Preface Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Effectively employing all of these elements in your work can be a daunting. proposition This guide describes the model known as Promoting Science Based. Approaches Getting to Outcomes Teen Pregnancy Prevention PSBA GTO TPP. a comprehensive model that combines all of the aforementioned elements with. the teen pregnancy prevention knowledge base PSBA GTO TPP integrates the. ten step Getting to Outcomes process Chinman Imm Wandersman 2004. Fisher Imm Chinman Wandersman 2006 with the concepts content. practices and experiences shared by partners who worked in a CDC PSBA. project to promote the use of science based approaches to teen pregnancy. prevention from 2005 2010 Thus PSBA GTO TPP offers local practitioners a. succinct and clear process for applying a science based approach to their teen. pregnancy prevention programs, This PSBA GTO TPP guide also draws from three other completed GTO books in. diverse areas of public health,Chinman M Imm P Wandersman A 2004 Getting To. Outcomes Promoting Accountability Through Methods and Tools for. Planning Implementation and Evaluation RAND Corporation It is. available for free at www rand org publications TR TR101. Fisher D Imm P Chinman M Wandersman A 2006 Getting to. Outcomes with Developmental Assets Ten Steps to Measuring. Success in Youth Programs and Communities Minneapolis Search. Imm Pamela Matthew Chinman Abraham Wandersman David. Rosenbloom Sarah Guckenburg and Roberta Leis Preventing. Underage Drinking Using Getting To Outcomes with the SAMHSA. Strategic Prevention Framework to Achieve Results Santa Monica. CA RAND Corporation 2007 Available for free at, http www rand org pubs technical reports TR403 html. Social research has shown that the GTO model improves individual capacity. and program performance and facilitates the planning implementation and. evaluation of prevention programs Chinman et al 2 In the study by. Chinman et al the GTO guide was supplemented with training and. technical assistance Likewise we recommend that you supplement this. Chinman et al A novel test of the GTO implementation support intervention in low resource settings Year 1 Correspondence. chinman rand org findings and challenges Implementation Science 2015 10 Suppl 1 A34. ii PSBA GTO TPP, guide with training and technical assistance so that you and your program. may achieve the maximum impact in teen pregnancy prevention. PSBA GTO TPP iii,Acknowledgments, Promoting Science Based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention Using GTO.
PSBA GTO TPP is the product of a collaborative effort to translate research into. practice by guiding community organizations through the process of planning. implementing and evaluating effective programs to prevent teen pregnancy. This guide was authored by a team of public health professionals dedicated to. improving the reproductive and sexual health of young people and was funded. by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC an agency of the. United States Department of Health and Human Services HHS. This guide is built on work by Wandersman Imm Chinman and Kaftarian that. was originally conducted for the National Center for the Advancement of. Prevention and was funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention The. initial Getting To Outcomes was based in part on a review of more than 40. books and guides on evaluation It has since been expanded beyond the. substance abuse field into many other areas of public health and public policy. This project was accomplished with the help of many partners who were. supported in part either directly or indirectly through a CDC cooperative. agreement The agreement was designed to help national teen pregnancy. prevention organizations working to increase the capacity of state coalitions and. local organizations to use science based principles to prevent teen pregnancy and. promote adolescent reproductive health The authors would like to acknowledge. partners from the PSBA grantee communities and the following organizations. and individuals whose patience dedication expertise and enthusiasm. contributed to this guide,The PSBA GTO External Advisory Group. Mary Martha Wilson Gina Desiderio Healthy Teen Network. Barbara Huberman deceased Tom Klaus formerly of Advocates. Katy Suellentrop Cindy Costello and Kristen Tertzakian National. Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Sally Swanson Sexual Health Initiatives for Teens North Carolina. SHIFT NC formerly Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Coalition of. North Carolina,iv PSBA GTO TPP, Lisa Turnham Teenwise Minnesota formerly Minnesota Organization. of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting, Sharon Rodine Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy. Grantees of the CDC PSBA Cooperative Agreement 2005 2010. Lori Rolleri Michelle Bliesner and Doug Kirby deceased formerly of. Education Training and Research Associates ETR, Members of the Adolescent Reproductive Health Team in CDC s.
