Management Concepts amp Organisational Behaviour Unit I

Management Concepts Amp Organisational Behaviour Unit I-Free PDF

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Lesson 1 Nature Of Management,Objectives,After reading this lesson you should be able to. Understand The Nature Of Management,Identify And Describe The Functions Of Management. Understand The Social Responsibilities Of Business And. Appreciate The Interests Of Various Stakeholders In The Business. Lesson Outline,Management As Science,Management As Art. Management As Profession,Professionalisation Of Management In India. Functions Of Management,Review Questions,Introduction.
Take a close look at the society around you You would find. the existence of several organizations To mention a few the business. organizations that produce goods or services hospitals religious and. social institutions like charities schools colleges and universities All these. organizations exist to achieve pre determined objectives They affect our. lives in many ways Though there are vast differences in their functioning. and approaches they all strive to achieve certain objectives It must also. be noted that organizations cannot achieve the objectives effortlessly. They are achieved through systematic effort Several activities have to be. performed in a cohesive way In the absence of systematic and cohesive. performance of the activities to achieve the objectives it is no wonder that. the resources of organizations would be underutilized As such it is the. function of the management to facilitate the performance of activities such. that the accomplishment of the objectives becomes possible. Meaning of Management, Management is understood in different ways by different people. Economists regard it as a factor of production Sociologists see it as a. class or group of persons while practitioners of management treat it as. a process For our understanding management may be viewed as what a. manager does in a formal organization to achieve the objectives In the. words of Mary Parker Follet management is the art of getting things done. through people This definition throws light on the fact that managers. achieve organizational goals by enabling others to perform rather than. performing the tasks themselves, Management encompasses a wide variety of activities that no one. single definition can capture all the facets of management That is why it. is often said that there are as many definitions of management as there are. authors in the field However the definition given by James A F Stoner. covers all the important facets of management,According to him. Management is the process of planning organizing leading and. controlling the efforts of organization members and of using all other. organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals. The definition suggests,Management is a continuous process. Several interrelated activities have to be performed by managers. irrespective of their levels to achieve the desired goals. Managers use the resources of the organization both physical as. well as human to achieve the goals, Management aims at achieving the organisation s goals by ensuring.
effective use of resources in the best interests of the society. It is evident that the emphasis is on achieving the objectives by. using material machinery money and the services of men These inputs. are drawn from the environment in which the organization exists Whether. an organization is engaged in business or non business the various inputs. are judiciously used to produce the outputs The process involving the. conversion of inputs into outputs is common to all organizations and is. shown in figure 1 1,INPUTS TRANSFORMATION OUTPUTS,ENVIRONMENT. Figure 1 1 INPUT OUTPUT MODEL, Depending on the nature of business or activity that a firm is. engaged in the output of the firm may be a physical product or service. Since a business organization is an economic entity the justification for. its existence lies in producing goods and services that satisfy the needs of. the people As could be seen in the figure the organization draws several. inputs from the environment converts them into products or services and. sends them back to the environment Environment here means the larger. system i e the society in which the firm exists Therefore it goes without. saying that how effectively the goods and services are produced is a. matter of concern for any society given the scarcity of resources Effective. management therefore plays a crucial role in this context. Nature of Management, The practice of management is as old as human civilization In fact. much of the progress of mankind over the centuries may be attributed to. the effective management of resources The irrigation systems the public. utilities the construction of various monuments like Taj Mahal and the. Egyptian Pyramids of the bygone era amply demonstrate the practice. of management in the olden days Similarly the ancient civilizations of. Mesopotamia Greece Rome and Indus valley displayed the finest practices. of management of those periods However the study of management in. a systematic way as a distinct body of knowledge is only of recent origin. That is why management is often described as oldest of the arts and. youngest of the sciences Thus the practice of management is not new It. has been practiced for thousands of years But the science part of it the. systematic body of knowledge is no doubt a phenomenon of the present. The traditional management practices remained quite stable. through the centuries until the birth of industrial revolution in the mid. 18th century The industrial revolution brought about the substitution. of machine power for man power through several scientific inventions. As a result within a few decades the landscape of industrial activity. had undergone a metamorphic change Man s quest for new ways of. doing things coupled with his ingenuity in adopting the scientific and. technological inventions in the production of goods and services resulted. Mass production in anticipation of demand, Advent of corporate form of organization which facilitated large. scale production, Spectacular improvements in the transport and communication.
