Mission Solar System Challenge 1 PBS Kids

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2 BRAINSTORM AND DESIGN 10 minutes, Identify the problem Have kids state the problem in their own words. e g keep the egg from breaking when it s dropped, Show different kinds of frames Ask How will you construct a frame to. hold the egg firmly Demonstrate how to connect the craft sticks with. binder clips or with rubber bands, Discuss the balloons Ask How many balloons do you need to cushion. the egg Eight to ten work well Show kids how the rubber bands can. help them attach the balloons to the frame, 3 BUILD TEST EVALUATE AND REDESIGN 30 minutes In Soft Landing kids model. If any of these issues come up ask questions to get kids thinking about three Mars missions that used. airbag landing systems,how they might solve them, If balloons pop Have kids see if there are any sharp edges on their.
frames that need to be covered or eliminated Check if they taped their. balloons together Tape is so inflexible that it can rip a balloon as it. stretches upon impact Have them remove some tape, If balloons fall off the frame Point out the different materials kids can. use to attach balloons e g string tape and rubber bands. If their egg breaks Have kids analyze why and improve the lander s. ability to absorb shock,4 DISCUSS WHAT HAPPENED 10 minutes. Emphasize key elements in today s challenge by asking Kids use the engineering. design process to build landers, Engineering How did testing help you decide what changes to make to that will protect an egg. your lander Point out that kids followed the engineering design process dropped onto the floor. they brainstormed an initial design built an early version i e a prototype. and then revised it based on testing, Engineering What design features did today s successful landers have Typically they have an. effective way to absorb shock stay intact upon impact and protect the egg on all sides. Science Why is it more likely for an egg to break when you drop it from a greater height Due to the. acceleration of gravity a lander gains more energy when released from a greater height than from a. lower height The greater the energy the greater the force of impact. NASA What are some advantages of an airbag cushioned landing It can land in a variety of terrains. and is lighter compared to a controlled landing which requires fuel engines and a control system. Career Show kids the engineer profile featuring Erick Ordo ez As a materials engineer he makes sure. that the materials that go into space do the job and won t cause problems like catching fire or failing. at a crucial moment like during an airbag landing Download the profile sheet for fun facts discussion. prompts and extension ideas, Design Squad Nation 2013 WGBH Educational Foundation.
EXTEND THE CHALLENGE, Go higher Drop the landers from bleachers balconies windows in a building etc. Go lighter It costs 25 000 to send 0 5 kilos 1 pound of material into space That s why NASA. engineers build the lightest spacecraft possible Have teams optimize for weight Divide the drop. height by the weight The successful mission with the lowest ratio of weight to drop height wins. Rolling test Go bowling Whose lander can protect the egg as it rolls across the floor. CURRICULUM CONNECTIONS, Use Soft Landing to engage explain and extend student understanding of the following topics. Force The airbags absorb energy from the collision between the ground and lander The increased. pressure in the airbag exerts a force in the opposite direction of the push from the ground. Newton s 3rd Law Since heavy objects hit the ground with more force than lighter ones you can. discuss Newton s 2nd Law force mass x acceleration Air also exerts a force on the lander as it. Potential kinetic and mechanical energy Kids increase the potential stored energy of their. landers when they lift them up Once they let go this potential energy changes to kinetic motion. energy When a lander hits the surface some of its kinetic energy changes into mechanical energy. i e it does work by exerting a force on the airbag over a distance Some of it also changes back. into potential energy as the air pressure inside the airbag increases Ask kids to identify all the. places one kind of energy changes into another kind. Conservation of energy Drop a ball to the floor Ask kids how high it bounces each time The ball. bounces highest on the first bounce getting successively lower with each additional bounce The. law of conservation of energy says that energy cannot be lost or gained in a system Ask kids why. the ball doesn t bounce to the same height each time Each time the ball bounces it loses energy. to the work involved in compressing the ball and to friction with the ground and air The cycle. repeats until the ball and lander ultimately distributes its energy and stops. Design Squad Nation 2013 WGBH Educational Foundation. SOFT LANDING, Spacecraft use airbags Cars use airbags Packages use airbags Air. makes a great cushion Three rovers have landed safely on Mars using. an airbag system,WE CHALLENGE YOU TO, design and build an airbag system that can safely land an egg. dropped onto the floor,MATERIALS per lander,1 IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM AND BRAINSTORM.
