n a Spanish Anarchism and A s i nWomen s Liberation i L s

N A Spanish Anarchism And A S I Nwomen S Liberation I L S-Free PDF

  • Date:05 Aug 2020
  • Views:3
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:8
  • Size:291.62 KB

Share Pdf : N A Spanish Anarchism And A S I Nwomen S Liberation I L S

Download and Preview : N A Spanish Anarchism And A S I Nwomen S Liberation I L S


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : N A Spanish Anarchism And A S I Nwomen S Liberation I L S


Transcription:

13 Ibid 30 July 1938 4, 14 Mujeres Libres 21 semanas despu s de la guerra c 12 December 1936 8. 15 Tierra y Libertad 21 May 1938 4, 16 Victorino F liz Jovenes Campesinas de Acci n Cat lica y Social Madrid. 1933 28 34 Secci n Feminina de Falange Espa ola Tradicionalista y de. las Jons 1936 Agenda 1940 18, 17 Mundo Obrero October 1936 4 5 Margarita Nelkin Para una campa era. Mundo Obrero 15 January 1937 1 El Socialista 18 March 1927 2. 18 Comaposada 8,Anarchism and,19 Tierra y Libertad 19 February 1938 3. 20 Ibid 21 May 1938 4 30 July 1938 4,21 Solidaridad Obrera Barcelona 21 April 1937 2.
22 Tierra y Libertad 24 December 1938 3, 23 Federica Montseny Mi experiencia en el Ministerio de Sanidad y Assistencia. Social 1937 27,Liberation,24 Tierra y Libertad 2 January 1937 8. 25 Ibid 26 December 1936 8,Temma E Kaplan, Source Journal of Contemporary History Vol 6 No 2 1971 pp 101 110. Originally found at the Zine Library http zinelibrary info. attempted access on 12 September 2015 showed the site to be down. xxx bcbmb bcpplt ofu, 1 Anselmo Lorenzo El Proletariado Militante Origen del Sindicalismo. Toulouse 1946 214 17,2 H E Kaminski Ceux de Barcelone Paris 1937 70.
3 Juan Diaz del Moral Historia de las Agitaciones Campesinas Andaluzas. Madrid 1967 205 224, 4 Franz Borkenau The Spanish Cockpit 1937 Gerald Brenan The Spanish. Labyrinth 1943 George Orwell Homage to Catalonia 1938 Pierre Brou. and mile T mine La R volution et Ia Guerre d Espagne Paris 1961 For. an interesting re interpretation of the anarchists ideas see Noam Chomsky. Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship American Power and the New Mandarins. New York 1967, 5 D A de Santillan After the Revolution Economic Reconstruction in Spain. Today New York 1937 95 Kaminski mentions that in industrial collectives. he visited women even had separate dining rooms 70. 6 Maria Laf itte Condesa de Campo Angel La Mujer en Espa a Cien A os de su. Historia 1860 1960 Madrid 1963 215, 7 Margarita Nelkin s works include La Condici n Social de la Mujer en Espa a. Barcelona 1922 and La Mujer ante las Cortes Constituyentes Madrid. 8 International Labour Of ice Studies and Reports series I Women s Work. under Labour Law A Survey of Protective Legislation 1932 84 85 146 7. The Law and Women s Work 1934 167, 9 Preparaci n de un proyecto de la ley sobre el trabajo a domicilio Instituto. de Reformas Sociales Secciones t cnico administrativas Madrid 1918. Nelkin La Mujer ante las Cortes Constituyentes 84 85. 10 Laf itte 218 20, 11 See Tierra y Libertad Solidaridad Obrera Frente Libertario and CNT for.
the period from July 1936 through April 1939 see also the ive undated. issues of Mujeres Libres in the collection of the Institute for Social History. 12 M Comaposada Origen y Actividades de la Agrupaci n Mujeres Libres. Tierra y Libertad 27 March 1937 8, 2 Spanish Anarchism and Women s Liberation Temma E Kaplan 11. that the social and economic revolution had to be postponed until military. victory was achieved In fact they believed exactly the opposite which. was a major source of their con lict with the Communist Party Yet women. anarchists were convinced that their liberation had to await the end of the. war that while the authority of the capitalist over his worker and of the. landlord over his tenant could be challenged that of man over woman could. not be attacked until military victory was assured Most were persuaded or. convinced themselves that after the war was over after the revolution had. triumphed at some time in the future without a struggle the lives of Spanish. women would be transformed, ne of the chief ideological disputes between the Spanish anarchists and. communists during the Civil War was the anarchists insistence that social. revolution should not be postponed until the war was won without the. social revolution by which they meant the defeat of authoritarianism and the. transformation of all social and economic relations and institutions to permit. maximum individual freedom self expression and spontaneity the war would. be just another changing of the guard so familiar in Spanish history. Historically Spanish anarchists had been concerned with changes in education. and marriage relationships as means of social change They opposed the. authoritarian patriarchal