PRIMERS IN GENDER AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE 4 Gender

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P R I M E R S I N G E N D E R A N D D E M O C R AT I C G O V E R N A N C E. 4 G E N D E R R E S P O N S I V E E G OV E R N A N C E. E X P LO R I N G T H E T R A N S F O R M AT I V E P OT E N T I A L. A valuable opportunity exists to fulfil UNDP s mandate. for gender equality and women s empowerment through. e governance programming This primer highlights,some of the key gender related issues regarding. e governance in the context of UNDP s Democratic, Governance work presents entry points for continued. programming on gender and e governance and makes, recommendations for closing the existing gender gap. in specific e governance interventions prepared by. UNDP practitioners and its partners, Author Nadia Hijab and Ra l Zambrano prepared in 2007 under commission by UNDP. Editor Anita Palathingal,Design Suazion New York,Production coordinator Jessica Hughes UNDP.
Production Automated Graphic Systems, The analysis and recommendations of this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the. United Nations Development Programme its Executive Board or the United Nations. Member States The report is an independent publication by UNDP and reflects the views. of its authors,2008 United Nations Development Programme. Acknowledgements 2,Acronyms and definitions 3,Introduction 5. 1 Mandates for UNDP work on ICT gender and e governance 7. 2 The track record on gender and e governance,in UNDP programming 9. 3 Key gender issues for e governance 12,Design of e governance policies and strategies 13.
Delivery of basic e services 15,E participation and networking 16. Access to ICTs 17,Access to information via ICTs 19. 4 Entry for programming on gender and e governance 21. Policy design and implementation 21,E service delivery 22. E participation and networking 23,Access to ICTs 23. Access to information via ICTs 23,Resources 25,Boxes and Figures.
Box 1 Gender equality considerations within the legal framework 14. Box 2 Connecting communities in Armenia and Bulgaria 15. Box 3 Bridging gender gaps using ICT networks in the Arab Region 16. Box 4 Access to ICTs for e governance People First Network in the Solomon Islands 18. Box 5 The Sustainable Development Network of Honduras 20. Acknowledgements,Renata Nowak Garmer Froniga Greig. Veronica Perera and Minerva Novero,We would like to thank the following. colleagues who served as the Readers,Group Shahid Akhtar Pierre Dandjinou. Sonia Duran Jessica Hughes Yuri Misnikov,Roland Msiska Martin Lavoie Najat Rochdi. and Luke Wasonga,The other four primers in the Primers in.
Gender and Democratic Governance,Series are,Quick Entry Points to Women s. Empowerment and Gender Equality,in Democratic Governance Clusters. This primer was written by Nadia Hijab Gender Equality and Justice. Director Development Analysis and Programming Equitable Access to. Communication Services and Ra l Justice for Women, Zambrano ICT and Governance Policy Electoral Financing to Advance. Advisor Democratic Governance Group Women s Political Participation. United Nations Development Programme A Guide for UNDP Support. UNDP It is one of five primers being,Corruption Accountability. produced on different aspects of gender,and Gender Understanding.
and democratic governance by the UNDP the Connections. Bureau for Development Policy BDP, The aim is to support UNDP BDP These resources are framed by the human. Democratic Governance Group DGG rights based approach to development. staff and networks in promoting gender which now informs the work of the UN. equality and women s empowerment development system see the Quick Entry. through their programme and policy advice Points primer for a discussion of the. approach and what it means for gender, This Governance and Gender project was equality UNDP intends for these primers. supported by funds from the Gender to contribute to the empowerment of. Thematic Trust Fund which were gener women and the advancement of gender. ously made available to the UNDP BDP equality through democratic governance. Gender Unit by the Government of the We encourage colleagues to continue to. Netherlands The project was managed by share their experiences and ideas through. Marie Ange Bunga the Democratic dgp net groups undp org the electronic. Governance Group s gender focal point in discussion network serving UNDP demo. close collaboration with the Gender Unit cratic governance practitioners and ictd net. The production of the primer was overseen groups undp org the cross practice network. by Ra l Zambrano and Marie Ange Bunga of ICT for development practitioners. with support from Research Associates at UNDP, 2 G E N D E R R E S P O N S I V E E G O V E R N A N C E E X P L O R I N G T H E T R A N S F O R M AT I V E P O T E N T I A L. Acronyms and Definitions, Gender including legislation policies or programmes. The social attributes associated with being in all areas and at all levels It is a strategy. male and female and the relationships for making women s as well as men s concerns. between women men girls and boys as and experiences an integral dimension of the. well as the relations between women and design implementation monitoring and. those between men These attributes and evaluation of policies and programmes in. relationships are socially constructed and all political economic and societal spheres. are learned through socialization They are so that women and men benefit equally. context and time specific and changeable and inequality is not perpetrated The. Gender is part of the broader socio cultural ultimate goal of this strategy is to achieve. context Other important criteria for socio gender equality UN ECOSOC 1997. cultural analysis include class race poverty, level ethnic group and age UN OSAGI Gender equality.
n d The concept of gender also includes The equal rights responsibilities and. the expectations about the characteristics opportunities of women and men and girls. aptitudes and likely behaviours of both,and boys Equality does not mean that. women and men femininity and mas,women and men will become the same but. culinity The concept of gender applied,that women s and men s rights responsi. to social analysis reveals how women s,bilities and opportunities will not depend. subordination or men s domination is,on whether they are born male or female.
