Mountain Biking Design Guideline-Free PDF

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High end mountain bikes are built to handle demanding terrain and the obstacles that are. found in it like logs vertical drop offs and smaller boulders. BMX Bike A BMX bike is an off road sport bicycle used in a variety of different venues BMX. means bicycle motocross The BMX Class bike is a strong quick handling lightweight bike. with a standard 20 inch 510 mm or 24,610 mm wheel,BMX Racing is a type of off road bicycle. racing The format of BMX was derived,from motocross racing BMX bicycle. races are sprint races on purpose built,off road single lap race tracks The track. usually consists of a starting gate for up to,eight racers and a groomed serpentine. dirt race course made up of various jumps,and rollers and a finish line Typically the.
track requires constant maintenance when,in use The course may be sloped or flat. about 15 foot 4 6 m wide and has large,banked corners to help the riders maintain. speed Other permutations include pump,tracks freestyle dirt jumping freestyle. urban skate park riding or flat ground tricks, Challenge by choice Challenge by choice is a philosophy and strategy within the outdoor. education industry in which participants are invited to challenge themselves and participate on. their own terms It s important to allow participants to choose what participation level they are. comfortable with set their own goals and measure their own success It is the instructor s role. to present the challenge provide safety instruction for the activity instruct the participant in the. skills required to overcome the challenge and to guide the participant in setting goals and. levels of success While an instructor should obviously encourage participants to push. themselves physically and mentally participants should never feel forced or coerced out of their. comfort zone, An important aspect of Challenge by choice is that the participant also has to feel that their.
choice will always be accepted by the group as a valid level of participation This could also be. known as participant buy in There are a number of ways to accomplish this but one major tool. in the outdoor education industry is the Full Value Contract This is a term for a contract that the. group comes up with together at the beginning of their experience to create a philosophy or. culture for their own group dynamics The instructor should help guide the participants in a. proper direction but it s important for the group to feel that they have created this contract. together This will aid in everyone sticking to the contract and all participants feeling. comfortable within the group culture In trail design this translates to adding bail out or. bypass elements to challenging obstacles,GENERAL GUIDELINES. Bike Trails, Maintaining trails that are safe and environmentally sustainable can be expensive Safe and. sustainable trails are vital to the success of a quality MTB program Trails should be meticulously. planned and mostly sustainable with proper maintenance Trails must be progressive in nature. starting at the easiest level and working towards more advanced skills. The cost will vary with the degree of difficulty For example trails that are very steep are subject to. constant erosion and require care Good design and trail construction will minimize maintenance. costs and increase safety Professional help or assistance from recognized biking organizations. such as the International Mountain Biking Association IMBA or the Professional Trail Builders. Association PTBA can prove invaluable, Highly demanding types of terrain commonly involve challenging use of rocks washouts ruts. loose sand loose gravel roots and steep grades both inclines and declines W e do not. recommend an advanced level of challenge within a camp environment However experienced. bikers may pursue that level of challenge at facilities operated and maintained by professionals. or at our National High Adventure Bases Because the degree of challenge in a BSA camp is. less the camp will be able to provide simpler equipment that is more affordable. A great trail system will have trails meant for riding up at lower grades and trails meant for riding. down at steeper grades Generally an average trail grade of 10 or less is most. sustainable Beyond this grade the trail is easily eroded This is site specific and fluctuates. Turning radii should be in the 6 to 8 foot range and the path width should be 36 to 48 All of this. is dependent on a number of variables such as soil conditions and topography When we talk about. the maximum grade at any particular point we mean short sections of steep grade followed. by mellow grades Even an intermediate blue trail may have very short but very steep. sections that create little cruxes to power through and provide a sense of accomplishment A. sustainable trail will have b o t h gradient changes and turns to help slough off the water For. specific design parameters IMBA has an excellent resource Trail Solutions published by the. IMBA Boulder CO Frequently maintenance roads fire lanes and other such routes are. incorporated into the trail system, The IMBA uses a 5 tier trail difficulty rating system White easiest and green easy difficulty. levels are entirely appropriate for BSA properties At the blue square level difficult the council. should consider providing access to professionally managed and maintained trail systems Black. diamond very difficult and double black diamond extremely difficult are not recommended as a. council operated camp activity due to the potential for injury. Trail Difficulty Rating System,Easiest Easy More Difficult Very Difficult.
White Circle Green Circle Blue Square Black Diamond. Trail Width 72 or more 36 or more 24 or more 12 or more. Tread Hardened or Firm and Mostly stable Widely variable. Surface Surfaced Stable with,some variability, Average Less than 5 5 or less 10 or less 15 or less. Trail Grade,Maximum Max 10 Max 15 Max 15 or Max 15 or. Trail Grade greater greater,Natural None Unavoidable Unavoidable Unavoidable. Obstacles Obstacles Obstacles Obstacles, and Trail 2 tall or less 8 tall or less 15 tall or less. TTF Avoidable Avoidable Avoidable,Obstacles may Obstacles may Obstacles may.
be present be present be present,Unavoidable Unavoidable May include. bridges bridges loose rocks,36 or wider 24 or wider. TFF s 2 high or Unavoidable,less width of bridges,deck is greater 24 or wider. height TFF s 4 high or,less width of,deck is less than. the height,Short Sections,may exceed, NOTE IMBA provides for double black diamond riding however the BSA does not permit scouts.
