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Ward S and Caklais S, hoc nature mainly either on a project basis or maybe a narrowly focused process. improvement basis Ward 2015 based research around lean construction interventions. because there were not enough data on transformations in construction available. Standardisation is a theme central to lean and can be seen throughout its history and. development Graupp Wrona 2006 The international organisation for standardisation. is an independent non governmental international organisation with a membership of 163. national standards bodies ISO 2019a In late 2015 a new management standard was. published ISO 18404 2015 that defines the competencies for the attainment of specific. levels of competency with regards to Six Sigma Lean and Lean Six Sigma in. individuals e g Black Belt Green Belt and Lean Practitioners and their organizations. ISO 2019b The certification of individual s competencies to an international standard. may interest the lean construction community but the opportunity to gain organisational. certification to a lean international standard is of particular interest because it may possibly. assist with overcoming some of the barriers to more widespread adoption of Lean. Construction The usefulness of ISO18404 in construction as a transformation model is. therefore explored,REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE, A search using the term ISO18404 returned nil results on the IGLC conference paper. web page but a Google search using the term ISO18404 Construction returned a few. relevant results but all linked to the case study to be discussed here. The question is whether this ISO standard can assist with construction company lean. transformations so the term transformation was again used on the IGLC website This. time 79 papers were displayed Two forms of transformation are discussed in these The. first is concerned with Koskela s Transformation Flow Value theory Koskela 2000 and. about process but the second is about culture change and the industry uptake of lean For. clarity the latter is the focus of this paper, Of the 79 papers fifteen appeared related to the subject of transformational change in the. construction sector and of these a further two were discounted after closer examination. The remaining papers were mainly concerned with organisational structure roadmaps for. lean transformation with clarifications of lean concepts leadership and change by force. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE, According to Arbulu and Zabelle 2006 temporary organisations associated with. construction projects provide an advantage when seeking transformation which is contrary. to the majority of literature on the subject of lean that suggests temporary organisations. are a barrier Pekuri et 2014 discuss the need to create appropriate business models for. lean construction transformation to take place they examine the business model employed. by the exemplar Toyota and compare this with usual construction business models In the. lean driven example provided it appears that there is a clear link between lean operations. capability and strategy They conclude that an appropriate business model is necessary for. successful transformation,Proceedings IGLC 27 July 2019 Dublin Ireland.
Piloting the Deployment of ISO18404 in the Construction Sector An Approach to Organizational. Transformation,ROADMAPS FOR LEAN AND CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS. A common theme across several papers discusses the perceived need for a roadmap for. lean construction transformations Naney et al 2012 provide a useful discussion on. construction sector wide adoption of lean They use the Hype cycle of innovation as a tool. to gauge transformational success and also link the slow uptake of lean construction to. Moore s Crossing the Chasm technological adoption curve Moore 1991 This appears. similar to change curve thinking K bler Ross 1969 They point out that industry wide. construction sector strategies for transformation are missing and the key Early majority. group in Moore s change adoption curve need a compelling case and or a roadmap to. follow They conclude that for castor wide uptake of lean construction we must learn how. to bridge the gap between the early adopters and the early majority. The further development and adoption of a lean construction maturity model is. recommended by Nesensohn et al 2014 They are not clear on why this is needed or what. benefit it might bring but Sainath et al 2018 offer another maturity matrix for lean. construction based on the perceived need to provide clarity to industry of lean concepts. and also to gauge progress toward achieving these Following Naney et al such a model. might help provide the missing roadmap necessary to engage the Early Majority of the. construction sector Nesensohn et al 2015 build on their earlier work concerning a. maturity model and offer a more complete version they reinforce the idea that a clearer. definition of lean construction and a roadmap to follow will help transformation Ward. 2015 labours unsuccessfully over a definition of lean construction but also believes it. would add significant value Leonova et al 2017 also call for the need for clarity. regarding lean concepts adoption and definitions,LEADERSHIP. Lean construction in the context of organisational change caused by the adoption of the. lean philosophy as opposed to the adoption of tools and techniques is discussed by Pekuri. et al 2012 They highlight 5 corner stones necessary for success as Leadership. Motivation Competence People and Trust Keiser 2012 is also focused on aspects of. leadership aiming to create High Performance Teams Katzenback and Smith 1993. The role of leadership in transformation is discussed by Kerem et al 2013 who show how. leadership training in lean at the coal face had a positive impact on organisational change. and provide practical help on the subject of what lean leadership should look like in. construction This links with Torp et al 2018 who compare lean transformation attempts. across several linked companies within the same holding group and provide a key. observation that a top down approach from senior management was essential More. guidance on business transformation using a top down and bottom up method. simultaneously is provided by Kalyan et al 2018 This model has many similarities to the. case study discussed in this paper below,CHANGE BY FORCE. Citing the first obstacle to lean construction as unwillingness to change until forced. Gehbauer et al 2017 commendably propose transformation on a grand scale driven by. People Culture and Change,Ward S and Caklais S, focused collaborative research They insist that culture change is the key as the ingrained. behaviours of industry must change in order for lean to flourish They ask 34 questions that. are suggested areas for focused and collaborative research to move things forward Of these. the following questions appear linked and relevant to the subject in focus here. How can public authorities be helped to develop new regulations and new. How can it be shown that Lean is much more than a mere collection of tools. How can Lean be spread through education Can a standard curriculum be. How can Lean become the norm in construction worldwide. How can Lean be developed from offering new concepts into a force that drives. change in industry and society How can drivers for change be identified. AN OVERVIEW OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF ISO18404, The ISO18404 Standard BSI 2015 can be broadly divided into two parts.
