Operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms cost and

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Operation and cont from page 1 2 Corrective maintenance tasks carried out due to unfore. seen failures of the system or its components, The maintenance tasks are allocated time windows during. Data base Simula on op miza on model, which they should be performed The main challenge is deal. Technical alterna ves ing with corrective maintenance tasks since by definition the. Commercial Development research Modules need to perform such tasks cannot be anticipated Various. Wind turbines Input Modules strategies may be employed the simplest one being to repair. Access solu ons Modules, Vessels all failures as soon as possible Another strategy can be to. group unplanned activities together with planned activities. Data and thus reduce the costs of mobilisation and accessing the. Monte Carlo Op miza on wind farm Such strategies can be implemented in the mainte. Failure rates,Maintenance ac ons, simula on nance module and the effects tested by the NOWIcob model. Wind farm main data,Model results, The objective of the operations and logistics module is to.
Figure 2 General structure of the NOWIcob model, calculate costs and time required to complete maintenance. tasks The tasks to be completed are input from the mainte. Simple to maintain an overview of the model nance module The time needed to perform each task is then. Easier to implement calculated from the following components. Modules can be improved or changed without having to Logistic time Time to mobilize resources personnel. redesign the whole model equipment spare parts transportation. Facilitates communication between experts Assembly onshore Time used to preassembly compo. nents onshore, Uncertainty in input data will be considered by a Monte Carlo Weather time Time to wait for suitable weather conditions. simulation approach in which weather states and failure weather window to perform the offshore operations. events for example will be drawn from their respective Travel time Time used to travel to the wind farm. probability distributions Some decisions of importance for Operation offshore Time needed offshore to complete the. maintenance strategy and logistic operations are planned maintenance task. to be optimized in the model by means of heuristic search. algorithms,Applications of the NOWIcob model, Operation and maintenance activities The NOWIcob model aims to be a tool that can be used by. researchers and wind farm developers and operators It can. In the NOWIcob model special emphasis is placed on O M be used as a tool to simulate the total lifetime of an offshore. activities The objective of these activities is to provide wind farm The main application is the analysis of differ. lifetime support for the wind farm in order to reduce downtime ent O M strategies although decisions with regards to the. and increase the power production and thus the revenues of design of the wind farm can also be examined. the wind farm, Some examples of decisions on O M strategies that can be. The O M part of the NOWIcob model is split into two modules analysed are. one for the maintenance tasks and one for operations and Location of maintenance base. logistics This separates the maintenance tasks from general Location of maintenance personnel. operations and logistics activities In the maintenance module Scheduling of maintenance tasks. a maintenance strategy is chosen and maintenance tasks Location of warehouses with resources. are generated these are subsequently input to the opera Inventory strategy for spare parts. tions module where the time required to perform the task and Vessel fleet size and mix and ownership. the costs are calculated However the modules are strongly Number of maintenance teams. interlinked as an optimal maintenance strategy depends on. optimal scheduling and performance of operations and logis In general the NOWIcob model analyses the effects of a given. tics activities and vice versa infrastructure and strategy for operation and maintenance. Testing several options and combinations gives decision mak. The objective of the maintenance module is to create the ers information regarding which choices can be expected to. maintenance tasks that need to be completed These tasks perform best Due to the large number of options and combi. are of two main types nations further work on NOWIcob aims to incorporate search. 1 Preventive maintenance tasks carried out to avoid com algorithms so that the model can provide users with optimal or. ponent failures and thus reduce system downtime near optimal decisions on strategies for O M activities. No 3 Nov 2011,WINDOPT Optimisation of floating support.
structure for deepwater wind turbines,Research scientist Petter Andreas Berthelsen. Senior principal research engineer Ivar Fylling, Floating wind turbines are exposed to wave induced. motions that intensify the dynamic interactions, between the support structure and the wind turbine. Conceptual design processes will have to take such. interactions into account and limit the wave induced. response in order to provide acceptable operating, conditions for the turbine and this needs to be done. as cheaply as possible MARINTEK has taken this into. consideration and extended the mooring optimization. tool MOOROPT to also include the optimisation of a pa b c 2010. Col 2 Col 1, floating wind turbine support structure Transition section Water line section.
Program description Col 3,Main buoyancy, WINDOPT is a program for conceptual optimization of float. ing wind turbine support structures of the spar buoy type. including mooring system and power cable Optimisation in Col 4. Heavy ballast section, this context is equivalent to minimizing costs while satisfy. Mooring lines, ing functional and safety related design requirements The. program is an extension of the mooring and riser optimisa. tion tool MOOROPT It utilizes efficient design tools for the. analysis of mooring system forces and vessel motions and. Power export, combines this with a gradient method for solving non linear cable. optimization problems with arbitrary constraints WINDOPT. consists of the following three tools Figure 1 Wind turbine on a floating support structure Idealization of spar. buoy geometry,NLPQL An efficient non linear optimisation code.
