Partners Resources and Strategies

Partners Resources And Strategies-Free PDF

  • Date:12 Nov 2019
  • Views:62
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:88
  • Size:758.83 KB

Share Pdf : Partners Resources And Strategies

Download and Preview : Partners Resources And Strategies


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Partners Resources And Strategies


Transcription:

The research described in this report was sponsored by the Smith. Richardson Foundation , Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Benard Cheryl 1953 , Civil democratic Islam partners resources and strategies Cheryl Benard . p cm , MR 1716 , Includes bibliographical references . ISBN 0 8330 3438 3 pbk , 1 Islam and civil society 2 Islamic modernism 3 Democracy Religious. aspects Islam 4 Islam University 5 Islam 21st century I Title . BP173 63 B46 2003, 320 5 5 0917671 dc21, 2003012442.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit research organization providing. objective analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing. the public and private sectors around the world RAND s publications do. not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors . R is a registered trademark , Cover design by Eileen Delson La Russo. Copyright 2003 RAND Corporation, All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. by any electronic or mechanical means including photocopying . recording or information storage and retrieval without permission in. writing from RAND , Published 2003 by the RAND Corporation. 1700 Main Street P O Box 2138 Santa Monica CA 90407 2138. 1200 South Hayes Street Arlington VA 22202 5050, 201 North Craig Street Suite 202 Pittsburgh PA 15213 1516. RAND URL http www rand org , To order RAND documents or to obtain additional information contact.
Distribution Services Telephone 310 451 7002 , Fax 310 451 6915 Email order rand org. PREFACE, The Islamic world is involved in a struggle to determine its own nature and val . ues with serious implications for the future What role can the rest of the world . threatened and affected as it is by this struggle play in bringing about a more. peaceful and positive outcome , Devising a judicious approach requires a finely grained understanding of the. ongoing ideological struggle within Islam to identify appropriate partners and. set realistic goals and means to encourage its evolution in a positive way . The United States has three goals in regard to politicized Islam First it wants to. prevent the spread of extremism and violence Second in doing so it needs to. avoid the impression that the United States is opposed to Islam And third in. the longer run it must find ways to help address the deeper economic social . and political causes feeding Islamic radicalism and to encourage a move toward. development and democratization , The debates and conflicts that mark the current Islamic world can make the. picture seem confusing It becomes easier to sort the actors if one thinks of. them not as belonging to distinct categories but as falling along a spectrum . Their views on certain critical marker issues help to locate them correctly on. this spectrum , It is then possible to see which part of the spectrum is generally compatible.
with our values and which is fundamentally inimical On this basis this report. identifies components of a specific strategy , This report should be of interest to scholars policymakers students and all. others interested in the Middle East Islam and political Islam . iii, CONTENTS,Preface iii,Tables vii,Summary ix,Acknowledgments xiii. Glossary xv,Chapter One, MAPPING THE ISSUES AN INTRODUCTION TO THE RANGE. OF THOUGHT IN CONTEMPORARY ISLAM 1, The Setting Shared Problems Different Answers 3. Positions on Key Issues 14, Democracy and Human Rights 14.
Polygamy 15, Criminal Punishments Islamic Justice 17. Minorities 20, Women s Dress 21, Husbands Allowed to Beat Wives 22. Chapter Two, FINDING PARTNERS FOR THE PROMOTION OF. DEMOCRATIC ISLAM OPTIONS 25, The Secularists 25, The Fundamentalists 27. The Traditionalists 29, Distinguishing Between Traditionalists and Fundamentalists 30.
Potentially Useful Democratic Elements 33, The Danger of Domestic Backlash 34. The Potential for Weakening Credibility and Moral. Persuasiveness 36, The Possibility of Undermining Reforms 37. v, vi Civil Democratic Islam Partners Resources and Strategies. The Modernists 37, Modernism Has Respected Intellectuals and Leaders 38. Weaknesses of the Modernists 39, Two Special Cases of Modernism 40.
Sufis 46,Chapter Three, A PROPOSED STRATEGY 47,Appendix A. THE HADITH WARS 49,Appendix B, HIJAB AS A CASE STUDY 57. Appendix C, STRATEGY IN DEPTH 61,Appendix D, CORRESPONDENCE ABOUT THE U S DEPARTMENT OF. STATE S PORTRAYAL OF ISLAM 65,Bibliography 67, TABLE. 1 Marker Issues and the Major Ideological Positions in. Islam 8, vii, SUMMARY, There is no question that contemporary Islam is in a volatile state engaged in.
an internal and external struggle over its values its identity and its place in the. world Rival versions are contending for spiritual and political dominance This. conflict has serious costs and economic social political and security implica . tions for the rest of the world Consequently the West is making an increased. effort to come to terms with to understand and to influence the outcome of. this struggle , Clearly the United States the modern industrialized world and indeed the. international community as a whole would prefer an Islamic world that is com . patible with the rest of the system democratic economically viable politically. stable socially progressive and follows the rules and norms of international. conduct They also want to prevent a clash of civilizations in all of its possible. variants from increased domestic unrest caused by conflicts between Muslim. minorities and native populations in the West to increased militancy across. the Muslim world and its consequences instability and terrorism . It therefore seems judicious to encourage the elements within the Islamic mix. that are most compatible with global peace and the international community. and that are friendly to democracy and modernity However correctly identify . ing these elements and finding the most suitable way to cooperate with them is. not always easy , Islam s current crisis has two main components a failure to thrive and a loss of. connection to the global mainstream The Islamic world has been marked by a. long period of backwardness and comparative powerlessness many different. solutions such as nationalism pan Arabism Arab socialism and Islamic revo . lution have been attempted without success and this has led to frustration and. anger At the same time the Islamic world has fallen out of step with contempo . rary global culture an uncomfortable situation for both sides . Muslims disagree on what to do about this and they disagree on what their. society ultimately should look like We can distinguish four essential positions . ix, x Civil Democratic Islam Partners Resources and Strategies. Fundamentalists reject democratic values and contemporary Western cul . ture They want an authoritarian puritanical state that will implement their. extreme view of Islamic law and morality They are willing to use innovation. and modern technology to achieve that goal , Traditionalists want a conservative society They are suspicious of. modernity innovation and change , Modernists want the Islamic world to become part of global modernity .
