OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Objectives Research Methodology,1 Objectives 76 79. 2 Assumption of the Viability Analysis for,a Newspaper Unit 79 81. 3 Profile of a Modern Newspaper Unit 81 83, 4 A Newspaper Unit as a Commercial Proposition 83 86. a Non Economic Criteria,b Economic Criteria,c Ethical Criteria of Newspaper Management. d Non Ethical Economic Criteria,5 Research Methodology 87 91.
a Questionnaire,b Sampling,c Observations based on tabular analysis. OBJECTIVES RESEARCH METHODOLOGY,1 Objectives, The main objective of the research is to have comparative analysis of. major marathi newspapers published from PUNE and to arrive at cer. tain fundamental conclusions regarding shift in income resource from. circulation to advertisement in modern time of globalisation and. information technology, This research is primarily directed to evaluate main marathi newspa. per units like Sakal Kesari Prabhat Lokmat and free news papers. like Sinhagad Samachar or Bibwewadi Parisar, All of them have been operating and publishing their newspapers for. a long time, My research is limited to Pune based newspapers Pune is second best.
growing city in Maharashtra and changing its characteristics in view. of globalisation and information technology during 2002 2009. The objective of the thesis aims at analyzing the economics and mar. keting strategies of newspapers in Pune with special reference to. Marathi newspapers in Pune at micro level and newspapers in India. at Macro level, The competition and changing purchasing Power of readers during. last 8 years though cost of the newsprint have increased subsequent. ly newspapers selling price has become stagnant, Newspapers are sold twice as a cover price or per copy price as well. as printed space is sold for advertisements, In India cost of the newspapers have remained low because of the. people s low purchasing power and with their aim to reach the mass. Hard competition to introduce the newspaper many newspapers have. reduced their cover price and practically are sold free of cost with. 30 commission to vendors, There are few newspapers who have reduced their price for suburbs. and are sold only at the distribution cost This has led to increase in. advertisement rates to fulfill the production costs Whereas in metro. politan cities it has become difficult for a common businessman to. advertise with high rates their product for trade, Consequently this situation resulted to split editions and few free.
newspapers who are distributed once a week in particular area which. caters traders in particular area at low advertisement cost but with. large circulation, There is a lot of variation between advertisement rates between cities. and for particular area which is indirectly leading newspaper indus. try to free sale, The study assesses the impact of the modifications in newspaper pol. icy on their survival and development The criteria which have been. applied to select these units are, a Two of them are big two medium sized units in terms of. their investment, b The investment is in the range of Rs 10 crore to Rs 200 crore. c The total circulation of each is 30 000 to 3 00 000 copies. d The ownership and management are different i e Ltd Co. Private ownership or Trust, e The period during which they have been operating is in the.
time span of years from 2002 to 2009, f Each of them have their own editorial style and political have. their own editorial style and political tradition few of them. are circulated free of cost areawise Few of them are market. oriented newspapers Though the local content is common for. g All of them have made consistent efforts in devising new. methods of management and have earned economies of scale. in the various areas of management and have implemental. schemes of expansion The management have been suscepti. ble to changes required to fit modern management pattern and. in the various areas of technology, The questionnaires to the Editor Owner Managers covered the fol. lowing important areas of information,1 Period of existence. 2 Type of product daily weekly or supplementary,3 Price of the product. 4 Geographical coverage,5 Number of employees Reporters.
6 Advertising Revenue,7 Total circulation variations. 8 Method of printing,9 Marketing and distribution,10 Break up of cost elements. 11 New plans for long term capital investment,12 Nature of problems. b Material,d Competition and aggressive marketing,e Freedom of expression. f Self Sufficiency and autonomy, The primary information is obtained on the above points and its.
analysis has enabled us to objectively study the viability of a news. paper unit with reference to certain constraints and standard of effi. ciency of its management, 2 Assumption of the Viability analysis for a newspaper unit. The fundamental factors which have been taken into consideration. for determining viability of a newspaper unit are, a The major source of income circulation and or advertise. b Circulation based on the sales performance and sales promo. tion measures to increase the advertisement quantum. c The specific strategies like multiplication of production units. product diversification product improvement and pricing. strategies, d Timings of increasing capital expenditure the frequency of. revision in the recurring revenue expenditure, e Cost implication of changes in Government policy pertaining. to imports and exports pricing policy for newsprint revision. of pay scales etc, f Adaptability in the management policy to changes in external.
surroundings like e g the keenness of competition from sim. ilar units operating in the market, Assuming that some factors operating externally and influencing. business potentialities are beyond the control of the management of a. newspaper unit the problem of viability appears to be that of bring. ing about suitable organisational and policy changes which are the. demands of the changing times, Most of the internal factors are interdependent However their co. relationships must be frequently considered in the light of the capac. ity of the business to survive and compete e g the relationship. between circulation and the income from advertisement is direct It is. presumed that the possibility of securing more advertisements is. enhanced with greater circulation It is also expected that income. from circulation is the major factor determining viability of a news. paper unit Therefore strategies are developed to enhance circulation. by sales promotion measures like change in the product design dis. tribution of papers free of charge readership survey with a personal. appeal and approach to potential readers, It should be noted however that income from advertisements. supercedes any other source of income and especially income from. wider circulation This is to be viewed in the light of the peculiar eco. nomic advantages resulting form the adoption of modern technology. The modern printing technology reduced the cost of printing of a. newspaper almost to the cost of a blank paper given a viably large. circulation Under the circumstances even the sales promotion expen. diture incurred appears to be significant against the possible advan. tage of increasing readership resulting from sales promotion meas. ures aggressive marketing strategy,3 Profile of a Modern Newspaper Unit. The profile of a newspaper in modern times has changed because of. the following internal and external influences, a News has changed its prominence levels from local provin.
