Manufacturing Process Modeling for Composite Materials and

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Issued by Sandia National Laboratories operated for the United States Department of Energy by. Sandia Corporation, NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United. States Government Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof nor any of. their employees nor any of their contractors subcontractors or their employees make any. warranty express or implied or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy. completeness or usefulness of any information apparatus product or process disclosed or. represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights Reference herein to any specific. commercial product process or service by trade name trademark manufacturer or otherwise. does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement recommendation or favoring by the. United States Government any agency thereof or any of their contractors or subcontractors The. views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States. Government any agency thereof or any of their contractors. Printed in the United States of America This report has been reproduced directly from the best. available copy,Available to DOE and DOE contractors from. U S Department of Energy,Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P O Box 62,Oak Ridge TN 37831,Telephone 865 576 8401. Facsimile 865 576 5728,E Mail reports adonis osti gov.
Online ordering http www osti gov bridge,Available to the public from. U S Department of Commerce,National Technical Information Service. 5285 Port Royal Rd,Springfield VA 22161,Telephone 800 553 6847. Facsimile 703 605 6900,E Mail orders ntis fedworld gov. Online order http www ntis gov help ordermethods asp loc 7 4 0 online. SAND2014 0877,Unlimited Release,Printed February 2012.
Manufacturing Process Modeling for Composite Materials and Structures. Sandia Blade Reliability Collaborative Phase II Effects of Defects Interim. Daniel A Guest and Douglas S Cairns Principal Investigator. Montana State University,Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Bozeman MT 59715,Sandia Technical Monitor Joshua A Paquette. The increased use and interest in wind energy over the last few years has necessitated an increase in the. manufacturing of wind turbine blades This increase in manufacturing has in many ways out stepped the. current understanding of not only the materials used but also the manufacturing methods used to. construct composite laminates The goal of this study is to develop a list of process parameters which. influence the quality of composite laminates manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding. and to evaluate how they influence laminate quality Known to be primary factors for the. manufacturing process are resin flow rate and vacuum pressure An incorrect balance of these. parameters will often cause porosity or voids in laminates that ultimately degrade the strength of the. composite Fiber waviness has also been seen as a major contributor to failures in wind turbine blades. and is often the effect of mishandling during the lay up process Based on laboratory tests conducted a. relationship between these parameters and laminate quality has been established which will be a. valuable tool in developing best practices and standard procedures for the manufacture of wind turbine. blade composites,Acknowledgements, This work was sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories SNL Wind Energy Technology through. funding from the United States Department of Energy DOE Wind and Water Power Technologies. Program Office The authors would like to thank Mr Joshua A Paquette and Dr Daniel Laird of Sandia. National Laboratories for guiding this work In particular we would like to thank Mr Paquette from SNL. for providing insight for the Sandia led wind turbine Blade Reliability Collaborative BRC Also Mr Cash. Fitzpatrick from DOE was particularly helpful in providing resources for the equipment used for. quantitative process monitoring Without this equipment it would not have been possible to develop. the experimental analytical correlations of the process models developed herein The authors. acknowledge the observations and data provided by Mr Steve Nolet of TPI Composites for his insight of. porosity during composite structures manufacturing. Table of Contents,1 Introduction 11,2 Background 13. 2 1 Manufacturing Materials Methodology 13,2 2 Fabrics 14.
2 3 Matrix System 15,2 4 Blade Manufacturing Process 16. 2 5 Manufacturing Issues 20,2 5 1 Typical Laminate Flaws 20. 2 5 2 Process Parameters 21,2 5 3 Outcome of Process 22. 2 6 Modeling 22,2 6 1 Numerical Modeling of Resin Flow 22. 3 Experimental setup and equipment 23,3 1 Materials 23.
3 1 1 Fabrics 23,3 1 2 Resins 25,3 2 Equipment 25,3 2 1 Hardware 25. 3 2 1 1 Endocal Heater Chiller 25,3 2 1 2 Vacuum Pump Accessories 26. 3 2 1 3 Scale 27,3 2 1 4 Pressure Transducers 28,3 2 1 5 IR Thermometer 29. 3 2 1 6 DAQ System 30,3 2 1 7 Mold 31,3 2 2 Software 31. 3 2 2 1 National Instruments Labview 32,3 2 3 Equipment Summary 36.