They want to modernize and reform Islam to bring it into line with the age . Secularists want the Islamic world to accept a division of church and state. in the manner of Western industrial democracies with religion relegated to. the private sphere , These groups hold distinctly different positions on essential issues that have. become contentious in the Islamic world today including political and individ . ual freedom education the status of women criminal justice the legitimacy of. reform and change and attitudes toward the West , The fundamentalists are hostile to the West and to the United States in particu . lar and are intent to varying degrees on damaging and destroying democratic. modernity Supporting them is not an option except for transitory tactical. considerations The traditionalists generally hold more moderate views but. there are significant differences between different groups of traditionalists . Some are close to the fundamentalists None wholeheartedly embraces modern. democracy and the culture and values of modernity and at best can only make. an uneasy peace with them , The modernists and secularists are closest to the West in terms of values and. policies However they are generally in a weaker position than the other. groups lacking powerful backing financial resources an effective infrastruc . ture and a public platform The secularists besides sometimes being unac . ceptable as allies on the basis of their broader ideological affiliation also have. trouble addressing the traditional sector of an Islamic audience . Traditional orthodox Islam contains democratic elements that can be used to. counter the repressive authoritarian Islam of the fundamentalists but it is not. suited to be the primary vehicle of democratic Islam That role falls to the. Islamic modernists whose effectiveness however has been limited by a num . ber of constraints which this report will explore . To encourage positive change in the Islamic world toward greater democracy . modernity and compatibility with the contemporary international world order . the United States and the West need to consider very carefully which elements . trends and forces within Islam they intend to strengthen what the goals and. Summary xi, values of their various potential allies and prot g s really are and what the. broader consequences of advancing their respective agendas are likely to be A. mixed approach composed of the following elements is likely to be the most. effective , Support the modernists first , Publish and distribute their works at subsidized cost .
Encourage them to write for mass audiences and for youth . Introduce their views into the curriculum of Islamic education . Give them a public platform , Make their opinions and judgments on fundamental questions of reli . gious interpretation available to a mass audience in competition with. those of the fundamentalists and traditionalists who have Web sites . publishing houses schools institutes and many other vehicles for dis . seminating their views , Position secularism and modernism as a counterculture option for. disaffected Islamic youth , Facilitate and encourage an awareness of their pre and non Islamic. history and culture in the media and the curricula of relevant coun . tries , Assist in the development of independent civic organizations to pro . mote civic culture and provide a space for ordinary citizens to educate. themselves about the political process and to articulate their views . Support the traditionalists against the fundamentalists . Publicize traditionalist criticism of fundamentalist violence and ex . tremism encourage disagreements between traditionalists and funda . mentalists , Discourage alliances between traditionalists and fundamentalists .
Encourage cooperation between modernists and the traditionalists who. are closer to the modernist end of the spectrum , Where appropriate educate the traditionalists to equip them better for. debates against fundamentalists Fundamentalists are often rhetorically. superior while traditionalists practice a politically inarticulate folk. Islam In such places as Central Asia they may need to be educated. and trained in orthodox Islam to be able to stand their ground . Increase the presence and profile of modernists in traditionalist insti . tutions , xii Civil Democratic Islam Partners Resources and Strategies. Discriminate between different sectors of traditionalism Encourage. those with a greater affinity to modernism such as the Hanafi law. school versus others Encourage them to issue religious opinions and. popularize these to weaken the authority of backward Wahhabi . inspired religious rulings This relates to funding Wahhabi money goes. to the support of the conservative Hanbali school It also relates to. knowledge More backward parts of the Muslim world are not aware of. advances in the application and interpretation of Islamic law . Encourage the popularity and acceptance of Sufism . Confront and oppose the fundamentalists , Challenge their interpretation of Islam and expose inaccuracies . Reveal their linkages to illegal groups and activities . Publicize the consequences of their violent acts . Demonstrate their inability to rule to achieve positive development of. their countries and communities , Address these messages especially to young people to pious tradition . alist populations to Muslim minorities in the West and to women . Avoid showing respect or admiration for the violent feats of fundamen . talist extremists and terrorists Cast them as disturbed and cowardly . not as evil heroes , Encourage journalists to investigate issues of corruption hypocrisy and.
immorality in fundamentalist and terrorist circles . Encourage divisions among fundamentalists , Selectively support secularists . Encourage recognition of fundamentalism as a shared enemy discour . age secularist alliance with anti U S forces on such grounds as. ber of constraints which this report will explore To encourage positive change in the Islamic world toward greater democracy modernity and compatibility with the contemporary international world order the United States and the West need to consider very carefully which elements

Related Books