Powder Metallurgy KopyKitab

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Powder Metallurgy,Science Technology and Applications. P C ANGELO,Professor and Head,Metals Testing and Research Centre. PSG College of Technology Coimbatore,R SUBRAMANIAN. Assistant Professor,Department of Metallurgical Engineering. PSG College of Technology Coimbatore,DELHI 110092, POWDER METALLURGY SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS.
P C Angelo and R Subramanian, 2008 by PHI Learning Private Limited Delhi All rights reserved No part of this book may. be reproduced in any form by mimeograph or any other means without permission in writing. from the publisher,ISBN 978 81 203 3281 2, The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Fourth Printing January 2015, Published by Asoke K Ghosh PHI Learning Private Limited Rimjhim House 111 Patparganj. Industrial Estate Delhi 110092 and Printed by Raj Press New Delhi 110012. Foreword ix,Preface xi,1 Powder Metallurgy Basic Steps 1 18. 1 1 Introduction 1,1 2 Historical Background 1,1 3 Steps in Powder Metallurgy 3.
1 3 1 Powder Production 3,1 3 2 Compaction 4,1 3 3 Sintering 4. 1 3 4 Secondary and Other Finishing Operations 5,1 4 Advantages of Powder Metallurgy Process 6. 1 4 1 Process Advantages 6,1 4 2 Metallurgical Advantages 7. 1 4 3 Commercial Advantages Special Characteristic of. Powder Metallurgy Parts 7, 1 5 Advantages of Powder Metallurgy Processing over Conventional. Material Processing 8, 1 6 Powder Metallurgy A Unique Manufacturing Process 8.
1 7 Applications of Powder Metallurgy 9,1 8 Limitations of Powder Metallurgy 15. 1 8 1 Technical 15,1 8 2 Economical 16,1 8 3 Psychological 17. 1 9 Recent Trends 17,1 9 1 Powder Manufacture 17,1 9 2 Compaction 17. 1 9 3 Manufacturing 17,2 Production of Powders 19 40. 2 1 Introduction 19,2 2 Powder Production Methods 20.
2 2 1 Mechanical Methods 20,iv Contents,2 2 2 Chemical Methods 26. 2 2 3 Physical Methods 34,2 3 Summary 36,2 4 Production of Ceramic Powders 37. 2 4 1 Mechanical Methods 37,2 4 2 Chemical Methods 37. 2 5 Alloy Powder Designation 39,2 6 Metal Powders and Their Applications 40. 3 Powder Treatment and Handling 41 49,3 1 Introduction 41.
3 2 Powder Treatments 41,3 2 1 Cleaning of Powders 42. 3 2 2 Grinding 42,3 2 3 Powder Classification and Screening 42. 3 2 4 Blending and Mixing 43,3 3 Coating of Metal Powders 48. 3 4 Pyrophoricity and Toxicity of Powders 48,3 4 1 Pyrophoricity 48. 3 4 2 Toxicity 49,4 Metal Powder Characteristics 50 83.
4 1 Introduction 50,4 2 Sampling 50,4 3 Metal Powder Characterization 52. 4 3 1 Chemical Composition Analysis 52,4 3 2 Particle Shape Analysis 55. 4 3 3 Particle Size 57,4 3 4 Microscopic Method 64. 4 3 5 Sedimentation 65,4 3 6 Elutriation 68,4 3 7 Fischer Subsieve Sizer 69. 4 3 8 Coulter Counter 71,4 4 Surface Area Specific Surface 72.
4 4 1 Gas Adsorption Method 73,4 5 Laser Light Scattering 74. 4 6 Microstructural Features 75, 4 7 Packing and flow Characteristics of Powders 76. 4 7 1 Angle of Repose 76,4 7 2 Flow Rate 77,4 8 Density 79. 4 8 1 Apparent Density of the Metal Powder 79,4 8 2 Tap Density 80. 4 9 Porosity 80,4 10 Compressibility of Metal Powder 81.
4 11 Strength Properties 82,4 11 1 Green Strength 82. 4 11 2 Properties of Sintered Compact 83,Contents v. 5 Compaction of Metal Powders 84 117,5 1 Introduction 84. 5 2 Powder Pressing 84,5 2 1 Powder Shaping and Compaction 85. 5 2 2 Binders 85,5 3 Powder Compaction Methods 87,5 3 1 Pressureless Compaction Techniques 88.
5 3 2 Pressure Compaction Techniques 93,5 4 Classification of P M Parts 101. 5 4 1 P M Parts Die Pressing Design Considerations 103. 5 5 Cold Isostatic Compaction 105,5 5 1 Process 106. 5 5 2 Types of Cold Isostatic Pressing 108,5 5 3 Advantages of Cold Isostatic Pressing 109. 5 5 4 Applications of Cold Isostatic Pressing 109,5 6 Powder Rolling 110. 5 6 1 Steps in Powder Rolling 111,5 6 2 Advantages of Powder Rolling 113.
