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PERSPECTIVES AND ANGLES A JOURNALISTIC HISTORY THROUGH THE. ARGENTINE POLITICAL IDENTITY FROM 1946 1983,SARAH LARAE CUSICK. APPROVED BY,Lynne Getz Ph D,Chairperson Thesis Committee. Jeffrey Bortz Ph D,Member Thesis Committee,Renee Scherlen Ph D. Member Thesis Committee,Lucinda M McCray Ph D,Chairperson Department of History. Edelma D Huntley,Dean Cratis Williams Graduate School.
Copyright by Sarah Cusick 2013,All Rights Reserved. PERSPECTIVES AND ANGLES A JOURNALISTIC HISTORY THROUGH THE. ARGENTINE POLITICAL IDENTITY FROM 1946 1983,Sarah Cusick. B A Bob Jones University,M A Appalachian State University. Chairperson Lynne Getz Ph D, Following World War II nationalist strongman Juan Per n influenced the. Argentine national identity through his controversial political economic and. social reforms Though a popular friend of the proletariat Per n earned many. enemies by ignoring and alienating the land owning elites the middle class and. the liberal intelligentsia By following the personal histories of journalists Jacobo. Timerman and Robert Cox editors of major Buenos Aires news sources La. Opini n and The Buenos Aires Herald this paper will chronicle and analyze the. shifts in individual and national Argentine identities beginning during the. polarizing era of Peronism and extending through the Dirty War. Due to a series of personal and societal shocks designed to simultaneously. eradicate alleged political subversives and implement neoliberal economic. policies via disaster capitalism Argentines ceased to identify as pro or anti. Per n but rather developed their evolving personalities around the memory of the. citizens disappeared at the hand of the National Reorganization Process or. Proceso junta Timerman Cox and their constituent readers including the. members of the human rights group the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo shaped. their own histories and the history of their country by fearlessly carrying. Argentina through a bloody Dirty War and fighting on behalf of the voiceless. the thousands of Argentine disappeared,Acknowledgments.
I express my strongest gratitude to Lynne Getz Ph D Jeffrey Bortz Ph D and. Renee Scherlen Ph D who provided tremendous guidance and support through this. seemingly endless process Thanks to Victoria Cox Ph D for piquing my interest in. Latin American journalism and attuning my ear to the intricacies of the Argentine. Spanish dialect Thank you to my mother and brother L D Long M S N F N P and. Aaron Cusick M A M S L S for your continual unfettered support And a special. acknowledgment of thanks to Sunny Townes Stewart M A graduate of the Appalachian. State University history program thank you for blazing a path before giving me the. benefit of your advice and letting me use your Internet connection. Dedication, This master s thesis laboriously prepared is proudly presented in honor of the memory. of my father Michael Glynn Cusick who was unable to finish a degree of his own We. did it Pops,Table of Contents,Abstract iv,Acknowledgments vi. Dedication vii,Chapter 1 1,Chapter 2 24,Chapter 3 56. Chapter 4 77,Chapter 5 86,Bibliography 92,An Introduction. Introduction to Historical Context, In 1930 Argentina experienced a political and economic turning point As the.
