Musculoskeletal System Pearson

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Section I Skeletal System at a Glance, The skeletal system consists of 206 bones that make up the internal framework of the body called the. skeleton The skeleton supports the body protects internal organs serves as a point of attachment for. skeletal muscles for body movement produces blood cells and stores minerals. Here are the primary structures that comprise the skeletal system. bones joints,Word Parts, Here are the most common word parts with their meanings used to build skeletal system terms For. a more comprehensive list refer to the Terminology section of this chapter. Combining Forms,ankyl o stiff joint metatars o metatarsals. arthr o joint myel o bone marrow spinal cord,articul o joint orth o straight. burs o sac oste o bone,carp o wrist pector o chest.
cervic o neck patell o patella,chondr o cartilage ped o child foot. clavicul o clavicle pelv o pelvis,coccyg o coccyx phalang o phalanges. cortic o outer layer pod o foot,cost o rib prosthet o addition. crani o skull pub o pubis,femor o femur radi o radius ray X ray. fibul o fibula sacr o sacrum,humer o humerus scapul o scapula.
ili o ilium scoli o crooked,ischi o ischium spin o spine. kyph o hump spondyl o vertebrae,lamin o lamina part of vertebra stern o sternum. lord o bent backward synovi o synovial membrane, lumb o loin low back between ribs and synov o synovial membrane. pelvis tars o tarsus ankle,mandibul o mandible thorac o chest. maxill o maxilla tibi o tibia,medull o inner region uln o ulna.
metacarp o metacarpals vertebr o vertebra,M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 84 18 12 14 10 12 pm. Skeletal System Illustrated,Cervical vertebrae,vertebrae T11. vertebrae L4 Radius,Ilium Sacrum,Metacarpals,Metatarsals. M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 85 18 12 14 10 12 pm,86 Chapter 4. blast immature listhesis slipping, clasia to surgically break logic pertaining to study of.
desis to fuse porosis porous,Anatomy and Physiology. of the Skeletal System,bone marrow ligaments LIG ah ments. bones skeleton, Med Term Tip Each bone in the human body is a unique organ that carries its own blood. The term skeleton from the supply nerves and lymphatic vessels When these bones are connected to each. Greek word skeltos meaning other it forms the framework of the body called a skeleton The skeleton protects. dried up was originally used in, reference to a dried up mummi vital organs and stores minerals Bone marrow is the site of blood cell production. fied body but over time came to A joint is the place where two bones meet and are held together by ligaments This. be used for bones gives flexibility to the skeleton The skeleton joints and muscles work together. to produce movement, cartilage CAR tih lij osteoblasts OSS tee oh blasts.
osseous tissue OSS ee us osteocytes OSS tee oh sights. ossification oss sih fih KAY shun, What s In A Name Bones also called osseous tissue are one of the hardest materials in the body. Look for these word parts Bones are formed from a gradual process beginning before birth called ossifi. oste o bone,blast immature, cation The first model of the skeleton made of cartilage is formed in the fetus. cyte cell Osteoblasts immature bone cells gradually replace the cartilage with bone In. ous pertaining to a fully adult bone the osteoblasts have matured into osteocytes that work to. maintain the bone The formation of strong bones is greatly dependent on an. adequate supply of minerals such as calcium Ca and phosphorus P. Bone Structure,articular cartilage ar TIK yoo lar long bones. cancellous bone CAN sell us medullary cavity MED you lair ee. compact bone periosteum pair ee AH stee um,cortical bone KOR ti kal red bone marrow. diaphysis dye AFF ih sis short bones,epiphysis eh PIFF ih sis spongy bone.
flat bones yellow bone marrow,irregular bones,M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 86 18 12 14 10 12 pm. Musculoskeletal System 87,Irregular bones Figure 4 1 Classification. vertebrae of bones by shape,Flat bones,Short bones. Flat bones, Several different types of bones are found throughout the body and fall into four What s In A Name. categories based on their shape long bones short bones flat bones and irregular bones Look for these word parts. articul o joint, see Figure 4 1 Long bones are longer than they are wide examples are the cortic o outer layer.