family arguing that it was based on private property. on the father s ownership of his wife and children 1 They hoped to end the. oppression of Spanish working class women by ending formal marriage and. substituting free alliances of individuals and to eliminate prostitution by. providing training programmes medical facilities and housing for the former. prostitutes 2 In towns where the anarchists gained control even for short. periods in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they immediately. attempted to abolish legal marriage among other things 3. Again in the irst year of the Civil War from July 1936 to the late spring of. 1937 anarchists were able to put some of their theoretical ideas into practice. Visitors to anarchist collectives remarked on the ef iciency of the communes. What most struck observers was the initial absence of oppressive bureaucracy. in cities such as Barcelona and the sense of community throughout the. loyalist sector There are many accounts of the jubilation which followed the. assumption of control by men and women of the factories or of land where. they had formerly been employed 4 But a social revolution according to. Spanish anarchist theory also transforms personal and social relationships. and engenders a certain level of culture consciousness of power and capacity. for self government in all members of the community including women. Yet although we might expect it to have been otherwise the condition and. 10 Spanish Anarchism and Women s Liberation Temma E Kaplan 3. treatment of women in the anarchist areas continued much as it had before is established in such a way that no one remains at the margin when society can. the Civil War 5 be organized to secure life and rights for all human beings 23. This paper is concerned with anarchist attempts to aid working class women Montseny established refuges open to all women including prostitutes. in the period between the end of the irst world war and the close of the Civil and unwed mothers in need of treatment as part of the drive to introduce. War years in which the Spanish anarchists assimilated syndicalist ideas built therapeutic medicine and to establish public health services Mujeres Libres. more effective organizations and won far reaching if short lived victories ran training courses to educate women who might otherwise become. it will attempt to show that in spite of their awareness of the exploitation prostitutes Mercedes Comaposada editor of Mujeres Libres argued that one. of women in capitalist society they did not develop a programme to prevent of the tasks of the revolution was to change men and women and that it. similar exploitation in revolutionary society There is no reason to believe that was impossible for men to transform their lives while they kept a portion of. the condition of Spanish women would have been fundamentally changed mankind in prostitution As long as any woman is kept as an object and is. if the anarchists had won the war Unwilling to deal with concepts of class prevented from developing her personality prostitution in fact continues. or representative institutions they refused to make special provisions for to exist 24. particular interest groups This inhibition was a crucial reason why the social. Despite these efforts and aspirations the traditional relationship between. reforms achieved by anarchists after 1918 and during the social revolution of. men and women was carried over into revolutionary Spain In the unions and. 1936 37 did not attempt to transform the lives of Spanish working class women. collectives dominated by the CNT women continued to perform the same. Anarchist women took little or no part in the women s rights movement of the work homemaking baking and washing that they had performed before the. early twenties which was primarily concerned with the admission of women revolution A Mujeres Libres Column was organized to wash and iron at the. into the professions 6 Except for the Socialist Margarita Nelkin who stood aside front neither men nor women raised the issue of sharing unpleasant tasks No. from the feminist movement as such no one on the left spoke about the need for group except the Mujeres Libres ever challenged the old division of labour and. special legislation for working women 7 role assignment And except by example even Mujeres Libres never asserted. that the creativity under developed talents and leadership abilities of women. The anarchist National Confederation of Labour the CNT founded in 1911 had. might be useful to the revolution, no minimal political programme but placed its hopes on a general strike that. would topple the government and begin a social revolution Anarchist women The question remains why the anarchists did not pay more attention to. at irst had no