5 6 3 Disadvantages of Powder Rolling 113, 5 6 4 Influence of Powder Characteristics on Powder Rolling 114. 5 6 5 Applications of Powder Rolling 114,5 7 Miscellaneous Compaction Techniques 115. 5 7 1 Continuous Compaction 115,5 7 2 Explosive Compaction 116. 5 7 3 Forming of Ceramic Powders 117,6 High Temperature Compaction 118 125. 6 1 Introduction 118,6 2 Principles of Pressure Sintering 118.
6 2 1 Uniaxial Hot Pressing 119,6 2 2 Hot Extrusion 120. 6 2 3 Spark Sintering 121,6 2 4 Hot Isostatic Pressing 121. 6 2 5 Injection Moulding 125,7 Sintering 126 174,7 1 Introduction 126. 7 1 1 Historical Development 127,7 2 Types of Sintering 128. 7 2 1 Solid State Sintering 128,7 2 2 Liquid Phase Sintering 129.
7 2 3 Activated Sintering 129,7 2 4 Reaction Sintering 129. 7 2 5 Rate controlled Sintering 130,7 2 6 Microwave Sintering 130. 7 2 7 Self propagating High temperature Synthesis 130. 7 2 8 Gas Plasma Sintering 130,7 2 9 Spark Plasma Sintering 131. vi Contents,7 3 Sintering Theory 131, 7 3 1 Thermodynamics of Solid State Sintering Process 131. 7 3 2 Stages in Solid State Sintering 132,7 3 3 Driving Force for Sintering 133.
7 3 4 Sintering Mechanisms 134, 7 3 5 Development of Kinetic Theories of Sintering 141. 7 3 6 Sintering Mechanism Maps and Computer Modeling 143. 7 3 7 Structure and Property Changes during Sintering 143. 7 4 Sintering of Multicomponent Systems 144, 7 4 1 Sintering of Powder Aggregates with No Liquid Phase Formation 145. 7 4 2 Liquid Phase Sintering 145,7 4 3 Advantages of Liquid Phase Sintering 148. 7 5 Variables 149,7 5 1 Process Variables 149,7 5 2 Material Variables 149. 7 6 Effects of Sintering 150,7 6 1 Dimensional Changes 150.
7 6 2 Microstructural Changes 150,7 7 Porosity in Sintered P M Parts 151. 7 8 Sintering Atmospheres 152,7 8 1 Need for Sintering Atmospheres 153. 7 8 2 Functions of a Sintering Atmosphere 153,7 8 3 Hydrogen 156. 7 8 4 Reformed Hydrocarbon Gases 157,7 8 5 Nitrogen based Mixtures 160. 7 8 6 Dissociated Ammonia 162,7 8 7 Inert Gases 163.
7 8 8 Vacuum 163,7 9 Sintering Practice 164, 7 9 1 Sintering Atmosphere Analysis and Control 166. 7 10 Sintering Furnaces 168,7 11 Metallography of P M Parts 171. 7 11 1 Characterization of Powders 171, 7 11 2 Characterization of P M Parts Containing Porosity 172. 8 Postsintering Operations 175 183,8 1 Introduction 175. 8 2 Sizing 175,8 3 Coining 176,8 4 Repressing and Resintering 176.
8 5 Impregnation 177,8 6 Infiltration 177,8 7 Heat Treatment 179. 8 8 Steam Treatment 180,8 9 Machining 181,8 10 Joining 182. 8 11 Plating 182,8 12 Other Coatings 183,Contents vii. 9 Powder Metallurgy Products 184 215,9 1 Introduction 184. 9 2 Porous P M Parts 184,9 2 1 Introduction to Porous Materials 184.
9 2 2 P M Porous Bearings 185,9 2 3 P M Porous Filters 190. 9 3 Sintered Carbides 196,9 3 1 Introduction to Sintered Carbides 196. 9 3 2 Manufacture of Tungsten Carbides 198,9 3 3 Sintering of WC TiC Co Alloys 201. 9 3 4 Properties of Sintered Carbides 202,9 3 5 Applications of Carbide Tools 203. 9 3 6 Recycling of Tungsten Carbides 203,9 3 7 Titanium Carbide Tools 203.
9 3 8 Other Developments 204,9 4 Cermets 205,9 4 1 Introduction to Cermets 205. 9 4 2 Classification of Cermets 205,9 4 3 Important Characteristics of Cermets 206. 9 4 4 Production of Cermets 206,9 4 5 Important Cermet Grades 207. 9 5 Dispersion Strengthened Materials 207, 9 5 1 Introduction to Dispersion Strengthened Materials 207. 9 5 2 Manufacturing Methods 208, 9 5 3 Important Dispersion Strengthened Alloys 209.
9 6 Electrical Applications of P M 210, 9 6 1 Introduction to P M Electrical Materials 210. 9 6 2 P M Electrical Contacts 210,9 6 3 Compound Contact Materials 211. 9 6 4 Production of Contact Materials 211, 9 6 5 Applications of P M Electrical Contact Materials 212. 9 7 Sintered Friction Materials 213,9 7 1 Introduction 213. 9 7 2 Sintered Friction Material Constituents 214, 9 7 3 Production of Sintered Friction Materials 215.
