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INTRODUCTION, Since the 1960 s when Isabel Briggs Myers introduced her MBTI 1 personality type. assessment career advisors have been interested in using personality type to coach their. clients to success Much research has been done to examine career trends among types. studies have looked at the prevalence of the 16 types in a wide range of occupations and. found marked differences in the careers that people of different personality types choose for. themselves 2 Career advisors now have a broad body of information to guide clients in. selecting satisfying careers, However research into more general career outcomes among the 16 personality types is. somewhat more sparse Are certain types more likely to earn more or progress to higher. rungs on the corporate ladder Are some types more satisfied with their work regardless of. the occupation they choose Are some types more likely to choose alternatives to full time. work for example self employment or stay at home parenting. A survey conducted by CPP Inc publisher of the MBTI instrument yielded some suggestive. data on the topic In the MBTI Manual CPP researchers reported that a national survey. revealed a clear income differential between types with ENTJs earning the highest average. income and ISFPs the lowest They also reported differences in overall job satisfaction with. Extraverted and Judging types reporting higher levels of satisfaction 3 While these details are. interesting the Manual includes only selected findings from the study and a full report of the. results does not appear to be readily available, Similarly an infographic4 illustrating average incomes for each of the personality types. recently received wide attention in online media Although the information presented. aroused considerable interest its reliability is questionable The source of the data was not. made explicit by the publisher of the graphic and it is not clear how the sample was. collected how large it was and how it was analyzed. MBTI is a registered trademark of the Myers Briggs Foundation Inc which is not affiliated with this study. Schaubhut Thompson 2008,Myers McCauley Quenk Hammer 2003. See http www careerassessmentsite com mbti personality types socioeconomic infographic. typefinder com Page 2 of 30, While data on career outcomes among the types is scant assumptions are rampant.
Descriptions of the 16 personality types typically include many claims about the various. types predisposition to particular career paths Some types are described as being especially. ambitious and inclined to leadership i e ENTJ and ESTJ 5 others are described as. entrepreneurial ENTPs especially 6 while still others are described as particularly nurturing. and focused on the task of parenting i e ESFJs 7 These portrayals are rarely if ever. supported by specific data rather they are proposed and accepted as self evident However. if these descriptions of various types are valid then they should not be difficult to verify. through an analysis of relevant career trends among the types. Our goal in this study was to do a comprehensive analysis of various career outcomes among. the 16 personality types and examine what differences if any exist between types Where. our survey replicated existing research our intent was to do a more complete analysis of the. relevant phenomena and make the full results of the study freely available to the public. We designed a web based questionnaire to capture data related to personality type and. career outcomes and published the questionnaire to our website at http www truity com. The questionnaire was available to both anonymous and registered users who volunteered to. complete it Responses were collected and stored in our secure database. The first section of the questionnaire was a shortened version of our TypeFinder. personality assessment which we have previously established8 to be a reliable indicator of. personality type according to the theories of Isabel Briggs Myers. Keirsey 1998,Tieger and Barron Tieger 2001,Keirsey 1998. Owens and Carson 2015,typefinder com Page 3 of 30, The original TypeFinder assessment includes an initial set of 36 questions and a variable. number of follow up questions depending on the subject s initial responses For the purposes. of this study we wanted all subjects to answer the same questions so we formulated a new. version of the measure which contained a fixed number of 52 items Based on our original. research on the TypeFinder we estimated that this shorter simplified version of the. instrument would allow us to definitively score a personality type for one third to one half of. our respondents which was sufficient for our analysis. The shortened TypeFinder consisted of 52 questions to determine the respondent s preferred. style on each of the four dimensions of personality type. Extraversion vs Introversion one s style of managing and replenishing personal energy. Sensing vs Intuition one s style of gathering and processing information. Thinking vs Feeling one s style of prioritizing personal values. Judging vs Perceiving one s style of organizing and structuring daily life and work. The second section of the questionnaire consisted of questions about income employment. status job satisfaction and basic demographics including age and gender These questions. were optional and participants could choose to answer all some or none of them. Our subjects were volunteers,AGE DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE. who elected to complete the,questionnaire on our,website Subjects completed. the measure out of personal Under 18,interest and received 12 22 29.
feedback about their 30 39,personality at the end of the 50 59. 60 and over,questionnaire,18 No answer,While a total of 25 759 2. volunteers completed the 7 11,questionnaire only about. half answered some or all of,typefinder com Page 4 of 30. the career survey questions The question GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE. What is your yearly income received the,lowest response rate with only 12 559.
subjects responding,Our overall sample was skewed towards. younger subjects particularly volunteers 36 FEMALE. under 30 and appeared to be composed of,about 2 3 women and 1 3 men. We scored each volunteer s result on the TypeFinder assessment to determine their. personality type designation The scoring process evaluates the overall trends in responses. for each of the four dimensions to determine which style is preferred. Each respondent was assigned a personality type based on their scores The personality type. designations follow the four letter code format developed by Isabel Briggs Myers where each. preference is signified by its initial i e ISFP ENTJ ENFP and so on. Because we used a shorter version of the TypeFinder assessment we concluded that we could. be sure of our respondent s personality types only if their raw scores were outside a certain. midrange For the purposes of our analysis we excluded respondents whose scores put them. close to the cutoff point for any of the four dimensions Our goal in doing this was to include. only people whose personality types were clear and reduce the chances that we were. analyzing data from respondents who had been classified into the incorrect personality type. While this method diminished our sample size it improved our ability to find trends among. different personality types,typefinder com Page 5 of 30. PERSONALITY TYPE DISTRIBUTION, The personality types of our PERSONALITY TYPE DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE. volunteers are representative of,samples with similar collection.
methods if not the general ISFJ INFP,N 421 N 354,population Although Introverted. Intuitive types are relatively rare N 31,N 477 INTJ. in the population 9 online traffic,data indicates that websites. focusing on personality type are ENTP N 26,visited predominantly by these ESTJ. types 10 N 103,ENTJ N 29 ISTP,As expected IN types made up the.