Division of Reproductive Health Applied Sciences Branch including. current and former members specifically Diane Green Claire Moore. Hahn Kimberly Leeks Teresa Powell Robinson Lisa Romero Mary. Schauer Alison Spitz Heather Tevendale Carla P White and Lisa. Manila Consulting Group, The authors also wish to thank Kellen Diamanti for her expert editing and re design. of the manual,PSBA GTO TPP v,Introduction, Science Based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Although there have been significant declines in the pregnancy and birth rates of. teens teen pregnancy is still a major public health concern in many communities. around the country Pregnancy data from 2010 the sum of live births fetal. losses and induced abortions indicate a rate of 58 9 pregnancies per 1 000 girls. aged 15 19 years old a 50 decline from the 1990 peak and a historic low for the. nation 3 Similarly birth data for 2014 indicate a continuation of the decline that. began in 1991 4 a 61 decline from 61 8 births per 1 000 female teens aged 15 19. years old in 1991 to 24 2 in 2014, Figure 1 Birth rate for females aged 15 19 by age United States 1960 2014. Curtin SC Abma JC 2010 pregnancy rates among U S women National Center for Health Statistics. December 2015 Available from, http www cdc gov nchs data hestat pregnancy 2010 pregnancy rates htm. Hamilton BE Martin JA Osterman MJK et al Births Final data for 2014 National vital statistics reports vol. 64 no 12 Hyattsville MD National Center for Health Statistics 2015. vi PSBA GTO TPP, Yet in 2014 teenagers gave birth to almost 250 000 infants While the trends are.
encouraging the numbers clearly highlight the fact that teen pregnancy remains. an enormous problem, International comparisons continue to suggest that the U S could do much better. in reducing teen pregnancy and birth rates Sedgh et al examined pregnancy and. birth rates among 15 to 19 year olds in the 21 countries categorized as having. liberal abortion laws and complete teen pregnancy estimates for 2008 2011. 2015 They found that outside the former Soviet bloc the United States has the. highest teen pregnancy rate in the developed world despite the declines since. 1991 The pregnancy rate ranged from a low of 8 per 1 000 females aged 15 19 in. Switzerland to a high in the United States of 57 pregnancies per 1 000 females. aged 15 19 in 2010 5 The birth rates in these countries ranged from 2 per 1 000. females aged 15 19 in Switzerland to 34 in the United States The Healthy People. 2020 goals for behaviors associated with sex and actual rates according to recent. U S data are shown in Table 1, Sexual behaviors that put teens at risk for pregnancy also put them at risk for. HIV AIDS and STIs An estimated 9 961 teens and young adults 13 24 years old. were diagnosed as living with HIV in 2013 6 In 2010 12 200 young people 13 24. years old accounted for 26 of all new HIV infections 12 200 47 500 even. though they accounted for only 17 of the U S population 7 Although they. represent only 25 of the sexually experienced population in the U S young. people ages 15 24 account for half 50 of all new sexually transmitted. infections STIs 8 Clearly the magnitude of the consequences of sexual risk. behaviors among youth requires new efforts to improve the reproductive and. sexual health of our youth, There are many costs associated with these high rates of teen pregnancy Teen. pregnancy is linked to adverse consequences for teen mothers fathers and their. children It is also extremely expensive to federal state and local governments. and therefore to the supporting taxpayers According to the National Campaign. to Prevent Teen Pregnancy teen childbearing costs taxpayers at least 9 4 billion. in 2010 That makes teen pregnancy a public health concern of major. consequence, Among the 21 countries with liberal abortion laws and complete teen pregnancy estimates for 2008 2011. 6CDC Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas. 2013 http www cdc gov hiv library reports surveillance 2013 surveillance Report vol 25 html HIV Surveillance. Report 2015 25, 7 CDC Estimated HIV incidence in the United States 2007 2010 HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012 17 No 4.