socially constructed As such the subordi,Gender equality implies that the interests. nation can be changed or ended It is not,biologically predetermined nor is it fixed. forever UNESCO 2003,Gender relations,BDP Bureau for Development Policy. The social relationships between men, CEDAW The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms. women girls and boys which shape how of Discrimination Against Women. power is distributed between women CO Country Office. men girls and boys and how that power CSO Civil Society Organization. translates into different positions in society DGG Democratic Governance Group. Gender relations vary depending on other GBV Gender Based Violence. social relations such as class race ethnicity ICT Information and Communications Technology. etc They will greatly impact how an indi ICTDAR Information Communication Technologies for. Development in the Arab Region, vidual man or woman experiences processes MDGs The Millennium Development Goals.
and institutions such as trials and courts and NGO Non Governmental Organization. how they interact with other individuals PAR Public Administration Reform. within those institutions PFnet People First Network Solomon Islands. RDS Red de Desarrollo Sostenible de Honduras, Gender mainstreaming SDNP Sustainable Development Networking. The process of assessing the implications Programme. UNDP United Nations Development Programme,for women and men of any planned action. WSIS World Summit on Information Society, needs and priorities of both women and men and women and how those relationships. are taken into consideration recognizing will impact programming. the diversity of different groups of women,and men UN OSAGI n d Gender justice. The protection and promotion of civil, Gender equity political economic and social rights on the.
The process of being fair to men and women basis of gender equality It necessitates. To ensure fairness measures must often be taking a gender perspective on the rights. put in place to compensate for the histori themselves as well as the assessment of. cal and social disadvantages that prevent access and obstacles to the enjoyment of. women and men from operating on a level these rights for women men girls and. playing field Equity is a means equality boys and adopting gender sensitive strate. is the result UNESCO 2003 gies for protecting and promoting them. Spees 2004 Much of the broader,gender justice agenda falls outside the. Gender analysis,scope of UNDP Access to Justice pro. The collection and analysis of sex disag,gramming However increasing women s. gregated information Men and women,access to justice be it formal or informal. perform different roles in societies and,hinges on removing economic political.
within institutions such as police forces,and social barriers to participation as. and courts These differing roles lead to articulated by the gender justice agenda. women and men having different experi UNIFEM ILAC 2004. ences knowledge talents and needs, Gender analysis explores these differences Gender based violence GBV. so that policies programmes and projects,A generic term used to describe any harmful. can identify and meet the different needs act perpetrated against an individual against. of men and women Gender analysis also his or her will based on his or her socially. facilitates the strategic use of the distinct defined identity as male or female UN. knowledge and skills possessed by women 2005 The UN General Assembly defined. and men which can greatly improve the violence against women in the 1993. long term sustainability of interventions Declaration on the Elimination of Violence. UNESCO 2003 Against Women as any act of gender,based violence that results in or is likely to. Gender neutrality result in physical sexual or psychological. An assumption that development inter harm or suffering to women including. ventions will benefit men and women threats of such acts coercion or arbitrary. equally leading to a failure to analyse and deprivation of liberty whether occurring. plan for the social relationships between men in public or in private UN 1993. Gender is defined as the social attributes associated. with being male and female and the relationships between. women men girls and boys as well as the relations,between women and those between men.
4 G E N D E R R E S P O N S I V E E G O V E R N A N C E E X P L O R I N G T H E T R A N S F O R M AT I V E P O T E N T I A L. Introduction, E governance refers to the use of old and new technologies to enhance government. efficiency transparency accountability and service and information delivery as. well as fostering citizen participation in democratic processes via ICT networks and. networking E governance thus includes three core components e administration. e services and e participation,The concept of governance has evolved to. cover not just public sector management,of efficient services and an enabling envi. ronment for development but also the,promotion of human rights and funda. mental freedoms This shift towards what,is now known as democratic governance.
is partly the result of globalization The,latter in turn has been spearheaded since. the early 1990s by the rapid development,and widespread use of new Information. and Communications Technology ICT,Developing countries have not been able. to harness the potential of ICTs at the,same speed as industrialized nations Issues. of access to ICTs and investment in ICT,infrastructure among others have limited.
the uptake in such countries As a result,many of the initial ICT for Development. programmes and initiatives focused on,access complemented in many cases by. support for local capacity building,By the end of the millennium national. governments had started to complement, their development agendas with strategies It is essential to emphasize however that. and policies to foster the use of ICT within ICTs are not gender neutral they are not. governments national state and local This accessed managed and controlled by all. led to the emergence of e governance as a key men and women equally As a result men. and dedicated area of ICT for Development and women experience different benefits. ICTs are not gender neutral they are not accessed, managed and controlled by all men and women equally.
and effects of ICTs at all levels a point for e governance planning 2 delivery of. highlighted by many studies on ICTs and basic services and public information via. gender since the early 1990s Hakfin ICTs and 3 empowerment of stakeholders. 2006 UNDP APDIP 2007 particularly women to use ICT networks. to engage with governments over gover, A quick review of the existing literature nance processes. shows that this is a relatively new area that, remains to be explored in much more The primer has four sections Section 1 is. detail This primer builds on this extensive an overview of the intersection between. e governance programming This primer highlights some of the key gender related issues regarding e governance in the context of UNDP s Democratic Governance work presents entry points for continued programming on gender and e governance and makes recommendations for closing the existing gender gap in specific e governance interventions prepared by UNDP practitioners and its partners

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