N 267 N 30 INTP,majority of our sample while SP N 215. types were severely under ENFP,represented However all the ESFJ N 427. types were represented in N 173,sufficient numbers for a valid. PERSONALITY TYPE AND INCOME, Our sample included 4 367 subjects who answered the question What is your yearly. income To examine income we further narrowed the pool to respondents who said they. were over 21 to eliminate confounding due to subject age Our final sample consisted of 1 505. Approximately 11 of the general population according to Myers et al 2003. For instance the PersonalityCafe forum has over ten times the number of posts in its INFP forum as compared to its. ESTP forum,typefinder com Page 6 of 30, This sample included very few people with SP personality types ESTP ESFP ISTP and ISFP.
We found that based on our limited data average incomes were similar for ISFP ISTP and. ESFP ESTP so our graph below groups ISPs and ESPs together. Our findings are consistent with previous studies in that ENTJ appears near the top of the. income chart although our measures put income among ESTJs slightly ahead The top of the. chart is dominated by Thinking Judging TJ types while Introverted Perceiving IP types. make up the bottom of the income scale,AVERAGE YEARLY INCOME BY PERSONALITY TYPE. 50k 50k 52k 52k,47k 48k 48k, ISPs INTP INFP INFJ ENFP ENTP ISFJ ESPs ENFJ ESFJ INTJ ISTJ ENTJ ESTJ. I E N S F T P J, Analysis by individual dimensions also showed an income differential Overall Extraverts. Sensors Thinkers and Judgers have higher average incomes than their counterparts. typefinder com Page 7 of 30,PERSONALITY TYPE AND MANAGERIAL RESPONSIBILITY. We analyzed data from 2 501 respondents who answered the question How many people do. you supervise or manage at work We found marked differences in managerial. responsibility across the 16 personality types with ENTJs supervising the largest average. number of employees, AVERAGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE MANAGED SUPERVISED AT WORK.
ISPs INFP INTP INTJ INFJ ISFJ ESFJ ENTP ENFJ ENFP ISTJ ESPs ESTJ ENTJ. I E N S F T P J, We also found differences in managerial responsibility across the four dimensions of. personality type Extraverts tend to manage larger teams as do Thinkers and Judgers Sensors. are slightly more likely to manage larger teams than are Intuitives. typefinder com Page 8 of 30,PERSONALITY TYPE AND JOB SATISFACTION. A total of 2 053 respondents answered the question How satisfied are you with your job. The question was multiple choice with five options from Very Satisfied to Very Dissatisfied. In the chart below a score of five represents the highest level of satisfaction possible and a. score of one indicates the lowest level of satisfaction. AVERAGE JOB SATISFACTION RATINGS BY PERSONALITY TYPE. ISFP ESTP ISTP INFP INTP INFJ INTJ ISTJ ENTP ESTJ ISFJ ENFP ENTJ ENFJ ESFP ESFJ. I E N S T F P J, ESFJ ranked as the most satisfied type followed by ESFP and ENFJ ENTJs despite earning. more and having more responsibility came in fourth in terms of job satisfaction. Overall Extraverts Sensors Feelers and Judgers were more satisfied at work than their. counterparts,typefinder com Page 9 of 30,PERSONALITY TYPE AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS. We asked respondents to select their,EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF ALL.
employment status from a list of options RESPONDENTS AGE 18. including Employed Unemployed Self,Employed Stay at Home Parent Student. Retired and Disabled The majority of our Parent,sample was employed with a large. proportion of students as well Employed,We compared the percentage of each 22. personality type in the overall sample with,Unemployed. its equivalent among respondents in each 4, employment status Our analysis showed Self Employed.
that certain personality types were much,more likely to report particular. employment statuses There were Self Employed Disabled Employed. Parent Retired Student, particularly large effects for Self Employed Unemployed. and Stay at Home Parent statuses, The following graph shows the relative likelihood that a person will report being a stay at. home parent based on their personality type,LIKELIHOOD OF BEING A STAY AT HOME PARENT. ENTJ INTJ INTP ENTP ESTP ENFJ ESTJ ENFP ISTP ISFP ISTJ ESFJ INFJ ESFP ISFJ INFP. typefinder com Page 10 of 30, To calculate the relative likelihood that a person of a particular personality type would report.
being a stay at home parent we used a ratio which compared the percentage of a particular. personality type in our entire sample with the percentage of that personality type in the. sample of stay at home parents For instance INFPs represented 7 8 of our overall sample. but 13 1 of stay at home parents This indicates that INFPs are overrepresented among stay. at home parents by a factor of nearly 70 On the other end of the spectrum ENTJs are 81. less likely than average to be found parenting full time 11. We performed a similar analysis on our sample of respondents who said they were self. employed The results are graphed below Our results indicated that ENTPs are considerably. more likely to be self employed compared with the other 15 personality types. LIKELIHOOD OF BEING SELF EMPLOYED, ISFP ISTP ISTJ ISFJ ESFP ESFJ INFJ INTJ ENFJ ESTP ESTJ ENTJ INFP INTP ENFP ENTP. Overall Intuitive Perceiving NP types appear to choose to work for themselves more than. other types while Introverted Sensors IS are underrepresented among the self employed. the 16 personality types and examine what differences if any exist between types Where our survey replicated existing research our intent was to do a more complete analysis of the relevant phenomena and make the full results of the study freely available to the public METHODS MEASURE We designed a web based questionnaire to capture data related to personality type and career outcomes and

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