femur and humerus Short bones are roughly as long as they are wide examples medull o inner region. are the carpals and tarsals Irregular bones received their name because the shapes oste o bone. peri around, of the bones are very irregular for example the vertebrae are irregular bones Flat al pertaining to. bones are usually plate shaped bones such as the sternum scapulae and pelvis ar pertaining to. The majority of bones in the human body are long bones These bones have ary pertaining to. similar structure with a central shaft or diaphysis that widens at each end which is. called an epiphysis Each epiphysis is covered by a layer of cartilage called articular Med Term Tip. cartilage to prevent bone from rubbing directly on bone The remaining surface of Do not confuse a long bone with. a large bone A long bone is not, each bone is covered with a thin connective tissue membrane called the periosteum. necessarily a large bone The, which contains numerous blood vessels nerves and lymphatic vessels The dense bones of your fingers are short. and hard exterior surface bone is called cortical or compact bone Cancellous or spongy in length but since they are lon. bone is found inside the bone As its name indicates spongy bone has spaces in ger than they are wide they are. classified as long bones, it giving it a spongelike appearance These spaces contain red bone marrow which. manufactures most of the blood cells and is found in some parts of all bones Med Term Tip. The center of the diaphysis contains an open canal called the medullary cavity The term diaphysis comes from. Early in life this cavity also contains red bone marrow but as we age the red the Greek term meaning to. bone marrow of the medullary cavity gradually converts to yellow bone marrow grow between. which consists primarily of fat cells Figure 4 2 contains an illustration of the. structure of long bones,Bone Projections and Depressions.
condyle KON dile neck,epicondyle ep ih KON dile process. fissure FISH er sinus SIGH nus,foramen for AY men trochanter tro KAN ter. fossa FOSS ah tubercle TOO ber kl,head tuberosity too ber OSS ih tee. Med Term Tip, Bones have many projections and depressions some are rounded and The elbow commonly referred. to as the funny bone is actually, smooth in order to articulate with another bone in a joint Others are rough a projection of the ulna called.
to provide muscles with attachment points The general term for any bony the olecranon process. M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 87 18 12 14 10 12 pm,88 Chapter 4. Articular cartilage Compact cortical bone,Articular cartilage. Epiphyseal line,Cancellous spongy bone,Spongy bone. Compact bone,Medullary cavity,Yellow marrow fat,Compact bone. Periosteum, Figure 4 2 Components of a long bone The entire long bone is on the left side accompanied by a.
blow up of the proximal epiphysis and a section of the diaphysis. projection is a process Then there are specific terms to describe the different. shapes and locations of various processes These terms are commonly used on. operative reports and in physicians records for clear identification of areas on. the individual bones Some of the common bony processes include the following. 1 The head is a large smooth ball shaped end on a long bone It may be sep. arated from the body or shaft of the bone by a narrow area called the neck. 2 A condyle refers to a smooth rounded portion at the end of a bone. What s In A Name 3 The epicondyle is a projection located above or on a condyle. Look for these word parts 4 The trochanter refers to a large rough process for the attachment of a. 5 A tubercle is a small rough process that provides the attachment for ten. dons and muscles, 6 The tuberosity is a large rough process that provides the attachment of ten. dons and muscles, See Figure 4 3 for an illustration of the processes found on the femur. Additionally bones have hollow regions or depressions the most common. of which are the,1 Sinus a hollow cavity within a bone. 2 Foramen a smooth round opening for nerves and blood vessels. 3 Fossa consists of a shallow cavity or depression on the surface of a bone. 4 Fissure a slit type opening, What s In A Name appendicular skeleton app en DIK yoo lar axial skeleton AK see al. Look for these word parts, al pertaining to The human skeleton has two divisions the axial skeleton and the appendicular.
ar pertaining to, skeleton Figures 4 4 and 4 8 illustrate these two skeletons. M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 88 18 12 14 10 12 pm,Musculoskeletal System 89. Figure 4 3 Bony,processes found on the,Fovea capitis. Greater trochanter,Trochanteric line,Lesser trochanter. Patellar surface,Lateral epicondyle,Medial epicondyle.