provisional demands such as those raised later in the war child the special needs of women The CNT found many men who were illiterate. care centres in the factories and the rural communities to care for the children and untrained and tried to educate them and elevate them to positions of. of working mothers liberalization of the paternity laws and laws governing responsibility yet they seldom did the same for women One answer is that the. prostitution which would make fathers assume some responsibility for their women themselves failed to confront the issue of the authoritarianism of their. children and regulation of the needle trades in which the work was done own husbands and fathers to make it a subject of debate Mujeres Libres trained. mainly by women at home women and tried to integrate them into the social services but did not challenge. the idea of masculine supremacy and authority in all ields Occasionally in. The greatest advance in laws governing women workers came under the. an anarchist paper an angry letter or article might appear which argued that. dictatorship of Primo de Rivera when the CNT was outlawed In the late. women were essentially as oppressed since the establishment of the Republic. twenties legislation was passed which required paid maternity leave for. and since the outbreak of the Civil War as before 25 But these were exceptions to. pregnant women for six weeks before and after con inement and provided for. the general pattern, one hour release from work each day for a mother to nurse her child Only this. second part of the law was ever enforced Legislation passed in 1927 prohibited Convinced by Popular Front ideology that no real change in their personal. night work for women in factories workshops and hospitals between the hours lives was possible before victory was won in the war women anarchists. of 9 p m and 5 a m but since employers juggled shifts and the law speci ically organized themselves to help the war effort and subordinated their own. excluded homework the sweated trades and domestic service the legislation demands to the task of winning the war Anarchists as a body did not believe. 4 Spanish Anarchism and Women s Liberation Temma E Kaplan 9. garment factories which had been collectivized and converted to production of was of negligible value Even laws passed under the Republic such as that on. uniforms and clothing for the men at the front compulsory maternity insurance 26 May 1931 and the decree of 1 July 1931. which established the eight hour day did little to change the condition of working. On the land too women found new occupations Dr Amparo Poch y Gascon. women most of whom were engaged in domestic service and homework 8. one of the founders of Mujeres Libres travelled to various women s agricultural. Despite the inadequacies of these laws anarchist women did not campaign for. brigades to teach advanced irst aid and to train more women as midwives. greater legal protection because like the men they were committed to social. Information about activities in rural areas is sparse but we do know that in. revolution rather than to political reforms, Ciudad Real the members of Mujeres Libres virtually organized the Herencia.
agricultural collective and started elementary schools for adults and children The anarcho syndicalist CNT made no effort to organize the industries in which. In their technical and professional schools they trained women in the most women workers predominated such as lace and cigar manufacturing or the. advanced practices of viticulture and stock breeding 19 They believed that the small textile establishments which gave piece work to women who worked in. skills which they taught would provide women with the means for their own their own homes usually in execrable health conditions with bad lighting and. social liberation as well as help the war effort They hoped to change men s ventilation A 1918 report claimed that of the 2 500 female workers in Barcelona. attitudes to women and to persuade them that in order to ight authoritarianism who had typhoid 1 6oo were seamstresses Among female workers pulmonary. they had to examine their own authority over their wives and daughters 20 tuberculosis was increasing as a result of bad and unhygienic domestic working. conditions The women who worked at home in the sweated trades did not fall. Federica Montseny daughter of a famous anarchist family was interested in. 23 Federica Montseny Mi experiencia en el Ministerio de Sanidad y Assistencia Social 1937 27 24 Juan Diaz del Moral Historia de las Agitaciones Campesinas Andaluzas Madrid 1967 205 224 4 Franz Borkenau The Spanish Cockpit 1937 Gerald Brenan The Spanish Labyrinth 1943 George Orwell Homage to Catalonia 1938 Pierre Brou and mile T mine La R volution et Ia

Related Books