Plant Growth amp Development

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Shoot apical meristem Floral apical meristem,Flowering and. reproduction Four developmental pathways for flowering. 16 1 Arabidopsis,Flowering depends on,Photoperiod,Long Short neutral Shoot Apical meristem. Temperature cold,Nutrients sucrose,Hormones GA Cytokinin. 4 organs of a flower Anther cells PMC,meiosis microspore. sepal pollen,stamen male pollen sperm,pistil female ovule egg.
Development of the male gametophyte,David Twell s Pollen website. http www le ac uk biology research pollen pollen html. Development of the female gametophyte,Growing pollen tube. Buchanan chap 19,Embryo development embryogenesis,Pollination and formation of a seed. fertilization,Zygote develops,into an embryo,Buchanan Ch 19 36. Embryogenesis,Embryo in a seed,Establish a shoot,root polarity.
a Shoot meristem,b Root meristem,Seed dehydrates, Postembryonic development Shaping of each new structure depends on the. derive from the root and shoot apical meristems oriented cell division and expansion. Shoot apical,meristem produce,stem leaves flower,Cell types. Root apical,cell types,Development of,seedling depends on. environmental signals, Cell signaling maintains the meristem Long range hormonal signals coordinate. development in separate parts of the plant,Q How does the apical meristem maintain itself.
Cells divide but meristem remains constant at 100 cells. e g separate parts of plant experience different environments. but they must communicate with one another in order to. function as one body,Growth Development and Adaptation. Homeotic genes specify the parts of a flower I What is development Development is the sum of all changes that an. organism goes through in its life cycle, Cells acquire tissue Development growth differentiation. identity as a result of, specific gene Growth is an irreversible increase in size or volume. expression Differentiation occurs when cells take on a special form and function. e g Floral meristem Pattern formation is determined by the plane of cell division. identity genes, II What controls development The orderly development of the plant depends. ABC model on coordination and are subject to control at 3 distinct levels. 1 Genetic control developmental program,2 Environmental stimuli or extrinsic factors.
Homeotic genes 3 Hormones or intrinsic factors communicate signals long distance. encode proteins that, bind to DNA and III How is gene expression regulated Changes in gene expression is a. enable protein to principal factor in regulating development. regulate transcription A Transcription B RNA processing. They act as C Translation D Protein Modification or post translation. developmental Most if not all environmental and hormonal stimuli act in part on modifying gene. switches expression, 16 5 Taiz Development of an embryo from a zygote 18 4 Buchanan Light regulated seedling development is controlled by genes. Review of gene,expression,Information flows,Environmental. hormonal signals,affect growth,development Q Do root hair cells. contain the gene for,18 2 Buchanan rubisco,How is gene.
expression controlled, Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes 14 5 Taiz. by cis acting elements,Many levels,of control of,expression. Cis acting control elements, regions of DNA that bind to protein transcription factors and the binding activates or. represses transcription Two types,a Upstream of structural gene or promoter. b Enhancer upstream downstream or within introns, e g guard cell specific promoter will control expression of protein in GC only.
14 7 Taiz Regulation of Transcription 14 7 Taiz,Regulatory DNA defines the program of development. Complexes of gene regulatory proteins bind to promoter. and enhancer DNA to switch on or off gene expression. Gene Regulatory proteins are also called transcription factors. Example of Spatial and temporal regulation of gene. expression by Transcription Factors trans acting factors Power of mutants. Studies of mutants have identified genes that control. development,e g Cop mutants are not responsive to light. det mutants are deetiolated in the dark, Hormone receptor identified from a mutant insensitive to a. Class will emphasis light and hormonal cues on plant growth and. development, Will not focus on embryogenesis or cell fate determination or. patterning ch 16, 16 1 Arabidopsis thaliana a Principles of plant development.
model plant 1 Expression of genes that encode transcription factors. completes life cycle in 6 weeks determine cell tissue and organ identity. self fertilize 2 Fate of cell is determined by its position not its clonal. has one of the smallest genome, 28 000 genes completely sequenced 3 Development pathways are controlled by networks of. interacting genes,is easily transformed by, Agrobacterium to introduce new 4 Development is regulated by cell to cell signaling. gene Ligand small proteins CHO,many mutants available Hormone signaling. b Development of the Vegetative plant Indeterminate growth regulated by environmental factors 3 Reproductive development flowering pollination fertilization zygote Boyes et al 2001 Plant Cell Life cycle Growth stages of Arabidopsis a model plant 1 Germination seed to seedling 2 Development of the vegetative plant 3 Development of the

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