facilities,Increased competition for markets, The establishment of new employer employee relationship and. A radical change in the aspirations and expectations of the various. stakeholders of business, Industrial revolution had thus sown the seeds of modern. management The early scientific enquiries into the practice of. management began Despite the growing importance of management. as an academic discipline immensely contributing to the quality of. human life it is disheartening to know that the concept is still clouded. by certain misconceptions No doubt management as an academic body. of knowledge has come a long way in the last few decades It has grown. in stature and gained acceptance all over the world Yet it is a paradox. that the term Management continues to be the most misunderstood and. misused Certain questions like whether management is a science or art or. profession are yet to be answered in a satisfactory way. Management as Science, To gain a correct perspective as to what management is let us. examine the exact nature of management whether it is a science or an. art An understanding therefore of the exact nature of science as well as. art may help in understanding the discipline in a better Any branch of. knowledge to be considered a science like the ones we have physics. chemistry engineering etc should fulfill the following conditions. the existence of a systematic body of knowledge encompassing a. wide array of principles, principles have to be evolved on the basis of constant enquiry and. examination, principles must explain a phenomenon by establishing cause.
effect relationship, the principles should be amenable for verification in order to. ensure accuracy and universal applicability, Looked at from this angle management as a discipline fulfils the. above criterion Over the years thanks to the contributions of many. thinkers and practitioners management has emerged as a systematic body. of knowledge with its own principles and concepts Principles help any. practicing manager to achieve the desired goals However while applying. the principles one should not lose sight of the variables in the situation. since situations differ from one to another Thus the importance of. personal judgment cannot be undermined in the application of principles. Further management is a dynamic subject in that it has drawn heavily. from economics psychology sociology engineering and mathematics to. mention a few It is multi disciplinary in nature but a word of caution. Though management considering its subject matter and the practical. utility may be considered as science for reason discussed below it cannot. be viewed as an exact science In other words it is a science but an inexact. science because, Firstly management by definition involves getting the things. done through people Compared to the other inputs people who. constitute the human resource of any organization are unique in. respect of their aspirations attitudes perceptions and the like. Dissimilarities in the behavior pattern are so obvious that standard. research may not be obtained in otherwise similar conditions. Secondly the behavior of the human beings cannot be accurately. predicted Hence readymade and standard solutions cannot be. prescribed, Thirdly management is more concerned with future which. is complex and unpredictable As the saying goes many a slip. between the cup and the lip changes in the environment may affect. the plans and render even the most well drawn plans ineffective. Lastly since a business organization exists in an environment it. has a two way interaction with the environment The organization. influences the environment by its several decisions and in turn. is influenced by the various elements of the environment. Important among these are technological economic socio. cultural and political factors The whole thing is so complex that. however effective the plans are one is prone to be taken over by. the unexpected changes in the environment, Unlike the pure or exact sciences where the results are accurate in the case.
of management the various factors discussed above may force even the. excellent plans and the strategies go haywire Too many complexities and. uncertainties render management an inexact science. Management as an Art, Art refers to the know how the ways of doing things to. accomplish a desired result The focus is on the skill with which the. activities are performed As the saying goes practice makes a man perfect. constant practice of the theoretical concepts knowledge contributes for. the formation and sharpening of the skills Therefore what is required is. the right blend of the theory and practice In a way the attributes of science. and art are the two sides of a coin Medicine engineering accountancy. and the like require skills on the part of the practitioners and can only be. acquired through practice Management is no exception As a university. gold medalist in surgery may not necessarily turn out to be a good surgeon. similarly a management graduate from the best of the institutes may not. necessarily be very effective in practice In both the cases the application. of the knowledge acquired through formal education requires ingenuity. and creativity on the part of the practitioner Correct understanding of the. variables of the situation calls for pragmatism and resourcefulness. Effective practice of any art requires a thorough understanding of. the science underlying it Thus science and art are not mutually exclusive. but are complementary Executives who attempt to manage without the. conceptual understanding of the management principles and techniques. have to depend on luck and intuition With a sound knowledge and the. necessary skills to use such knowledge they stand a better chance to. succeed Therefore it may be concluded that management is both a science. and an art,Management as a Profession, These are the days where we hear a lot about professional managers. and their contribution to the economic development of the nation. Therefore it is appropriate to know whether management is a profession. McFarland gives the following characteristics of a profession. existence of an organized and systematic body of knowledge. formalized methods of acquiring knowledge and skills. existence of an apex level body with professionalization as its goal. existence of an ethical code to regulate the behaviour of the. members of the profession,charging of fees based on service and. concern for social responsibilities, A closer examination of management as a profession reveals. that unlike medicine or law management has to go a long way to attain. universally acceptable norms of behaviour There is no uniform code of. conduct that governs the behaviour of managers The apex level body the. All India Management Association AIMA or NIPM National Institute. of Personnel Management provides only guidelines and does not have any. controlling power over the erring members Managers also differ widely. in respect of their concern for the ethics and values of the society in which. they function Many a time in their obsession with profit the societal. interests are either neglected or compromised However as in the case. of other professions it is implied that managers are expected to set an. Management Concepts amp Organisational Behaviour Unit I Nature of Management Social Responsibili Ties of Business Manager and Environment Levels in Management Managerial Skills Planning Steps in Planning Process Scope and Limitations Short Range and Long Range Planning Flexibility in Planning Characteristics of a sound Plan Management by Objectives MBO Policies and

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