3 3 Test Procedures Goals 37,3 3 1 The Taguchi Method and Input Parameters 37. 3 3 2 Test Matrix 38,3 3 3 Output Parameters 39,3 3 3 1 Fiber Volume Content 41. 3 3 4 Manufacturing Method 41,4 Experimental Results 45. 4 1 Process Parameter Test Results 45,4 1 1 Resin Velocity Data 45. 4 1 2 Vacuum Pressure Data 46,4 1 3 Resin Temperature Data 47.
4 1 4 Porosity and Fiber Volume Results 48,4 2 Wave Flaw Results 50. 4 3 Ultimate Strength Test Results 51,5 Discussion and Analysis of Results 53. 5 1 Analysis of Output Parameters 53,5 1 1 Porosity 53. 5 1 2 Fiber Volume Fraction 54,5 2 Modeling 56,5 2 1 Model of Output Parameters 56. 5 2 2 Expert System Model for Diagnosing Laminate Flaws 59. 5 3 Observations 61,5 3 1 Porosity Formation 61,5 3 2 Mold Pressure Equalization 62.
5 3 3 Pressure Spikes During Infusion 63,6 Conclusions and Recommendations 65. 6 1 Future Work 66,References 68,Appendix A Taguchi Design Matrix 71. Appendix B Transducer Calibration 73,Appendix C Parameter Data Monitored 75. Appendix D Image J Macros 83, Appendix E Validation of Fiber Volume Fraction Model 85. Appendix F CLIPS Code for Implementation of Expert System 87. Figure 1 Example of an 80 meter offshore wind turbine 11. Figure 2 Micrograph of glass fiber composite laminate used in wind turbine blades 13. Figure 3 Fabric architecture 23 14, Figure 4 Global laminate coordinates versus local lamina coordinates 15.
Figure 5 Micrograph of glass fibers in a matrix material 15. Figure 6 Workers at TPI laying up dry fiberglass fabric for a BRC test blade 16. Figure 7 Vacuum ports are affixed to porous rope to direct and control the vacuum pressure left. Injection ports right allow resin to enter the mold 17. Figure 8 Technicians at TPI applying vacuum bag to the mold of one half of a BRC blade 17. Figure 9 Leak detection techniques include monitoring the quality of the vacuum over a period of time. using a pressure gage left as well as an ultrasonic leak detection device right 18. Figure 10 Completed laminate under vacuum seal and ready for resin injection 18. Figure 11 Resin is mixed in large pails and then transferred to 5 gallon buckets during the injection. process Modified vise grip clamps are used to control the flow of resin and to seal the vacuum and. injection tubes when not in use 19,Figure 12 Completed blade manufactured at TPI 19. Figure 13 Wind turbine blades manufactured by Vestas which suffered failure due to manufacturing. defects 25 20, Figure 14 OP wave flaws found in the skin of wind turbine blades 13 21. Figure 15 IP wave flaw found on the surface layer of a wind turbine blade skin 13 21. Figure 16 Momentive data for the RIMR 135 resin system used in this study 26 Plot shows viscosity. as a function of temperature 22,Figure 17 PPG Devold L1200 G30 E07 fabric 23. Figure 18 Depiction of the Vectorply E BX 0900 10 fabirc 23. Figure 19 Peel ply is used for ease of de tooling laminates as well as creating a better mechanical bond. Figure 20 Left is flow media being used in the construction of a glass laminate Right is a close up view. of resin flowing through the open mesh of the flow media 24. Figure 21 Endocal Refrigerated circulating bath 25. Figure 22 Heat exchanger bucket for heating or cooling the resin 26. Figure 23 Endocal heater chiller with heat transfer bucket and tubing attached 26. Figure 24 Alcatel Industrial vacuum pump and resin trap 27. Figure 25 Arlyn Scale used to monitor flow rate Left is control panel right is measurement platform 27. Figure 26 Miniature flush diaphragm pressure transducer 28. Figure 27 Mounting the transducers to the aluminum mold 28. Figure 28 6234A dual output Hewlett Packard power supply used to power the pressure transducers 29. Figure 29 An IR thermometer was used to monitor resin temperature This reduced cleaning time for. manufacturing plates 30, Figure 30 The National Instruments USB 6229 DAQ system was used to collect data from an IR. thermometer Arlyn Scale and two pressure transducers 30. Figure 31 The mold was prepared for use by drilling and tapping holes for ports and transducers 31. Figure 32 Flexible silicone rubber fiberglass insulated heaters used to control mold temperature while. Figure 33 VI created for the acquisition manipulation and recoding of data taken during the. manufacturing process study of wind turbine blade composite materials 32. Figure 34 DAQ Assistant component of the program which collected data from individual channels of. the hardware 32, Figure 35 All the signals are compressed and then the channels are split apart for individual.