cial national to an international context Large sized newspa. pers like Times of India give prominence to news items at the. international level whereas medium and small sized newspa. pers like Kesari Prabhat Sakal Lokmat etc give priority to. state level or local news items, b Various special features have been added to the usual sources. of information and knowledge eg popular features like. Cinema News Crossword Puzzle Sports Quiz Comics, Share Market information which cover multidisciplinary. knowledge For these the usual newspaper has been supple. mented by Sunday and Special Supplements like Healthcare. Property etc Similarly occasional or festival special supple. ments like Diwali Ganapati Independence Day or some. famous personality s Birthday have also become popular and. beneficial for both readers advertisers, c Earlier newspapers were published to present views of peo. ple but with the changing trends more space is being allotted. to fact oriented and advertisements, d New trends in journalism have been established e g Cheque. journalism aims at money making through specially arranged. contrived news and views items Yellow journalism adopted. a marketing strategy with intrusions into private lives public. ity to scandals and sensational exposure to weaknesses in the. Government Administration Though informative inves. tigative type of journalism is appropriate for the survival of. newspaper and its unbiased characters, e The external forces determining viability of a newspaper unit.
are the nature of the product editorial style contents and size. of the product level of literacy popular demand area of dis. tribution and language all go to determine circulation and. advertisement patronage because these factors determine the. qualitative and quantitative aspect of demand and earnings. from economies of a scale in production and distribution. Financial considerations are the ultimate factors governing editorial. style and contents the type of journalism the type of patronage i e. whether from the people or from the government i e party in power. or from the advertisements a newspaper unit can enjoy. Qualitative changes like colour printing more more multifarious. informative material good layout quality paper printing publica. tion of supplement can be brought about only when financial viabil. ity is ensured through some kind of patronage, The first aim of newspaper management should be survival Even. Lokmanya Tilak when sent to imprisonment for his provocative arti. cles instead of selecting Khadilkar he choose N C Kelkar and. asked him to write within the framework created by the legal limita. tions and survive till his return, Modern times demand that economic considerations are more. important than pursuit of any lofty ideas and ideologies against. internal and external resentments,4 A newspaper Unit as a Commercial Proposition. The Character of its ownership and editorship, Most of the newspapers in modern times are purely business propo. sitions As business propositions they have been sponsored by big. business interests and politicians affiliated with these interests There. are two categories of criteria for running a newspaper unit. a Non economic Criteria, The ethical criteria which insist on the observance of a code.
of ethics maintenance of honesty and integrity,b Economic Criteria. These criteria emphasize the need for commercialization in. order to make the unit survive compete and be economically. viable whose important aspects are made of relationship. between the publishing and capital ownership and the eco. nomic system of which the publisher owner is a part and. which he is pledged to preserve,c Ethical Criteria or assumptions of Newspaper. Management, 1 A newspaper should not violate the individual s right of pri. 2 Reporting should be ethical and accurate and upto a certain. 3 Newspapers should not make hero s of criminals by romantic. accounts of gang activities, 4 Headlines should correctly reveal the facts and the tenor of. the article, 5 News and photographs should not be falsified and distorted.
6 The press should seek knowledge rather than sensation. 7 The press should not overemphasize irrational statements of. public officials and should not conceal truth,d Non Ethical Economic Criteria. 1 Newspaper standards are determined by circulation and. advertiser s patronage, 2 The press should give the public what it wants and not what. 3 Financial news is promotional rather than information. 4 News values are after superficial and trivial, 5 Newspapers are not read in public affairs but follow the leader. ship of organized minorities, 6 Newspapers are interested primarily in day to day develop. ment and do not favour giving the reader a continuous and. complete account of what is happening, 7 Newspapers are subservient to local political machines.
8 The press utilises its freedom as a license to exploit policies. which make for circulation rather than for service. 9 The press is not sincere in its attack upon special privilege. because it accepts subsidy, 10 The press cannot be impartial and a true advocate of public. service so long as its owners are engaged or involved in other. business Thus the basic fault with the press lies with its own. 11 The attitude of editors is uncharitable because they fear criti. cism retaliation, 12 a A newspaper unit must be run as a profit making unit. b The owner manager must make a suitable choice,i editorial style and content. ii technology,iii patronage, The choice has to be made for profit maximization in the. short run and growth and expansion in the long run. c Financial considerations are supreme and they must get pri. d New trends in journalism have been established e g Cheque journalism aims at money making through specially arranged contrived news and views items Yellow journalism adopted a marketing strategy with intrusions into private lives public ity to scandals and sensational exposure to weaknesses in the Government Administration Though

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