Measuring Value Based Productivity A Confirmatory Factor

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Centre for Promoting Ideas USA www ijbssnet com,2 0 Review of Literature. Indeed measuring the productivity can be complex Baines 1997b Sahay 2005 Johnston Jones 2004. but its importance in the organization cannot be denied Baines 1997b There is a gap in the literature review. that did not discuss the specific issues of values that support the productivity of the organization Mainly. focused on the definition of productivity and method of its execution only Johnston Jones 2004 as. measured by labor productivity and capital gains only Baines 1997b A study by Sahay 2005 in the. service organization revealed the multi factor productivity model which involved only static factors dynamic. and development parameters in calculating the overall productivity of the organization Besides that issues. such as effective communication involvement in decision making and providing feedback is important in. productivity Baines 1997 Literally the amount of output produced in excess of the same amount of input is. said to be having increased productivity In short the quality is associated with a service or product but. productivity is related to the size of the effectiveness of human resources in an organization Omar 2010 also. reiterated that productivity is more just and appropriate in evaluating the performance of services as the issue. of productivity assessment is given less attention in the services sector Sahay 2005 Johnston Jones. Thus the factor of productivity refers to initiatives to improve the employees productivity for organizations. to function more productively Use of information technology is one example of initiatives that lead to. improved performance of employees within the organization Mokhtar et al 2003 The process of upgrading. from time to time in all its aspects is necessary in the organizational transformation Sahay 2005 This is. also consistent with the Islamic notion that emphasizes the principles of achieving greater success Mokhtar et. al 2003 A set of values are capable of causing the organization to function more efficiently by setting goals. for the entire organization Pratt Kleiner 1989 Achieving high productivity is the goal of each. organization Kleijnen et al 2009 Organizational values are important in improving productivity Pratt. Kleiner 1989 Aqeel Akbar Husain Khan 2010 To improve productivity it should be measured Vrat et. al 2009 and in this context in terms of intangibles indicator of core values Besides that the ability to. manage and coordinate the existing potentials in each individual employees can also increase productivity. Nik Mustapaha 2003, Many studies were conducted on values on different context and separate issues From the arbitrary findings. to the extent of the reseacher s knowledge we did not come across to list of the specific values that are. assigned for productivity that are common for organisations Hence this article tried to specify the specific. core values for this reason as ample of research only address the values in the specific issues and not really. meant for performance measurement We have come to arrive at 6 core values that are relevant to be. embedded with the productivity values in the organisation As a result from a thorough discussion with expert. panel in the field we specify efficiency collectiveness non exploitative economy of scale frugality and. timeliness to represent the productivity values These 6 core values are deemed appropriate to represent value. based productivity in the organisation of the Malaysian context Although there might seemed some. reservations to most reseachers on this specification of values this effort is of great importance on realising. value based productivity in the organisation for achieving organisational excellence Along with this we offer. operational definition for each core values that we have specified in order to give a clear definition of what the. specified core values meant to measure In short the following Table 1 derives the core values that are. deemed appropriate beneath the criteria of productivity with the corresponding value based indicators or. operational definition, Table 1 Core values of culture and value based indicators. Core values Value based Indicators, Efficiency The degree of using the available resources without relying on external resources. The degree of cares cares about the productivity achievement at all levels and performing. Collectiveness,tasks in a collective manner, The degree to which rights and welfare of the staff are not ignored and reward incentives.
Non exploitative,are given with the effort work done. The degree to which the University carries out various efforts to increase the number of. Economy of scale, quality graduates and number of academic and scholarly activities. The degree of which various campaigns carried out to pay attention on the operational. Frugality cost saving and incentive reward is given to individual division faculty who demonstrate. cost saving effort, The degree of academic system in the University that ensures all students can complete. Timeliness their studies within the stipulated period and regular monitoring system is in place in a. timely manner, International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol 2 No 6 April 2011. 3 0 Methodology, In VBTPEM it incorporates a well defined set of organisational core values in each of the performance.