Lateral condyle,Medial condyle,Axial Skeleton Med Term Tip. Newborn infants have about 300, cervical vertebrae occipital bone ock SIP eh tal bones at birth that will fuse into. coccyx COCK six palatine bone PAL ah tine 206 bones as an adult. cranium KRAY nee um parietal bone pah RYE eh tal,ethmoid bone ETH moyd rib cage. facial bones sacrum SAY crum,frontal bone sphenoid bone SFEE noyd. hyoid bone HIGH oyd sternum STER num, intervertebral disk in ter VER teh bral temporal bone TEM por al.
lacrimal bone LACK rim al thoracic vertebrae,lumbar vertebrae vertebral column VER teh bral. mandible MAN dih bl vomer bone VOH mer, maxilla mack SIH lah zygomatic bone zeye go MAT ik. nasal bone, The axial skeleton includes the bones of the head neck spine chest and trunk. of the body see Figure 4 4 These bones form the central axis for the whole. body and protect many of the internal organs such as the brain lungs and. The head or skull is divided into two parts consisting of the cranium and facial. bones These bones surround and protect the brain eyes ears nasal cavity. and oral cavity from injury The muscles for chewing and moving the head. are attached to the cranial bones The cranium encases the brain and consists. of the frontal parietal temporal ethmoid sphenoid and occipital bones The facial. bones surround the mouth nose and eyes and include the mandible maxilla. M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 89 18 12 14 10 12 pm,90 Chapter 4. Figure 4 4 Bones of the,axial skeleton,Vertebrae 24.
M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 90 18 12 14 10 12 pm,Musculoskeletal System 91. Figure 4 5 Bones of the,Frontal bone,Parietal bone. Occipital bone,Sphenoid bone,Temporal bone,Nasal bone. Lacrimal bone,Zygomatic bone,Mandible Jaw, zygomatic vomer palatine nasal and lacrimal bones The cranial and facial bones. are illustrated in Figure 4 5 and described in Table 4 1. The hyoid bone is a single U shaped bone suspended in the neck between the. mandible and larynx It is a point of attachment for swallowing and speech muscles. The trunk of the body consists of the vertebral column sternum and rib cage The. vertebral or spinal column is divided into five sections cervical vertebrae thoracic. vertebrae lumbar vertebrae sacrum and coccyx see Figure 4 6 and Table 4 2. Located between each pair of vertebrae from the cervical through the lumbar Med Term Tip. regions is an intervertebral disk Each disk is composed of fibrocartilage to provide The term coccyx comes from. a cushion between the vertebrae The rib cage has 12 pairs of ribs attached at the the Greek word for the cuckoo. because the shape of these, back to the vertebral column Ten of the pairs are also attached to the sternum small bones extending off the.
in the front see Figure 4 7 The lowest two pairs are called floating ribs and sacrum resembles this bird s bill. Table 4 1 Bones of the Skull,Name Number Description. Cranial Bones,Frontal bone 1 Forehead, Parietal bone 2 Upper sides of cranium and roof of skull What s In A Name. Occipital bone 1 Back and base of skull Look for these word parts. al pertaining to, Temporal bone 2 Sides and base of cranium ar pertaining to. Sphenoid bone 1 Bat shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull floor and sides of eye orbit oid resembling. tic pertaining to, Ethmoid bone 1 Forms part of eye orbit nose and floor of cranium. Facial Bones,Lacrimal bone 2 Inner corner of each eye.
Nasal bone 2 Form part of nasal septum and support bridge of nose. Maxilla 1 Upper jaw, Mandible 1 Lower jawbone only movable bone of the skull. Zygomatic bone 2 Cheekbones,Vomer bone 1 Base of nasal septum. Palatine bone 1 Hard palate PAH lat roof of oral cavity and floor of nasal cavity. M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 91 18 12 14 10 12 pm,92 Chapter 4. Atlas 7 pairs,Axis Cervical 1 7,Ribs Sternum,Thoracic 1 12. False ribs Costal cartilage,Lumbar 1 5 3 pairs,Floating ribs.
Coccyx 2 pairs, Figure 4 6 Divisions of the vertebral column Figure 4 7 The structure of the rib cage. Table 4 2 Bones of the Vertebral Spinal Column,Name Number Description. Cervical vertebra 7 Vertebrae in the neck region, Thoracic vertebra 12 Vertebrae in the chest region with ribs attached. Identify and define selected musculoskeletal system therapeutic procedures Identify and define selected medications relating to the musculoskeletal system Define selected abbreviations associated with the musculoskeletal system Musculoskeletal System M04 FREM0254 06 SE C04 indd 83 18 12 14 10 12 pm 84 Function The skeletal system consists of 206 bones that make up the internal

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