to use double diamond trails,Customized Protocols and Risk Management Plan. All quality mountain bike programs should have well planned and customized policies in place The. policies should address program operation participant staff ratios facility and equipment care safety. and more An example document can be found in the Mountain Bike Program Document All policies. should be written specifically for the program objectives and capability level of the participants. While considering the financial commitment and policies for your program it is imperative to begin. formulating a detailed Risk Management Plan The BSA Field Book notes that managing risk requires. planning training leadership good judgment and accepting responsibility Incorporating those specific. characteristics into a detailed plan will help identify potential hazards improve overall safety and limit. liability associated with the program There are many BSA Risk Management resources but the. International Mountain Bike Association IMBA provides detailed risk management guidance specifically. for mountain bike programs We strongly encourage you to utilize their expertise in this field prior to. operating your own program,Financial Commitment, Operating a mountain bike program is an involved process but a rewarding way to help engage youth in. the outdoors Typically one of the first questions would be how much does a mountain bike program. cost Entry level bikes can retail anywhere from 200 400 The investment related to operating a fleet. of 20 entry level mountain bikes not including infrastructure facilities maintenance can cost 6 000. 11 000 for an entry level program fleet This does not include staffing and operations and maintenance. Alternatives would include renting bikes and Initial Costs 20 units 2015 Low High. equipment from a local bike shop One Bikes 3 800 8 200. council is known to buy year end left overs,Helmets 600 800. directly from the manufacturer at significant,discount Pads Gloves 1 600 2 000. Total 6 000 11 000,A financially sustainable program would.
involve purchasing selling a specific number of bikes and ancillary equipment per year. Maintenance Considerations, Maintenance will fall into two categories trail maintenance and equipment. maintenance, Trail maintenance is important for both environmental sustainability and for safety Research by the. IMBA shows that the most effective way to minimize the environmental effects of trail recreation is. through good design Although it is a natural process trail erosion is the biggest threat to safety. and environmental sustainability The process is accelerated by the combination of trail users. water and gravity, Equipment maintenance will be inevitable but can be mitigated through the selection of simple. sturdy bikes When deciding on the model of bike to use camps need to look at. maintenance expected longevity ease to ride and trails that they will be ridden on One or. two gears may be necessary to successfully traverse even the easiest terrain Keep in mind. though the more complex the machine the more expensive it will be to acquire and maintain A. successful program will have a repair shop and staff or volunteers who are trained in. maintaining bikes, Depending on the caliber of the fleet maintenance requirements can potentially consume a large. amount of time and money A rough parts estimate for a 20 bike fleet could range from 1 000. 3 000 per year This doesn t account for the service time cost involved with maintaining the. fleet which can be done by a local bike shop or a qualified staff member Depending on the. caliber of your staff the fleet should be inspected by a bike shop professional at least once a. year Based on a 4 year rotation depreciation of entry level bikes the total annual cost. associated with purchasing bikes parts and providing quality service could cost anywhere from. 6 000 9 000 per year, Local bike shops and bike clubs are a good starting place for volunteer assistance in trail.
design and equipment and trail maintenance It is part of the IMBA ethic to seek partnerships so. explore this aspect thoroughly when contemplating the creation of a bike program. Storage Maintenance Facility,The size of your bike fleet should be. determined by the number of participants you,expect to serve It is important to have a dry. organized and efficient place to store locate,and inspect repair the bikes. Space in this facility should be designated for a,service maintenance area that is outfitted with. professional bike tools Keeping the proper,tools organized will look professional improve.
efficiency and improve the staff s ability to,service the fleet Having a couple of bike vises. is a good idea,If there is not enough inside space for the. service area consider using a storage area near, a roofed outdoor workspace This will enable your staff to effectively maintain bikes during. inclement weather and focus on program quality safety when skies are clear It is helpful when the. storage area enables the staff to distribute bikes directly from the storage area to the participants. as opposed to removing the bikes from storage and staging them for riding in a different location. If you decide to utilize trails on BSA property it is imperative that you build proper signage into. your trail network Signage is important to limit liability for riders that might stumble onto the trail. network without proper supervision and to help beginners reduce risk associated with more difficult. terrain For more information on creating effective signage refer to the IMBA book Managing. Mountain Biking in the resources section at the end. Land Use Agreements Strategic Partnerships, Another option for mountain bike programs is to utilize existing mountain bike trails within your local. community Using an existing trail system has many advantages but may require additional land. manager permission Private land use agreements are often less cumbersome than state and federal. agreements If an existing trail system is available for use on public lands it is imperative to find out. whether or not permits are required for non profit programming. If building new trails on Council property is not an option and there are no existing trails in the area. consider pursuing strategic partnerships with local land managers like the United States Forestry. Service National Park Service or Bureau of Land Management to create multi use trails with mountain. biking in mind Permits are often issued in exchange for conservation work to maintain or build trail. This work helps federal state agencies achieve their annual goals or targets Proper use and care of. partnering properties has the potential to grow into something larger than a simple land use . or at our National High Adventure Bases Because the degree of challenge in a BSA camp is less the camp will be able to provide simpler equipment that is more affordable A great trail system will have trails meant for riding up at lower grades and trails meant for riding down at steeper grades Generally an average trail grade of 10 or less

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