2 hardboiled eggs,How will you make a frame that holds the egg. 10 nine inch balloons, How will you attach balloons to your frame 10 craft sticks. How should you arrange the airbags to absorb shock 8 small i e inch binder. 2 DESIGN AND BUILD 20 assorted rubber bands,2 small paper cups. Use the materials to invent your own design 3 ounce. Tape any kind,1 meter 39 inches string,WORDS T O USE. force A push or a pull,shock absorber Absorbs,the energy of an impact.
Drop your lander from a height of 1 meter 39 inches. Watch how it bounces and rolls Did the egg break, Design Squad Nation 2013 WGBH Educational Foundation. 4 EVALUATE AND REDESIGN,How well did the egg stay in the frame. How well do the balloons stay together to protect the egg on all sides. 5 TRY THIS NEXT,Check out NASA s, Drop the lander from 2 meters 78 inches How high can you go missions at nasa gov. Add a parachute or other system to slow the lander before it hits. the ground,NASA EXPLORES SPACE, This picture shows NASA engineers testing an airbag. landing system on Earth Three rovers have used this. system to land safely on Mars As they approach,Mars they re going about 20 000 kilometers 12 000.
miles per hour Thanks to a parachute heat shield, and rockets the airbag wrapped rovers hit the surface. going about 80 kilometers 50 miles per hour One, bounced as high as a five story building Then after. 15 bounces it stopped rolling the airbags deflated. and the mission began, The Curiosity rover is on Mars studying the Martian. climate and geology and looking for substances, associated with life Curiosity is the size of a small car. It is so big and heavy about five times larger than. earlier rovers that it couldn t use an airbag landing. system Instead it used a rocket propelled sky crane. that lowered it gently to the surface,Visit the Design Squad Nation website at.
pbskids org designsquad, M A J OR F U N D I N G PROJ E C T FUNDING A DDITIONA L FU NDING. Design Squad Nation is produced by WGBH Boston Major funding is provided by the National Science Foundation Project funding is provided by Northrop Grumman Foundation and S D Bechtel Jr Foundation Additional funding is. provided by United Engineering Foundation ASCE ASME AlChE IEEE AIME This Design Squad Nation material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No EEC 1129342 Any opinions. findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation 2013 WGBH Educational Foundation Design. Squad and Design Squad Nation are trademarks of WGBH Educational Foundation All rights reserved All thrid party trademarks are the property of their respective owners This NASA Design Squad Nation. challenge was produced through the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No NNX12AB47G issued through the Science Mission Directorate. DESIGN CHALLENGE PERFORMANCE,ASSESSMENT RUBRIC,Challenge name. Names of team members, Identifying the Showed a clear Needed some teacher Needed lots of teacher Points. problem s and understanding of the direction to define the direction to define the. problem s to solve problem s and brainstorm problem s Little if any. brainstorming, Independently possible solutions independent brainstorming. solutions brainstormed solutions, Working as a Worked well together All Some team members w ere Most team members w ere Points.
team member team members occasionally off task often off task a nd not. participated and stayed cooperating o r participating. on task fully, Using the Team brainstormed many Some team members w ere Team brainstormed few Points. design process design ideas and tested occasionally off task design ideas and did l ittle. nd improved the design,a testing or redesigning Final. Final design complete or design lacks clear d,nearly complete and idea s. shows creative problem, Processing the Team gave a strong Team gave a basic Team gave a weak Points. science and presentation of its presentation of its s olution presentation of its s olution. solution to the challenge to the challenge a nd to the challenge a nd. engineering,nd showed clear,a showed basic showed little u.
nderstanding, understanding of the understanding of the of the science concepts and. science concepts and science concepts and design process. design process design process,Total Points,Visit the Design Squad Nation website at. pbskids org designsquad, M A J OR F U N D I N G PROJ E C T FUNDING A DDITIONA L FU NDING. Design Squad Nation is produced by WGBH Boston Major funding is provided by the National Science Foundation Project funding is provided by Northrop Grumman Foundation and S D Bechtel Jr Foundation Additional funding is. provided by United Engineering Foundation ASCE ASME AlChE IEEE AIME This Design Squad Nation material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No EEC 1129342 Any opinions. findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation 2013 WGBH Educational Foundation Design. Squad and Design Squad Nation are trademarks of WGBH Educational Foundation All rights reserved All thrid party trademarks are the property of their respective owners This NASA Design Squad Nation. challenge was produced through the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No NNX12AB47G issued through the Science Mission Directorate. Point out that kids followed the engineering design process they brainstormed an initial design built an early version i e a prototype 2 In Soft Landing kids model three Mars missions that used airbag landing systems 3 Kids use the engineering design process to build landers that will protect an egg dropped onto the floor 4

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