Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness

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Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions by Charles Mackay 2. EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS,Illustration THE BUBBLERS ARMS PROSPERITY. OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY,227 STRAND. EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS,MADNESS OF CROWDS,BY CHARLES MACKAY LL D. AUTHOR OF EGERIA THE SALAMANDRINE ETC,ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS. N en d plaise ces fous nomm s sages de Gr ce En ce monde il n est point de parfaite sagesse Tous les. hommes sont fous et malgr tous leurs so ns Ne diff rent entre eux que du plus ou du moins BOILEAU. OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY,227 STRAND.
PRINTED BY ROBSON LEVEY AND FRANKLYN, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions by Charles Mackay 3. Great New Street Fetter Lane,THE MISSISSIPPI SCHEME. John Law his birth and youthful career Duel between Law and Wilson Law s escape from the King s. Bench The Land bank Law s gambling propensities on the continent and acquaintance with the Duke of. Orleans State of France after the reign of Louis XIV Paper money instituted in that country by. Law Enthusiasm of the French people at the Mississippi Scheme Marshal Villars Stratagems employed and. bribes given for an interview with Law Great fluctuations in Mississippi stock Dreadful murders Law. created comptroller general of finances Great sale for all kinds of ornaments in Paris Financial difficulties. commence Men sent out to work the mines on the Mississippi as a blind Payment stopped at the bank Law. dismissed from the ministry Payments made in specie Law and the Regent satirised in song Dreadful crisis. of the Mississippi Scheme Law almost a ruined man flies to Venice Death of the Regent Law obliged to. resort again to gambling His death at Venice,THE SOUTH SEA BUBBLE. Originated by Harley Earl of Oxford Exchange Alley a scene of great excitement Mr Walpole Sir John. Blunt Great demand for shares Innumerable Bubbles List of nefarious projects and bubbles Great rise in. South sea stock Sudden fall General meeting of the directors Fearful climax of the South sea. expedition Its effects on society Uproar in the House of Commons Escape of Knight Apprehension of Sir. John Blunt Recapture of Knight at Tirlemont His second escape Persons connected with the scheme. examined Their respective punishments Concluding remarks. THE TULIPOMANIA, Conrad Gesner Tulips brought from Vienna to England Rage for the tulip among the Dutch Its great. value Curious anecdote of a sailor and a tulip Regular marts for tulips Tulips employed as a means of. speculation Great depreciation in their value End of the mania. THE ALCHYMISTS, Introductory remarks Pretended antiquity of the art Geber Alfarabi Avicenna Albertus Magnus Thomas.
Aquinas Artephius Alain de Lisle Arnold de Villeneuve Pietro d Apone Raymond Lulli Roger. Bacon Pope John XXII Jean de Meung Nicholas Flamel George Ripley Basil Valentine Bernard of. Tr ves Trithemius The Mar chal de Rays Jacques Coeur Inferior adepts Progress of the infatuation. during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Augurello Cornelius Agrippa Paracelsus George. Agricola Denys Zachaire Dr Dee and Edward Kelly The Cosmopolite Sendivogius The. Rosicrucians Michael Mayer Robert Fludd Jacob B hmen John Heydon Joseph Francis. Borri Alchymical writers of the seventeenth century Delisle Albert Aluys Count de St. Germain Cagliostro Present state of the science,MODERN PROPHECIES. Terror of the approaching day of judgment A comet the signal of that day The prophecy of Whiston The. people of Leeds greatly alarmed at that event The plague in Milan Fortune tellers and. Astrologers Prophecy concerning the overflow of the Thames Mother Shipton Merlin Heywood Peter of. Pontefract Robert Nixon Almanac makers,FORTUNE TELLING. Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions by Charles Mackay 4. Presumption and weakness of man Union of Fortune tellers and Alchymists Judicial astrology encouraged. in England from the time of Elizabeth to William and Mary Lilly the astrologer consulted by the House of. Commons as to the cause of the Fire of London Encouragement of the art in France and. Germany Nostradamus Basil of Florence Antiochus Tibertus Kepler Necromancy Roger Bacon. Albertus Magnus Arnold Villeneuve Geomancy Augury Divination list of various species of. divination Oneiro criticism interpretation of dreams Omens. THE MAGNETISERS, The influence of imagination in curing diseases Mineral magnetisers Paracelsus Kircher the. Jesuit Sebastian Wirdig William Maxwell The Convulsionaries of St Medard Father Hell Mesmer the. founder of Animal Magnetism D Eslon his disciple M de Puysegur Dr Mainauduc s success in. London Holloway Loutherbourg Mary Pratt c Perkins s Metallic Tractors Decline of the science. INFLUENCE OF POLITICS AND RELIGION ON THE HAIR AND BEARD. Early modes of wearing the hair and beard Excommunication and outlawry decreed against curls Louis. VII s submission thereto the cause of the long wars between England and France Charles V of Spain and his. courtiers Peter the Great His tax upon beards Revival of beards and moustaches after the French. Revolution of 1830 The King of Bavaria 1838 orders all civilians wearing moustaches to be arrested and. shaved Examples from Bayeux tapestry,LIST OF ENGRAVINGS IN VOL I. Frontispiece Gardens of the Hotel de Soissons From a print in Mr Hawkins collection. Vignette The Bubblers Arms Prosperity Bubblers Mirror or England s Folly. John Law From a rare print by Leon Schenk 1720,The Regent D Orleans.
Old Palais Royal from the Garden From a scarce print circa 1720. Law s House Rue de Quincampoix From Nodier s Paris. Humpbacked Man hiring himself as a Table,H tel de Soissons From Nodier s Paris. The Coach upset,Murder of a Broker by Count D Horn. John Law as Atlas From England under the House of Hanover. Caricature Lucifer s new Row Barge,Procession of Miners for the Mississippi. The Chancellor D Aguesseau, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions by Charles Mackay 5. Caricature Law in a Car drawn by Cocks,M D Argenson.
Caricature Neck or Nothing or Downfall of the Mississippi Company. The South Sea House From a print circa 1750,Harley Earl of Oxford. Sir Robert Walpole,Cornhill Print circa 1720, Stock jobbing Card or the Humours of Change Alley 1720 From the Bubblers Medley. Caricature People climbing the Tree of Fortune From the Bubblers Medley. The Gateway to Merchant Tailors Hall Gateway from old print. Mr Secretary Craggs, Caricature Beggars on Horseback From the Bubblers Medley. Caricature Britannia stript by a South Sea Director. Caricature The Brabant Screen Copied from a rare print of the time in the collection of E Hawkins Esq. Bonfires on Tower Hill,The Earl of Sunderland, Caricature Emblematic Print of the South Sea Scheme From a print by Hogarth. Caricature Bubblers Arms Despair From Bubblers Mirror or England s Glory. Conrad Gesner,The Alchymist From print after Teniers.
Albertus Magnus,Arnold de Villeneuve,Raymond Lulli. House of Jacques Coeur at Bourges From Sommerard s Album. Cornelius Agrippa,Paracelsus, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions by Charles Mackay 6. Dr Dee s Show stone and Magic Crystal Originals in the possession of Lord Londesborough and British. Innspruck From Nodier s Paris,House of Cagliostro Rue de Clery No 278 Paris. Mother Shipton s House, Henry Andrews the original Francis Moore physician. Nostradamus From the frontispiece to a collection of his Prophecies published at Amsterdam A D 1666. Serlo clipping Henry I s hair,Peter the Great,Bayeux Tapestry.