criteria see Nooreha et al 2001 Fazli et al 2003 The role of the core values as the dominant belief that. specify what is important to cherished by individual group or organisation In addition core values create a. cultural glue or bond within the organisation Besides that it forms a uniform or consistent behaviour among. people as desired by the organisation and on top of that it creates a true identity for the people in the. organisation Mokhtar et al 2003 The issue that arises here probably on the measurement aspects of core. values Core values are the abstractions whose measnings are imprecise i e that cannot be measured exactly. and vary considerably among people i e subjective It is considered as theoretical concepts or constructs. However in order to measure we need some measurement process in place. Therefore we must quantify values in such a way that it could produce some statistical indicators for analysis. Mokhtar et al 2008 defined the statistical indicators as a label concept term or name representing the set of. operations defining how the measurement was or would be undertaken It could be either quantitative or. qualitative Thus the core values would be translated into statistical indicators and measurement via. questionnaires by referring to the operational definition as in Table 1 Hence in this part the researcher. discussed the sampling technique instrumentation and the data screening procedure before proceeding to the. confirmatory factor analysis CFA technique in testing the hypothesized model. 3 1Sampling, This study employed simple random sampling method to staff at the selected university which consists of. academic and non academic staff across 26 departments and faculties This is also referred as convenient. sampling procedure and in general 519 questionnaires were distributed to about 1500 staff and the researcher. managed to obtain 210 questionnaires only This accounted for 40 of response rate which is considerably. accepted for the purpose of this study The number of questionnaires distributed was believed to be. representative to the total population at the selected university as based on Krejcie and Morgan table 1970. 3 2 Instrument, The instrument was developed in a focus group through a thorough discussion with the expert panel from. ADMACS Consultancy M Sdn Bhd a prominent consultant in the field of organisational performance. measurement and several lecturers who directly involved in this study from the Center of Modeling and Data. Analysis Center for Mathematical Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology National University of. Malaysia Several meeting had been conducted to come out with the questionnaire so as to produce a good. quality items based on the framework of Value Based Total Performance Excellence Model VBTPEM The. original instrument was written in dual languages which were Malay Language and English Language Both. languages were used in order to accommodate the respondents who were not Malaysian such as foreign. lecturer that are currently working in the selected university This instrument focused on the culture values. revolved around an organisation that should be incorporated and internalised as discussed in the literature part. It consisted of 12 items from 6 core values and this means every core values consists of 2 corresponding items. each The core values of cultures which were identified were efficiency collectiveness non exploitative. economy of scale frugality and timeliness The data obtained was keyed in the Predictive Analytics SoftWare. PASW version 18,3 3 Data Screening and Analysis, The 210 dataset are coded and saved into PASW and analyzed using AMOS version 18 During the process of. data screening for outliers 22 dataset are deleted due to Mahalanobis distance values more than the 2 value. 2 42 31 n 12 p 0 001 leaving a final 188 dataset to be analyzed Several statistical validity tests and. analysis are then conducted such as reliability test and validity tests using confirmatory factor analysis CFA. for construct validity and discriminant validity for multicollinearity treatment composite reliability and. average variance extracted testing the fit for the hypothesized CFA model and the revised model. 3 3 Assessing validity and reliability, Hair et al 2010 defined reliability as an assessment of the degree of consistency between multiple. measurements of a variable This study assesses the consistency of the entire scale with Cronbach s alpha and. its overall reliability of each factor of productivity values All values yielded alpha coefficient exceeded the. values of 0 70 suggested by Hair et al 2006 See Table 2 From this result of Cronbach s alpha coefficient. value this questionnaire was accepted and admissible In short it proved to be reliable In order to validate. the instrument this study also considered construct validation using analysis of moment structures software. AMOS with maximum likelihood ML to analyse the data. Centre for Promoting Ideas USA www ijbssnet com, This approach is called as confirmatory factor analysis which is more advanced as the hypothesized are based.
on the underpinning theory Hair et al 2010 as discussed in the next section Table 2 also shows the mean. and standard deviation scores of the items Despite high standard deviation the results show that the. respondents agree that the core values are important for organisational productivity values. Table 2 Internal Consistency of the constructs,Construct Mean SD Cronbach s alpha. Efficiency, Available resources are sufficient to carry out planned 6 49 1 83. activities without relying on external resources 0 79. The university gives priority to teaching and learning 7 33 1 62. processes that will increase the number of quality graduates. Collectiveness, University cares about the productivity achievement at all 7 21 1 59. levels 0 89, Performing tasks in a collective manner has become a norm 7 22 1 49. in this university to ensure maximum productivity,Non exploitative.
The rights and the welfare of the staff are not ignored 6 98 1 62. although the management stresses the need for increased. efficiency 0 91,The management provides reward incentives that. commensurate with the effort work demonstrated by highly 6 84 1 74. efficient staff,Economy of Scale, University carries out various efforts to increase the number 7 09 1 74. of quality graduates without incurring additional highly cost. University stresses that the number of academic and 7 22 1 32. scholarly activities e g research and publication are. considered meaningful if they generate quality output and at. reasonable cost, Various campaigns carried out by the University to make the. staff realize the need to pay attention on the operational cost. saving measures at various levels,The management gives incentive reward to any 0 81. individual division faculty who successfully demonstrate. their operational cost saving,Timeliness, The academic system in the University ensures all students 6 98 1 54.
can complete their studies within the stipulated period. Regular monitoring system is in place to ensure that 0 91. academic activities e g research are completed in a timely. manner 6 97 1 54,4 0 Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA. In this study confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the construct validity of the survey items It. means how well is the construct explained the variables under the construct Hair et al 2010 In other words. whenever the correlation of the items within the same construct is relatively high it is said to have the. construct validity Also the factor loading or the regression weight and the squared multiple correlations. SMC of the items are significantly correlated to the specified construct would also contribute to the. construct validity comprehension, International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol 2 No 6 April 2011. Figure 2 Hypothesized model of factorial structure for productivity values. 4 1 The hypothesized model and modeling strategy,The CFA model of productivity values hypoth. involves core values that support productivity that focused in the organization Vrat et al 2009 amp Taiwo 2010 said that there were several factors that affect the productivity improvement such as human factors organizational factors and technological product factors In addition Taiwo 2010 added that general factors

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