8Satterwhite CL et al Sexually transmitted infections among U S women and men Prevalence and incidence estimates. 2008 Sex Transm Dis 2013 40 3 pp 187 193,PSBA GTO TPP vii. Table 1 2020 goals and baseline incidences of teen experiencing sex linked behaviors. Outcomes HP 2020 Goal 2005 2009,rate per 1 000 rate per 1 000 rate per 1 000. population population population, Reduce pregnancies among females aged 15 36 2 40 2 36 4. to 17 years, Reduce pregnancies among females aged 18 105 9 116 2 106 3. to 19 years,Behavior HP 2020 Goal 2006 2010 2011 2013.
population population population, Increase the proportion of females aged 15 to 80 2 72 9 69 6. 17 years who have never had sexual,intercourse, Increase the proportion of males aged 15 to 72 0 65 6. 17 years who have never had sexual 79 2,intercourse. Increase the proportion of sexually active 74 8 68 0 72 4. females aged 15 to 19 years who use a,condom at first intercourse. Increase the proportion of sexually active 87 6 79 6 78 1. males aged 15 to 19 years who use a condom,at first intercourse.
Increase the proportion of sexually active 55 6 50 5 54 8. females aged 15 to 19 years who use a,condom at last intercourse. Increase the proportion of sexually active 81 5 74 1 77 3. males aged 15 to 19 years who use a condom,at last intercourse. Increase the proportion of sexually active 15 4 14 0 16 1. females aged 15 to 19 years who use a,condom and hormonal or intrauterine. contraception at first intercourse, Increase the proportion of sexually active 17 3 15 7 20 6. males aged 15 to 19 years who use a condom,and whose partner used hormonal or.
intrauterine contraception at first intercourse, Increase the proportion of sexually active 20 1 18 3 20 0. females aged 15 to 19 years who use a,condom and hormonal or intrauterine. contraception at last intercourse, Increase the proportion of sexually active 35 3 32 1 36 9. males aged 15 to 19 years who use a condom,and whose partner used hormonal or. intrauterine contraception at last intercourse, HHS Healthy People at www healthypeople gov 2020 www healthypeople gov 2020 topics objectives topic family.
planning objectives NOTE Numbers in bold indicate the HP 2020 Goal has been achieved. viii PSBA GTO TPP, Risk and protective factors affecting teen pregnancy STI HIV. Determinants defined in this guide are the factors that affect whether. individuals groups or institutions engage in specific behaviors Determinants. can be broken into two groups risk factors and protective factors. Risk factors are associated with increased risk for a disease or condition. Examples of risk factors include being behind in school or having school. problems limited health literacy alcohol use and a history of sexually. transmitted diseases It does not mean that any of these factors cause. someone to become pregnant or get someone pregnant but teens that have. these risk factors are more likely to get pregnant or get someone pregnant. Protective factors are associated with increased protection from a disease or. condition Some examples of protective factors are greater parental oversight. high educational aspirations and plans for the future and discussing. pregnancy and STI prevention with a partner Again these protective factors. will not necessarily prevent a given person from becoming pregnant or. getting someone pregnant but youth who have some of these protective. factors are less likely to become pregnant or get someone pregnant. Ideally youth would have many protective factors and few risk. factors in their lives Teen pregnancy prevention programs aim to. reduce the risk factors and strengthen the protective factors among. youth participants, Risk and protective factors can be categorized Kirby 2005 has categorized. determinants as environmental e g community family peers partners or teen. individual factors The many determinants Kirby notes point to the complexity of. helping youth develop a healthy sexuality and to the many areas where. programs can have an impact Though determinants are varied culture can have. an impact on their identification as negative or positive For example one. assumed protective factor is a youth s perception that becoming pregnant would. were diagnosed as living with HIV in 2013 6 In 2010 12 200 young people 13 24 years old accounted for 26 of all new HIV infections 12 200 47 500 even though they accounted for only 17 of the U S population 7 Although they represent only 25 of the sexually experienced population in the U S young

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