Firstly it provides guidance on the knowledge and competencies that a person delivering. lean improvements in an organization should be able to display In the standard s. appendices there are three detailed tables for differing levels of expertise named Lean. Practitioner Lean Leader and Lean Expert The competencies include a wide range of lean. skills and at Practitioner level are mainly concerned with application At Leader level they. include application management and some training ability At Expert level application. management and training ability for all competencies is expected. If an organisation has its own certified Lean Leaders or Lean Expert in place it is allowed. to certify its own Lean Practitioners internally A Lean Expert may also be an external. resource if appended to the company s management system. The second and perhaps most important part of the standard in regard to transformation. describes requirements for organisational certification To achieve certification an. organisation must be able to demonstrate that, It has the required resources in place including an appropriate level of competent. personnel and that this competence is maintained competence as defined in the. appendices described above, A clear link can be displayed between the lean deployment and company strategy. with defined objectives, An appropriate architecture needs to be in place For example a reporting. structure steering groups accountabilities and support. It can display structured continuous improvement with defined metrics targets. and review mechanisms,Proceedings IGLC 27 July 2019 Dublin Ireland. Piloting the Deployment of ISO18404 in the Construction Sector An Approach to Organizational. Transformation,A LEAN CONSTRUCTION TRANSFORMATION CASE STUDY.
UTILISING ISO18404,ABOUT THE CASE STUDY COMPANY, The company was established in 1972 and is based in Cornwall UK They deliver a. range of contracts from major projects to minor works and maintenance In 2005 they were. acquired by a registered social landlord to expand traditional and contracting business and. also to construct the group s housing developments They are a commercially focused. contractor with a social purpose returning any surplus profit to the parent group for re. investment for the public good, In 2018 turnover was approximately 25mil with around 70 employees Growth to. 40mil is forecast in the next two years,THE COMPANY S LEAN JOURNEY. The Motivation for Lean Transformation, The managing director had experienced the benefits of lean construction whilst working as. Head of Projects for a large airport authority delivering major projects in a complex. operational logistically constrained environment, There was a need to attack the cost base of new build housing and drive both qualitative.
and quantitative improvement in a structured manner He saw the opportunity to improve. productivity of the business by driving out the inherent waste in construction operations. thus increasing the company s competitive advantage and delivering greater returns to the. parent Group Furthermore Cornwall like most of the UK suffers from a lack of skills and. capacity and by working with the supply chain and offering them a platform on which they. could perform and make money more could be gained from the limited resources available. and the best talent could be attracted to the company s sites He began to encourage. adoption of lean techniques within the company via knowledge transfer and in 2016. appointed a consultant to help accelerate the efforts An initial Lean awareness workshop. was held with about 20 staff This was followed by two pilot projects predominantly using. the Last Planner System The pilot projects yielded good results with lead time gains of. around 15 The company staff and supply chain willingly adopted collaborative planning. techniques as all involved could see the benefit, After the pilot projects the company s approach to production control using elements. of the Last Planner System was standardised and applied on every live project. Following this initial stage the Managing Director wanted to go further but was unsure. of the best route A number of options were investigated including pursuit of the new. ISO18404 standard and this route was agreed,Implementation of ISO 18404. No company had done this before and the path was unclear The company approached the. Construction Industry Training Board CITB for help and they agreed to fund the pilot. project A plan for the deployment project was formed and work started in earnest in. December 2017,People Culture and Change,Ward S and Caklais S. The company were already certified to other management standards such as ISO 9001. 14001 and 18001 These cover quality systems environmental and health and safety. standards respectively They wished to create a single integrated management system. based on lean principles using the new 18404 standard. ISO18404 requires internal staff resources that meet the competences detailed in the. standard and so key personnel received training The MD the Head of Development the. Head of Construction and a dedicated Project Manager to oversee initial implementation. were trained to Lean Leader level Eight other key staff covering project management site. management sales and aftercare undertook Lean Practitioner Training. External resources were appointed that included a professor who chaired the. committee that authored the standard to provide strategic guidance relating to this and a. lean construction consultant to provide lean construction specific training and act in the. capacity of certified Lean Expert under the standard. A strategy was formed that clearly linked the lean improvement efforts back to the. company s corporate strategy and metrics that could be tracked This appears in Figure 1. G G Lean Objective Hierarchy,Ocean Corporate Plan,200 new homes per annum. Piloting the Deployment of ISO18404 in the Construction Sector An Approach to Organizational Transformation 205 People Culture and Change ROADMAPS FOR LEAN AND CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS A common theme across several papers discusses the perceived need for a roadmap for

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