Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract

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Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract. This Practice Note is intended to provide assistance in deciding the appropriate form of contract but it is not a substitute. for professional advice, Published September 2011 by Sweet Maxwell 100 Avenue Road London NW3 3PF. part of Thomson Reuters Professional UK Limited, Registered in England and Wales Company No 1679046. Registered Office and address for service, Aldgate House 33 Aldgate High Street London EC3N 1DL. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form. or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise except in accordance with the provisions. of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 without the prior written permission of the publisher Thomson Reuters. and the Thomson Reuters Logo are trademarks of Thomson Reuters Sweet Maxwell is a registered trademark of. Thomson Reuters Professional UK Limited,The Joint Contracts Tribunal Limited 2011. www jctcontracts com,Introduction Page 1,Part 1 Project Strategy 2.
Procurement methods 2,Types of contract 4,Matters which might influence choice 5. Consequences of the choice of main contract 6,Watchpoints for choice and use 8. Part 2 Range of JCT Main Contracts 9,Traditional or conventional Lump sum 9. Traditional or conventional Measurement 14, Traditional or conventional Cost reimbursement or cost plus 15. Design and build 16,Management 17,Partnering 19,Pre Construction Services Agreement 20.
Consultancy Agreement 21, Part 3 Range of JCT Sub Contracts and Sub subcontract 22. Sub Contracts 22,Sub subcontract 26,Pre Construction Services Agreement 27. Part 4 Comparison of Contract Provisions 29, Guide to selecting the appropriate JCT main contract 33. Guide to selecting the appropriate JCT sub contract 34. JCT Construction Contracts 38,Part 5 JCT Publications 39. The Joint Contracts Tribunal Limited 2011 Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract 2011 Page i. Introduction, 1 This Practice Note has five Parts Part 1 covers the project strategy and although this mainly is concerned with.
the top level of contracting it also has relevance to the sub contract level Parts 2 and 3 respectively identify the. available main and sub contracts Part 4 provides a tabulated comparison of provisions of some of the most. used contracts and a flow chart to assist users in making their choice and Part 5 a list of JCT publications. 2 When approaching the question of the appropriate JCT construction contract the first decisions to be made are. those concerning the choice of procurement and the type of contractual arrangement Only when these two. decisions have been made can the choice of a form of contract be decided. 3 JCT provides a wide range of forms of contract to meet the various and diverse needs of the UK construction. 4 The Scottish Building Contract Committee SBCC a member of JCT has in the past prepared and published. Scottish Supplements to many JCT forms of contract for use where Scots law is to apply SBCC now publishes. integrated documents that is a JCT contract which has been amended formally for use where Scots law is to. apply Additionally the Royal Society of Ulster Architects continues to publish Adaptation Schedules for certain. JCT contracts for use in Northern Ireland, 5 The concept of partnering plays an important part in procurement strategy and may impact upon the choice of. contract A discrete section on partnering is included in this Practice Note. The Joint Contracts Tribunal Limited 2011 Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract 2011 Page 1. Part 1 Project Strategy, 6 Procurement is a generic term embracing all those activities undertaken by a client seeking to bring about the. construction or refurbishment of a building Variously referred to as a method path or system procurement is. initiated by devising a project strategy which entails weighing up the benefits risks and financial constraints. which attend the project and which eventually will be reflected in the choice of contractual arrangements In. every project the concerns of the client will focus on time cost and performance or quality in relation both to. design and to construction of the building, 7 The project strategy will necessitate making an analysis of the situation making a choice from the procurement. options and then devising a method of implementing that choice using well established rules and procedures. The client s policies available resources organisational structure and preferred contractual arrangements will. need to be taken into account There are inherent risks associated with using any particular procurement. strategy but equally important is the need for all parties to comply with their respective obligations this is. particularly important where responsibility for design and construction are separated Identifying and dealing. appropriately with risk at the outset is an integral part of any project strategy. Procurement methods, 8 There are three main procurement options and the essential features of each are as follows. Traditional procurement sometimes termed conventional procurement. 9 A method which became standard practice in the building industry for 150 years following the emergence of the. general contracting firm and the establishment of independent client consultants The main feature is that the. design process is separate from construction and full documentation is required before the contractor can be. invited to tender for carrying out the work, Appointment of a contractor is commonly by competitive tender but less usually by negotiation.