manipulation using Labview 33, Figure 36 Pressure transducer signals were manipulated to produce a value of pressure from the. voltage signal 33, Figure 37 Elements used to calibrate the transducers to current atmospheric pressure conditions 34. Figure 38 The write to spreadsheet element collected all of the data and saved it in the specified file. Figure 39 Time stamp elements were added to the data string 35. Figure 40 VI Front panel was used for controlling and monitoring the experimental data acquisition 36. Figure 41 Scanning Electron Microscope SEM used for analyzing porosity samples 40. Figure 42 Image J user interface 40, Figure 43 The left micrograph was created using the SEM the right image is the binarized image 40. Figure 44 Burn off test being performed in an electric oven at 650 C 41. Figure 45 Experimental setup of the mold and all of the peripheral equipment and monitoring station. used in this study 42, Figure 46 Laminate manufactured for Run 1 marked out for cutting out samples 43. Figure 47 Correlation of maximum pressure difference and the initial laminate vacuum pressure 46. Figure 48 Micrograph of a sample from plate 2315 and its corresponding B W image 48. Figure 49 Porosity across the width of the laminate 49. Figure 50 Fiber volume as a function of porosity 49. Figure 51 Out of plane waves inserted into 20 layers of uni directional fabric using Super 77 50. Figure 52 Laminate 2333 manufactured with a small amplitude and steep angle OP wave 50. Figure 53 Compression test of 2 layer glass uni which shows buckling effects 51. Figure 54 Compression test of 2 layer triax which shows buckling effects 51. Figure 55 Ultimate strength comparison with porosity content for uni directional laminates Strength. values were compared with samples manufactured for J Nelson and T Riddle 52. Figure 56 Ultimate strength comparison with porosity content for triax laminates Strength values. were compared with samples manufactured for J Nelson and T Riddle 52. Figure 57 ANOVA plot of the significance of the different process parameters with respect to porosity. Figure 58 Porosity as a function of initial vacuum pressure 54. Figure 59 Fiber volume samples that were not burned off completely left and samples that were. completely burned right 55, Figure 60 Comparison of measured and estimated fiber volume fraction 55.
Figure 61 ANOVA plot of the significance of the different process parameters with respect to fiber. volume fraction 56, Figure 62 MathCad polyfit command used for modeling outcome of composite laminates 57. Figure 63 Confirmation of initial porosity values using the model 58. Figure 64 Results of the validation test plates 59. Figure 65 Laminate work flow and flaw introduction model 59. Figure 66 Questioning hierarchy for development of an expert system 60. Figure 67 CLIPS dialog window showing some of the backward chaining questioning that results from. this tool 61, Figure 68 Micrograph of a laminate infused with a high flow rate 61. Figure 69 Micrograph of a laminate infused with a low flow rate 61. Figure 70 Pressure values at inlet and outlet ports of the mold during cure while vacuum port is leaked. Figure 71 Laminate manufacturing setup with mold surface about 25 inches above resin bucket 63. Figure 72 Spike in mold pressure for plate 2318 64. Table 1 Transducer sensitivity values see 29, Table 2 Summary of equipment used for this research 36. Table 3 Manufacturing parameters used to control variations in the manufacturing process 37. Table 4 Taguchi Design of Experiments matrix which depicts the variations in each of the seven test. 3 SAND2014 0877 Unlimited Release Printed February 2012 Manufacturing Process Modeling for Composite Materials and Structures Sandia Blade Reliability Collaborative Phase II Effects of Defects Interim

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