mass distribution along its length The cost is assumed to be. MIMOSA A standard mooring analysis program used for the. proportional to the material mass The mass of the individual. static and dynamic response analyses of moored floating. parts of the buoy is scaled accordance to their sizes. structures, WAMOF3 A hydrodynamic analysis tool for calculating Design constraints. hydrodynamic coefficients of slender structures, Typical design requirements constraints considered are. Test cases show that the strategy used by WINDOPT is capa Vessel motion tower inclination tower top acceleration cable. ble of improving the spar buoy design mooring system and tension and radius of curvature mooring line load limitations. power cable even when design starting points are unfeasible and minimum fatigue life minimum horizontal line pre ten. sion and maximum offset,Cost function, Different values of the constraints can be specified for indi. The cost function to be minimized is the total material cost vidual cases that represent different operational and survival. of the spar buoy mooring lines and power cable The spar conditions. buoy is modelled as a set of cylindrical sections with different. mass and cost properties and each section with uniform Cont on page 4. Energy from ocean tidal currents, Numerical simulation of tidal current turbine installation. Research manager Yusong Cao, In 2009 and 2010 MARINTEK s Houston office suc Figure 1 CAD model of.
the turbine Courtesy of, cessfully performed a feasibility study of installation Clean Current. methods for a tidal turbine electricity generator for. Clean Current Power System Incorporated a Canadian. company and ALSTOM Hydro a French company the, developers of the turbine The study involved numer. ical simulations of the installation utilizing SIMO as. the main software package, Tidal turbine use tidal currents to generate electricity The. subject device in this study is a gravity based unit that will. be installed on the seabed at Minas Passage in the Bay of. Fundy Nova Scotia Canada Figures 1 and 2 The main, objectives of the study were to determine the capacities of Figure 2 Ready for installa. the major components of the installation mooring cables tion Courtesy of Clean Current. WINDOPT cont from page 3 Acknowledgements, This work was performed as part of the NOWITECH pro.
Design variables gramme which is co funded by the Research Council of. Norway leading industrial companies and research organisa. Optimisation variables include the height and diameter of tions WINDOPT has been presented at the EWEA2011 1 and. each cylinder section the diameter of its damper plate foot OMAE2011 2 international conferences. ing and the vertical positions of the mooring line fairleads. For the mooring lines and power cable they include line 1 Berthelsen P A Fylling I J Optimization of floating support structures for. variables such as line direction pre tension and distance to deep water wind turbines EWEA2011 Brussels March 14 17 2011. anchor and segment variables such as segment length and 2 Fylling I J Berthelsen P A WINDOPT An optimization tool for floating. diameter mooring line or submerged weight cable Buoy support structures for deep water wind turbines OMAE2011 Rotterdam. and clump weights can also be included in the optimization June 19 24 2011. Examples 120,Initial cable configuration,140 Optimized cable configuration. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200,Horizontal distance m. Figure 2 Examples of three different optimized Figure 3 Examples of relative cost of spar buoy and Figure 4 Example of optimization of power cable. designs of the spar buoy shape mooring lines configuration. No 3 Nov 2011, Fig ure 3 SIMO model of the system unit on the surface MARINTEK. buoyancy lines ballast pump capacity etc and develop was solved for the different unit depth A database of. a deployment procedure for safe installation under a wide the hydrodynamic wave load coefficients was built The. range of wind current and wave conditions The simulation hydrodynamic wave load at instantaneous unit depth. based approach using SIMO involved an iterative search for was interpolated from the database during the numerical. a feasible solution for safe deployment of the unit on the simulations. seabed in three stages Similarly A CFD model was built and the drag coefficients. Surface effects the unit passing through the water sur in 6 DOFs were obtained from the CFD calculations for. face from a partially submerged floating condition until different unit depths the CFD modeling and calcula. fully submerged tions were performed by Clean Current The CFD results. Transient effects the unit descending to the seabed were used to build a database for the viscous load The. Seabed effects the unit landing on the seabed viscous load on the unit at the instantaneous depth was. interpolated from this database, The study also investigated the feasibility of recovering the SIMO s EXTERNAL FORCE feature which allows the user. unit from the sea floor to the surface defined load during the simulation to be employed was. used A Fortran subroutine was written to communicate. One of the installation methods uses two mooring lines and with SIMO calculate the wave and viscous loads based on. four buoyancy lines each consisting of linked spherical buoys the information on the unit s position received from SIMO. to help to keep the unit stable during the installation espe and feed the loads back to SIMO to be applied to the unit. cially during stages 2 and 3 when the unit is fully submerged in the simulations. and the two pontoons can no longer provide hydrostatic. restoring forces and moments as shown in Figures 3 and 4 of The new techniques have proven to be very effective and. the SIMO model of the system Ballast and de ballast proce have allowed the project to be completed successfully. dures have been developed to sink and retrieve the unit. A new challenge facing in the numerical simulations for this Peter Sandvik from MARINTEK Norway helped with the basic. project was that the total hydrodynamic load on the unit SIMO modeling in the early stages of the project and provided. wave load inertial load due to the motion of the unit i e valuable advice throughout it. added mass and wave damping effects and viscous drag. changes with the depth of submergence The usual SIMO. hydrodynamic models were not able to model this depth. dependent hydrodynamic load, Several new modeling techniques were developed to solve.
this problem, A series of WAMIT model were built for different depths. of submergence of the unit when the unit is partially. submerged and fully submerged but is relatively close to. the water surface The wave diffraction radiation problem Figure 4 SIMO model of the system unit landing on the seabed MARINTEK. Development of analysis tools for,offshore wind turbines. Research scientist Petter A Berthelsen Senior research scientist Harald Ormberg. Senior scientist Elizabeth Passano Research scientist Mateusz Graczyk. Offshore wind technology is a growing research area at. operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms NOWITECH Norwegian Research Centre for Offshore Wind Technology has developed a framework and structure for a life cycle cost and benefit model for offshore wind farms with special emphasis on opera tion and maintenance and work on developing a prototype has begun

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