In reading the history of nations we find that like individuals they have their whims and their peculiarities. their seasons of excitement and recklessness when they care not what they do We find that whole. communities suddenly fix their minds upon one object and go mad in its pursuit that millions of people. become simultaneously impressed with one delusion and run after it till their attention is caught by some. new folly more captivating than the first We see one nation suddenly seized from its highest to its lowest. members with a fierce desire of military glory another as suddenly becoming crazed upon a religious. scruple and neither of them recovering its senses until it has shed rivers of blood and sowed a harvest of. groans and tears to be reaped by its posterity At an early age in the annals of Europe its population lost their. wits about the sepulchre of Jesus and crowded in frenzied multitudes to the Holy Land another age went mad. for fear of the devil and offered up hundreds of thousands of victims to the delusion of witchcraft At another. time the many became crazed on the subject of the philosopher s stone and committed follies till then. unheard of in the pursuit It was once thought a venial offence in very many countries of Europe to destroy. an enemy by slow poison Persons who would have revolted at the idea of stabbing a man to the heart. drugged his pottage without scruple Ladies of gentle birth and manners caught the contagion of murder until. poisoning under their auspices became quite fashionable Some delusions though notorious to all the world. have subsisted for ages flourishing as widely among civilised and polished nations as among the early. barbarians with whom they originated that of duelling for instance and the belief in omens and divination. of the future which seem to defy the progress of knowledge to eradicate them entirely from the popular mind. Money again has often been a cause of the delusion of multitudes Sober nations have all at once become. desperate gamblers and risked almost their existence upon the turn of a piece of paper To trace the history of. the most prominent of these delusions is the object of the present pages Men it has been well said think in. herds it will be seen that they go mad in herds while they only recover their senses slowly and one by one. Some of the subjects introduced may be familiar to the reader but the Author hopes that sufficient novelty of. detail will be found even in these to render them acceptable while they could not be wholly omitted in justice. to the subject of which it was proposed to treat The memoirs of the South Sea madness and the Mississippi. delusion are more complete and copious than are to be found elsewhere and the same may be said of the. history of the Witch Mania which contains an account of its terrific progress in Germany a part of the subject. which has been left comparatively untouched by Sir Walter Scott in his Letters on Demonology and. Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions by Charles Mackay 7. Witchcraft the most important that have yet appeared on this fearful but most interesting subject. Popular delusions began so early spread so widely and have lasted so long that instead of two or three. volumes fifty would scarcely suffice to detail their history The present may be considered more of a. miscellany of delusions than a history a chapter only in the great and awful book of human folly which yet. remains to be written and which Porson once jestingly said he would write in five hundred volumes. Interspersed are sketches of some lighter matters amusing instances of the imitativeness and. wrongheadedness of the people rather than examples of folly and delusion. Religious matters have been purposely excluded as incompatible with the limits prescribed to the present. work a mere list of them would alone be sufficient to occupy a volume. Illustration JOHN LAW,MONEY MANIA THE MISSISSIPPI SCHEME. Some in clandestine companies combine Erect new stocks to trade beyond the line With air and empty. names beguile the town And raise new credits first then cry em down Divide the empty nothing into shares. And set the crowd together by the ears Defoe, The personal character and career of one man are so intimately connected with the great scheme of the years. 1719 and 1720 that a history of the Mississippi madness can have no fitter introduction than a sketch of the. life of its great author John Law Historians are divided in opinion as to whether they should designate him a. knave or a madman Both epithets were unsparingly applied to him in his lifetime and while the unhappy. consequences of his projects were still deeply felt Posterity however has found reason to doubt the justice of. the accusation and to confess that John Law was neither knave nor madman but one more deceived than. deceiving more sinned against than sinning He was thoroughly acquainted with the philosophy and true. principles of credit He understood the monetary question better than any man of his day and if his system fell. with a crash so tremendous it was not so much his fault as that of the people amongst whom he had erected it. He did not calculate upon the avaricious frenzy of a whole nation he did not see that confidence like. mistrust could be increased almost ad infinitum and that hope was as extravagant as fear How was he to. foretell that the French people like the man in the fable would kill in their frantic eagerness the fine goose. he had brought to lay them so many golden eggs His fate was like that which may be supposed to have. overtaken the first adventurous boatman who rowed from Erie to Ontario Broad and smooth was the river on. which he embarked rapid and pleasant was his progress and who was to stay him in his career Alas for him. the cataract was nigh He saw when it was too late that the tide which wafted him so joyousl. 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