Full documentation is necessary for tendering purposes including that from specialist sub contractors and. adequate time is needed for the preparation of this. The client has control over design specified quality and standards etc through his appointed consultants. Generally there is no design responsibility on the contractor. Because design and construction are separate sequential processes the overall programme for the project. tends to be relatively long, There is for the client reasonable certainty on construction costs because a contract figure is usually known. at the outset although this may need to be adjusted later as provided for in the contract. The terms of many traditional contracts require the client to appoint a professional consultant to act as an. independent contract administrator, Although making design decisions before work has commenced may appear to bring a measure of. inflexibility changes or variations are possible during construction of the work usually at a price in terms of. direct and related costs and extra time, Administrative matters relating to valuations and payments are in the hands of the client s consultants. Completion within the contract period is an obligation although the contract administrator may need to revise. the date for completion to take account of delays due to reasons listed in the contract. Speculative risks are balanced as between the parties more in the client s favour on a lump sum contract. but less so with a measurement contract The traditional lump sum approach in terms of cost design and. quality is a relatively low risk procurement option for the client but the time needed for the project overall is. likely to be relatively longer than that of other procurement methods. The Joint Contracts Tribunal Limited 2011 Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract 2011 Page 2. 10 Traditional procurement however can be used in a wide range of situations whether the basis for pricing results. in a lump sum contract a measurement contract or a cost plus contract and whether the project is a single one. off project or part of a programme under a specific term or other form of serial or continuity contract. Design and build procurement, 11 A method where the contractor is responsible for undertaking both the design and the construction of the work in. return for a lump sum price There are variants on this option depending on the degree to which initial design is. included in the client s requirements, Appointment of a contractor is often by two stage tendering thus keeping a competitive element but not.
expecting every tenderer to produce full proposals. The client s requirements can range from a simple accommodation schedule to a fully worked out scheme. design but generally should be matched by the contractor s proposals Adequate time must be allowed for. the client s requirements to be prepared to the appropriate level and professional consultants will usually be. required The contractor must be given adequate time to prepare his proposals together with an analysis of. his tender figure It should also be remembered that evaluating tenders for design and build may be difficult. because design proposals need to be balanced against price and it is vital to check that the proposals. satisfy the client s requirements, The client has control over the design element included as part of his requirements but once the contract is. let has no direct control over the development of the contractor s detail design The contractor assumes. responsibility for design at this point and usually appoints his own consultants although the designers may. be in house to formulate a design or to develop the design in the client s requirements as necessary. Although it is a common practice for the client to ask the contractor to take over his own consultants under a. novation agreement there can be problems in such arrangements in terms of design accountability. Because design and construction may proceed in parallel it may be possible for the overall programme time. for the project to be shortened by how much will depend on the extent to which the contractor is responsible. for design and for design development, There can be reasonable certainty over construction costs because a contract price is known at the outset. Provided that the client refrains from ordering changes during the construction of the work the contractor will. be obliged subject to the conditions to complete the project for the contract sum. The terms of a design and build contract make no provision for an independent contract administrator. Decisions or instructions may be required of the client from time to time and the client may decide to appoint. an agent either to advise or to act on his behalf, It might be possible for the client to order design or specification changes during construction but the. consequences in terms of direct costs cost of disturbance and additional time needed will be largely for the. contractor to advise upon, Matters relating to valuation and payments are often left largely in the hands of the contractor The client may. appoint his own consultant to advise but the contract conditions do not recognise a role for such a person. Completion within the contract period is an obligation on the contractor although the client may have to. accept a later completion to take account of delays due to reasons listed in the contract. Speculative risks are largely with the contractor but can reduce according to the extent of the design input by. the client In terms of cost and time this is a relatively low risk procurement option for the client but there can. be uncertainty over design and quality particularly if insufficient attention was paid initially to the preparation. of the client s requirements and the checking of the contractor s proposals. 12 Design and build arrangements can take various forms The client may take a standard design from a. manufacturer sometimes called a package deal or enter into a turnkey contract The client may decide to place. the design decision making with the contractor thereby in theory opting for a single point responsibility in. practice single point responsibility is not often achieved. Management procurement, 13 A method where overall design is the responsibility of the client s consultants and the contractor is responsible.
both for defining packages of work and then for managing the carrying out of this work through separate trades. or works contracts, The Joint Contracts Tribunal Limited 2011 Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract 2011 Page 3. Appointment of the contractor is usually by negotiation or tender and interview He is paid a management. fee The work packages are let by competitive tender. The client will start by appointing consultants to prepare project drawings a project specification and a cost. plan Involvement of the contractor at an early stage can be beneficial through his expertise in such matters. as buildability and programming of work packages, The client retains overall design control through the professional team. Detail design can proceed in parallel with construction work and much of this might be of a specialist nature. relating to work packages As a consequence an early start on site is often possible and time for the project. may be reduced overall, There is no certainty over costs at the outset and work proceeds on the basis of the contract cost plan Final. costs will not be known until the last work package is let However the costs can be monitored by the client s. quantity surveyor and action taken as necessary, The client will need to appoint a contract administrator as part of the professional team. Design changes are possible as construction proceeds always provided that the changes do not affect work. Practice Note Deciding on the appropriate JCT contract 2011 Page 3 10 Traditional procurement however can be used in a wide range of situations whether the basis for pricing results

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