues especially against the. untouchables who are now called the Dalits which means oppressed. OUR GRANTEES, Aajeevika Bureau Jadavpur University School of Sahayog Society for Participatory.
Abhivyakti Media for Development Women s Studies Rural Development. Alternative Law Forum Jana Sanghati Kendra Sahiyar. Alwar Mewat Institute of Education Jeevika Development Society Sakhi Trust. and Development Kashtakari Panchayat Sama Resource Group for Women. ANANDI Area Networking and Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan and Health. Development Initiatives Mahila Sarvangeen Utkarsh Mandal Sampada Grameen Mahila Sanstha. Anusandhan Trust MASUM Samvada, Anveshi Research Centre for Women s MAMTA Health Institute for Mother Sappho For Equality. Studies and Child Shaheen Women s Resource and, Avehi Public Charitable Trust Mohammad Bazar Backward Classes Welfare Association. Awaaz e Niswaan Development Society MBBCDS Streamline Stories. Azad Foundation New Alipore Praajak Development Society TALASH Society for Inner Strength. Bhumika Women s Collective Nirantar Peace Equality. Creating Resources for Empowerment Nishtha Talking About Reproductive and. in Action Parodevi Pictures Sexual Health Issues, Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee Partners For Law In Development Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Feminist Approach to Technology Payana The Aangan Trust. Foundation for Social Transformation Point of View The Hunger Project. Front for Rapid Economic Advancement Pravah The YP Foundation. of India RAHI Foundation Thoughtshop Foundation, Going to School Fund Rajsamand Jan Vikas Sansthan VEDIKA A Platform for Women. Gramya Resource Centre for Women Rubi Social Welfare Society Vikalp. Hill Social Welfare Society Solidarity and Action Against the HIV Visthar. Humsafar Infection in India SAATHII Women s Initiatives. Institute of Social Studies Trust Sadbhavana Trust Yakshi. Some grantees are not listed due to security considerations. us New Delhi NEP,Ganges ra hm,BANGLADESH,Udaipur Varanasi.
Arabian Sea Pune,Bay of Bengal,BACKGROUND,History and Human Rights. FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO THE ARRIVAL The period between 500 B C E and 1500 C E saw. OF THE EUROPEANS new waves of migration to India and the rise and. fall of various kingdoms and empires During this,The Indian subcontinent is one of the oldest. period Greeks Persians Arabs and Turks all set foot. inhabited regions of the world with evidence of,on the subcontinent where they introduced their. human activity dating as far back as 250 000 years. unique cultures religions and political systems and. The region s first known inhabitants were the Indus. laid the foundation for modern India s cultural and. Valley civilization which thrived from at least 5000. religious diversity,B C E until around 1700 B C E when a nomadic. people known as the Aryans began migrating onto, the subcontinent COLONIZATION NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS AND.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE, The Aryan migration coincided with the rise of a caste In 1498 Portuguese traders landed on India s western. system that divided society into a hierarchy of classes shores Hungry for Indian spices dyes silks and fabrics. At the top of the system were the Brahmana priests more Europeans followed notably the British and the. and scholars followed by the Kshatriya warriors French With the support of their respective monarchies. the Vaishya farmers and merchants and the Shudra British and French explorers launched companies in. laborers A fifth group of people the untouchables India The British East India Company EIC was most. now known as Dalits which means oppressed fell expansive and influential of these ventures But it also. outside the system and were at the very bottom of oppressed the people of the region 2. society While it appears that caste was initially linked. to a person s occupation over time it became a fixed ABOVE To celebrate National Girl Child Day in India girls gather. social status inherited at birth 1 for a fair organized by The Hunger Project in rural Rajasthan The. girls learned about non traditional career paths for women and. played games like Chutes and Ladders of Equality, In the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of Indian. nationalist movements rose in response to the colonial. government s continued discrimination against the, populace as well as its plundering of India s natural. resources The most famous figure from this period,was Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi who led a peaceful. campaign of civil disobedience The tireless efforts of. Gandhi his fellow leaders and their many followers. paid off in 1947 when the subcontinent won its,independence from Britain 3.