Great Depression wreaked havoc upon most of the world s economy Argentina found a. niche in global trade by exporting grain wheat and other primary materials for. production to the Northern Hemisphere The Argentine ruling class wealthy landowners. with strong ties to imperialist Great Britain pushed for a strengthening of bilateral trade. with the United Kingdom via 1933 s Roca Runciman Pact which gave the Argentine. state greater control over the regulation of both capital and exports The formation of a. Banco Central in 1935 permitted the government to regulate the exchange of money the. formation of the National Grain and Meat Boards tightened regulations upon the prices of. commodities for export These regulations translated to a thriving economy When the. rest of the world went bankrupt Argentina packed her coffers full 1. During the Depression Argentina set itself upon a trajectory for future inward. expansion or a nationalized focus on regulation of capital and resources inside the. borders of Argentina In 1930 the economic successes of Argentina coincided with. political turmoil after sixty eight years of civilian rule Argentines witnessed the upset of. their government Between 1930 and 1976 nine successful military coups d tat and. twenty one separate presidents ruled Argentina The varying agendas and tumultuous. 1James P Brennan Prolegomenon to Neoliberalism The Political Economy of. Populist Argentina 1943 1976 Latin American Perspectives 34 no 3 May 2007. 50 http 0 www jstor org wncln wncln org stable 27648022 accessed April 1. escapades of dissenting military factions began shaking the foundations of the country s. economy though not disrupting it altogether 2, Throughout World War II Argentina s place in the global economic realm. remained relatively strong While surrounding Latin American countries experienced. traumatic aftershocks of war upon their economies Argentina distinguished its place in. the Southern Cone region as a nation of means the Banco Central continued accruing. wealth to spare Argentina granted rebuilding loans to neighboring countries and invested. in the rebuilding of global economic networks following the war 3. In 1946 during this time of post war success military colonel Juan Domingo. Per n triumphantly took the presidential office introducing Argentina to the first wave of. political economic and social Peronism 4 Peronism became synonymous with the. enduring cult around the populism of Per n Per n s populism entailed a focus on the. needs of the masses the workers over individual civic liberties The masses were great. in number and appreciated a president who spoke on behalf of their previously ignored. needs Populist Peronism translated to a strong national Argentine identity sentiments of. 2 Thomas C Wright State Terrorism in Latin America Chile Argentina and. International Human Rights Lanham Rowman Littlefield 2007 96. 3 James Brennan Prolegomenom to Neoliberalism The Political Economy of. Populist Argentina 1943 1976 Latin American Perspectives 34 3 Contested. Transformation May 2007 50 http 0,www jstor org wncln wncln org stable 27648022. 4 Though many definitions of Peronism exist the concise apt definition of Mark. Falcoff will be utilized in this paper an ill defined m lange of populism. personalism and nationalism i e Per n s personal cult of popular nationalism. based upon a unified national identity championed by the popular class which led. Argentina into the formation of a nationally organized inwardly focused corporate. state A more detailed discussion of Peronism will follow in Chapter 2 See Mark. Falcoff Orange Juice with General Per n A Memoir The American Scholar 62 no. 3 Summer 1993 383 http 0 www jstor org wncln wncln org stable 41. accessed April 1 2013, nationalism an increasingly educated bourgeoisie class and the implementations of. centrist Ra l Prebisch s Import Substitution Industrialization ISI model of. developmentalism economics Per n s bottom line as a populist president was to address. the needs of the proletariat redistribute wealth and allow the bulging national coffers to. be shared among all Argentines Rather than focus on the exportation of primary goods. for production elsewhere Per n and Prebisch preached that the best way to grow. Argentina s economy internationally was to turn economic focus inward developing. technology and production 5, Per n augmented the economic reforms of the 1930s continuing on the pre. existing political and economic trends of internalization and nationalization The populist. hero understood the limitations of local capitalists specifically in relation to his changing. policies and in order to best grow the middle class he nationalized the nation s railroads. protected tariffs controlled imports and exports and demanded import licenses all. direct extensions of the tenents set forth in the Roca Runciman Pact Per n did not turn. the economy of Argentina upside down rather he let it run an organic course on an. existing trajectory Within that trajectory Peronism did not uproot the Argentine. chronology or infuse a new found national identity in Argentines rather Peronism. through economic and social reforms and with populism and sentiments of Argentine. nationalism at the heart deepened the identity of the Argentine citizen 6. 5 Naomi Klein The Shock Doctrine The Rise of Disaster Capitalism New York. Picador 2007 Kindle edition 66 See also John Crabtree Review of Populist. Seduction in Latin America The Ecuadorian Experience by Carlos de la Torre. Journal of Latin American Studies 34 no 4 November 2002 985. http 0www jstor org wncln wncln org stable 3875744 accessed April 4 2013. 6 Brennan Prolegomenon to Neoliberalism 51 52, However regardless of the national identity being augmented by Peronism Juan.