9 7 4 Application of Sintered Friction Materials 215. 10 Advanced Powder Metallurgical Processing Techniques 216 267. 10 1 Introduction 216,10 2 Atomization 216,10 2 1 Types of Atomization 216. 10 2 2 Advantages of Atomization 218,10 2 3 Atomization Unit 218. 10 2 4 Mechanism of Atomization 221,10 2 5 Process Parameters 222. 10 2 6 Characteristics of Atomized Powders 224,viii Contents. 10 2 7 Important Atomization Processes 226,10 3 Mechanical Alloying 234.
10 3 1 Introduction 234,10 3 2 History of Mechanical Alloying 234. 10 3 3 Process 235,10 3 4 Milling Parameters 237, 10 3 5 Material Synthesizing Capabilities of Mechanical Alloying 240. 10 3 6 Types of Phases Formed by Mechanical Alloying 242. 10 3 7 Mechanical Alloying of Miscible Systems 242. 10 3 8 Mechanic Alloying of Immiscible Systems 243. 10 3 9 Oxide Dispersion Strengthened ODS Alloys 244. 10 3 10 Reactive Milling 245, 10 3 11 Phase Transitions Induced by Mechanical Alloying 246. 10 4 Metal Injection Moulding 250,10 4 1 Introduction 250. 10 4 2 Steps in MIM 250,10 4 3 Advantages of MIM 252.
10 4 4 Requirements for MIM 252,10 4 5 Materials Processed by MIM 253. 10 4 6 Design for MIM 253,10 4 7 Some Important Rules for MIM Design 253. 10 4 8 Application of MIM Components 254, 10 4 9 Comparison of MIM with Conventional P M 254. 10 4 10 Defects in MIM Parts 255,10 5 Microwave Sintering of Metals 255. 10 5 1 Introduction 255, 10 5 2 Advantages of Microwave Sintering over Conventional Sintering 256.
10 6 Self propagating High temperature Synthesis 256. 10 6 1 Introduction 256,10 6 2 Types of SHS Reactions 257. 10 6 3 Classes of SHS Reactions 257,10 6 4 SHS Physicochemical Mechanisms 258. 10 6 5 SHS Terminology 259,10 6 6 Advantages of SHS 259. 10 6 7 Process 260,10 6 8 Reaction Mechanisms 260,10 6 9 SHS Processing 261. 10 6 10 Experimental Parameters Affecting SHS 263, 10 6 11 Consolidation during Combustion in SHS 263.
10 6 12 Combustion assisted Synthesis of Composites 264. 10 6 13 Types of Products Synthesized by SHS 265,10 6 14 Applications of SHS Materials 265. 10 6 15 SHS An Alternate Technology 266,10 6 16 Concluding Remarks 267. Appendix Terminology 269 290,Bibliography 291 295,Index 297 300. Powder Metallurgy is an ancient materials processing technology older than the melting and. casting processes This route enabled solid state reduction of ores and processing them to. required shapes and sizes when energy was not available for melting and processing This. technology continues to be in vogue even today in spite of our ability to generate very high. temperatures and desired atmospheres The attractions of Power Metallurgy are many The. energy needed for processing and shaping is less and it is possible to introduce desired properties. at different sections of the same part to meet performance requirements The initial handicap of. not reaching theoretical densities has been overcome. Thanks to various post sintering processing and the availability of pressure sintering it is. possible to control porosity and retain them to desired amounts when required Such tailoring of. properties and accurate shaping of products are great assets and these have enabled large scale. assembly line production of parts meeting stringent property needs. There are four main stages in making P M products making of powder compacting into. preforms sintering to required densities and post sintering operations to final products Every. one of these stages is vital for determining the success of the product and all demand an. understanding of the scientific principles behind them. Dr Peter Angelo is distinguished materials scientist and has decades of outstanding. scientific contributions behind him In addition to being a good researcher he is also a good. teacher and this is reflected in this volume where knowledge and presentation skills intermingle. synergistically His co author Dr R Subramanian in this venture is a well known and. distinguished teacher in materials science His knowledge of materials science and experience. in teaching have made the collaboration between the authors fruitful All stages of Powder. Metallurgy are clearly discussed and also a few new areas that are becoming prominent. This volume will be useful to all students of materials science and engineering and also. to its practitioners P M as Powder Metallurgy is affectionately called sustains a growth industry. with many new challenges before it How can nanomaterials be integrated into preforms without. the nanoparticles losing their unique properties How can composite materials be produced. without the fibres losing their shapes and properties There are many more such unanswered. questions in this area,Powder Metallurgy Science Technology. And Applications,Author ANGELO,Publisher PHI Learning ISBN 9788120332812.
P C SUBRAMANIAN R,Type the URL http www kopykitab com product 7392. Powder Metallurgy Science Technology and Applications P C ANGELO Professor and Head Metals Testing and Research Centre PSG College of Technology Coimbatore R SUBRAMANIAN Assistant Professor Department of Metallurgical Engineering PSG College of Technology Coimbatore DELHI 110092 2015

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