MODERN DAY INDIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT,AT THE EXPENSE OF EQUALITY. India s history of ancient civilizations foreign, migrations colonization and nationalist campaigns has. given rise to a complex modern society characterized. by unparalleled diversity Unfortunately it has also. produced a country of deep social divisions and, entrenched inequality This inequality persists despite. strong social justice movements and a number of, Rekha Sapkal makes her living in Pune by picking through garbage post independence laws and policies that promote. and selling scrap and recyclables With support from Kashtakari the rights of people in lower castes women and other. Panchayat Rekha and her colleagues have demanded greater marginalized groups at least on paper. respect for the critical work they do for their cities. For example India s Constitution outlawed the caste. The EIC collected taxes from the local population and system in 1950 yet many Indian people and even. through violence and the threat of violence forced government institutions continue to discriminate. them to grow cotton jute and indigo raw materials based on caste And despite a strong women s. that could be processed in British mills In some areas movement that has had a massive impact in advancing. the EIC also established vast tea plantations seizing women s rights traditional norms about gender and. land from local people then forcing them to till the sexuality persist Sexual abuse and domestic violence. fields Those who tried to rebel against this occupation against women occur at alarming rates Girls trail their. were swiftly quashed by the EIC s army By the early male peers in access to education and women are often. 19th century the EIC controlled most of the southern discouraged from pursuing careers outside the home. Indian peninsula, In 1857 the people of India attempted to oust the EIC.
ADVANCING CHANGE FOR A MORE JUST FUTURE, via a war of independence which the British termed India s robust social movements and civil society groups. the Mutiny The EIC put down the uprising then are working to remedy the country s complex social. the British government took control of the territory and political problems AJWS is by their side supporting. and formally incorporated India into their growing 94 social change organizations at the forefront of. empire In the years that followed the colonizers innovative campaigns for human rights. imposed their own system of governance continued, collecting taxes and passed various laws and acts to Read the following pages to explore contemporary. govern the local people despite the fact that the challenges in India and discover how AJWS s grantees. population had no voting power or representation are working in communities and across their nation to. in the colonial government The British also declared overcome these challenges and advance a more just and. English the official language changed the education equitable future. system to mimic the British system and built railroads. to consolidate their economic and political hold on Mark Joshua J 2012 November 13 India Definition Ancient History. the subcontinent Encyclopedia, The National Archives of the United Kingdom India Before the Europeans. The BBC 2015 June 30 India profile Timeline BBC Online. SNAPSHOT OF POVERTY INEQUALITY Women at a KWG meeting. discuss community decisions,that will shape their future. Photo by Evan Abramson,1 IN 5 PEOPLE LIVE IN POVERTY.
India s diverse economy has grown rapidly over the years. Yet about 270 million people or the equivalent of 84 OF WOMEN IN INDIA. percent of the U S population2 lives in poverty,MARRY BEFORE AGE 18. About 1 in 4 women in India get married before reaching. adulthood 5 The majority of these girls marry between. 4 IN 5 RURAL PEOPLE SUBSIST FROM ages 15 and 18 6,FARMING FISHING OR FORAGING. 62 TRANSGENDER PEOPLE MURDERED,India s LGBTI community has faced ongoing. More than 80 of rural Indians generate their food discrimination harassment and violence. water and livelihoods from their local waterways There is a national law banning same sex. farmland and forests vital natural resources that are relations And at least 62 transgender people. increasingly threatened by climate change 3 have been killed since 2008 7. INDIA TRAILS GLOBAL STANDARDS,FOR WOMEN S RIGHTS, India ranks 131 out of the 188 countries on the United. SEX WORKERS AT RISK, Nations Development Programme s Gender Inequality Criminalized by law and stigmatized by society sex.
Index the U S is in the top 10 For example workers in India face discrimination violence and. heightened risk of preventable illnesses including. HIV AIDS 8,16 of married women in India do not,participate in household decisions. Less than half of women in rural India have, their own bank account 3 Oxfam India Website Economic Justice Webpage 2000 2016 Oxfam India. 4 International Institute for Population Sciences 2017 National Family. Health Survey NFHS 4 2015 2016 India Fact Sheet Mumbai. Only 68 of women in India can read and 5,write compared to 86 of men 4 6. UNFPA 2012 Marrying Too Young End Child Marriage, Transgender Europe 2017 March 30 Trans Murder Monitoring Update. Retrieved from http transrespect org en tdov 2017 tmm update. The World Bank 2016 May 27 India s Poverty Profile Retrieved from 8. The Economist 2014 November 1 Prostitution in India Make it legal. http www worldbank org en news infographic 2016 05 27 india s poverty profile The Economist online. U S population 321 million The World Bank 2015 Population Overview Per. Country Retrieved from http data worldbank org indicator SP POP TOTL. Despite this boom India is also known for pervasive poverty and widespread human rights violations Gender inequality is rampant and India has the highest number of brides married before age 18 in the world Due to widespread discrimination people considered to be lower caste1 as well as sexual religious and ethnic minorities

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