Domingo Per n as a man could not hold on to the power of his own name Following. repeated conflicts with the middle and upper class the Argentine intelligentsia the. Catholic Church and his own military Per n fled in exile traveling through Latin. America and Europe rebuilding his identity and permitting in and by his absence the. cult of Peronism to frenetically thrive as a subculture of underground politics Peronist. identities outside of Per n s personal identity took root Many Argentines dissatisfied. with the state of political affairs formed various left to right factions of Peronism Per n. the man had repeatedly winked at the use of violence to achieve peace stating Violence. from above engenders violence from below Peronists began embracing this tit for tat. ideology in response to real and perceived threats of oppression from the state Though. Per n had many followers among the working class his opponents including the junta. that deposed him held great political power as well Peronist and anti Peronist. became national identities not just around the cult of a man but also around the violent. political policies he advocated 7, It was during Per n s exile that journalists Jacobo Timerman and Robert Bob. Cox emerged upon the political scene Jacobo Timerman a self described liberal Jew. immigrated with his family to Argentina in 1928 at age five from Soviet controlled. Ukraine Growing up in the Jewish Quarter a poor ethnic neighborhood in Buenos Aires. Timerman was bombarded daily by his family neighbors and fellow temple goers to. deepen his Jewish identity by participating in political activist groups that focused on the. 7Falcoff Orange Juice with General Per n A Memoir 383 See also Jacobo. Timerman Prisoner Without A Name Cell Without a Number 24. implementation of Judaism and Zionism into global sociopolitical landscape political. ideologies that starkly contrasted with the nationalism and populism of Per n. Timerman had just graduated university in Buenos Aires and was at the beginning. his journalist career around the time Per n fled Argentina Timerman s soon to be friend. and colleague Bob Cox spent the 1950s working as a newspaper delivery boy a reporter. and a British Korean War soldier Returning home to the United Kingdom following his. participation in the Korean Conflict Cox found England to be exceptionally drab. Seeking to make his fortune he moved alone to exotic Buenos Aires Argentina where. he arrived five years after Per n s exile Cox armed with a strong sense of duty to his job. and to the truth accepted a job at The Buenos Aires Herald the English language news. equivalent of La Opini n the Spanish language moderate periodical founded by. Timerman in 1971 8, While these men were focusing on their careers as journalists Hebe de Bonafini. Azucena Villaflor de Devicenti and Matilde Mellibovsky were working inside their. homes raising children keeping house and remaining largely apolitical These three. women who identities focused around being wives and mothers had little in common. during the early foreshadowings of Argentine political unrest These women would soon. find as they began running into one another in Cox and Timerman s news offices that. they shared a unique bond amongst themselves and thousands of other women the loss of. their children at the hands of state sponsored terrorism. 8David Cox Dirty Secrets Dirty War Charleston Evening Post Publishing Company. 2008 Kindle edition See also Timerman Prisoner Without A Name Cell Without a. Cox and Timerman noticed this violent chaos in its earliest stages Both. journalists experienced Peronism and the contributing factors that came together to incite. what would be commonly known as the Argentine Dirty War this period of state. sponsored terrorism against alleged subversives and political dissidents Both journalists. Timerman with his fearless activist mentality and Cox with his deeply rooted British. sense of duty to job and truth observed the increasing amount of violence incited by. underground Peronist and other anti governmental guerrilla groups Timerman and Cox. witnessed reported upon and regularly published about those who became known as the. disappeared The disappeared were the citizens who were arrested by the Argentine. government without warrant or writs of habeas corpus These innocent citizens were. May 2013 Department of History PERSPECTIVES AND ANGLES A JOURNALISTIC HISTORY THROUGH THE ARGENTINE POLITICAL IDENTITY FROM 1946 1983 A Thesis by SARAH LARAE CUSICK May 2013 APPROVED BY Lynne Getz Ph D Chairperson Thesis Committee Jeffrey Bortz Ph D Member Thesis Committee Renee Scherlen Ph D Member Thesis Committee Lucinda M McCray Ph D Chairperson Department of History

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