M A Part I History HS 102 English Unit 1

M A Part I History Hs 102 English Unit 1-Free PDF

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Ancient Indian history Like Sir William Jones judge in 1784 founded Asiatic. Society of Bengal for learning understanding and publishing sources of A I. History Then after the formation of Archaeological Survey of India in 1861 search. for archaeological sources get legal momentum Then after the discovery of Indus. civilization in 1922 boosted love for ancient Indian history among Indians Then up. till now various types of sources are coming forth and their interpretation is. becoming more challenging job for the historians of Ancient India. The sources of Ancient Indian History,1 Literary written 2 Material Archaeological. i Religious ii Secular iii Scientific iv Sangam v Foreign. Accounts Travelogues,a Vedic b Buddhist c Jain,a Histories b Eulogies c Literature. Epics Dramas Poetry Compilations, i Inscriptions ii Coins iii Ancient Monuments iv Sculptures Paintings. v Archaeological,a Epigraphs b Copper plates a Secular b Religious. Buddhist Hindu,Section 1 Literary written sources, The literary written sources to reconstruct Ancient Indian history can be.
classified among three major categories i Religious ii Secular and iii Scientific. It also comprised of some different kinds of sources like iv Sangam literature and. v travelogues of foreign travelers,i Religious sources. Religion was the backbone of society of Ancient World India was not an. exception Hence we find large amount of canonical religious literature of various. religions prevalent in Ancient India These throw light on the along with religious. socio economic aspects and political thought and ideology of the period under study. However such sources should be used with caution Because first of all most. of the religious sources are retained through oral traditions and put into writing. hundreds of years after their actual creation Besides what we have now are the. editions of actual writings Secondly religious literatures were mainly written to. provide guidance with an idealist approach Hence whatever written is there is dos. and don ts kind of nature and not as actual Sometimes the body of works like. Puranas though written in 4th century AD onwards written as if they were created. 1000 years before and prophesying something about 1000 years after Hence with. tools like internal and external criticism a historian can make use of these sources. and reconstruct the history of Ancient India,a Vedic Hindu canonical literature. It comprised of sources like four Vedas Brahmans Aranyakas Upanishads. Shad darshanas Shad angas Sutras Smritis and Puranas. The Aryans have created four Vedas Rig Yajus Sam Atharva The Vedas. from Vid to know were basically compilation of prayers of Aryans for the Gods. which were mainly the powers in nature According to Aryans the Vedas were heard. and not created by men hence these were called Shrutis and a paurusheya not. created by any man The Vedas are also called as Samhita. Rig Veda Rig Veda is the earliest among four Vedas It is comprised of 10. mandalas and 1028 suktas These were prayers to the gods like Indra Varuna Agni. Parjanya Vayu Marut etc It gives us information regarding socio economic. religious political condition of Early Aryans located in the area of Sapta Sindhus. For example the Purushsukta of Its 10th mandala depicts the origin of Varna. system in India, Yajur Veda It comprised the prayers to be recited while performing sacrifices. or yadnya Actually the major parts of the prayers are borrowed from the Rig Veda. itself It has two parts Shukla and Krishna and six other samhitas The Vajasaneyi. Samhita of Yajurveda throws ample lights on various Vedic sacrifices. Sam Veda It comprised the prayers to teach how to recite the prayers while. performing sacrifices Again it comprised the prayers from Rig Veda and provided. methods to recite them Hence it is considered as the origin of Indian classical. Atharva Veda It comprised assorted subjects like magic black magic. superstitions etc We find origins of medicines botany and surgery in this Veda. The fours Vedas throw light on life ways of Vedic Aryans We come to know. that when the Aryans initially were settled in Saptasindhu region their life style. was different The second to ninth mandala of Rig Veda tells us about this But when. they migrated to more eastern part of their actual location and came into contact. with other communities we find drastic changes in their life ways The first and. 10the mandala of Rig Veda and other three Vedas inform such change Hence to. understand Vedic Aryans we have to think in two parts Early Vedic and Later. After Vedas some other important works were compiled by Vedic Aryans. These were basically created to explain the thoughts and laws in the Vedas to make. them more understandable Hence these work as appendices of Vedas and were. mostly in prose These were comprised of Brahmanas Aranyakas Upanishads. Vedangas Shad darshanas,2 Brahmanas, The Brahmanas were created to teach the procedure of sacrifices that were. compiled in the Vedas Hence each Veda has its own Brhamana e g of Rigveda. Aitareya Brhamana of Samveda Jaiminiya Brahamana Yajurveda Shatapath and. of Atharvaveda Gopath From these Brahmanas we get information of Vedic. Aryans various institutions like four Varnas four Ashramas philosophy etc. 3 Aranyakas, The Aranyakas were created to teach the learning of Vedic religion especially.
sacrifices mystic philosophy into seclusion Aitareya Aranyaka is meant for Rig. Veda whereas Taiteriya Aranyaka is for Yajur Veda,4 Upanishads. The word Upanishad means to learn by sitting close to one s teacher These. were to created to teach the learning of Vedic spiritualism comprising the subject of. like knowledge of one s self knowledge of God relations between self and God. creation of Universe our place in such a vast Universe etc Traditionally there are. 108 Upanishads however some of the important are Ken Kath Prashna Aiterya. Chandogya etc As these come chronologically at the end of Vedas hence the. Upanishads are also known as Vedanta The basic backbone of Indian religions were. based mostly on Upanishads hence with the help of later we can understand. Indian religions more holistically, These were created to make Vedas more understandable as follows. Shiksha How to pronounce the Vedic prayers in proper manner. Kalpa Rules to perform sacrifice in a proper manner. Vyakaran To know the proper grammar of Sanskrit language. Nirukta Etymology of words mentioned in the Vedas, Chanda Various meters in which Vedic shlokas are structured to recite It. comprised of Gayatri meter chanda Anushtubha meter chanda etc. Jyotish It deals with proper time Shakun on which sacrifices should be. performed It also discusses the subjects of astronomy like Sun Moon and. constellations and on cycles of seasons etc,6 Shad darshanas. These works deal with philosophical teaching or aspects in the Vedas These are. six like Vaisheshik Kanad Nyaya Kanad Sankhya Kapil Yog Patanjali. Mimansa Jaimini Uttar mimnsa Badrayan These cover topics like the theory. logic unity of soul with God atoms Vedic rituals structure of universe etc. The 6th century BC was the milestone in the history of India The period. witnessed emergence of early states and growth in economy and coinage In this. period India went through its second urbanization This was the period where. heterodox religions like Buddhism Jainism Ajivakas were grew and developed. They challenged Vedic religion and its shortcomings and provided a strong. alternative Besides during that period India was came into closer contacts with. foreigners, Such was the period of constant churning and speedy processes In response to.
such changes the custodians of Vedic religion resorted to reconstruct and regulate. their religion Hence Sutras were created to provide norms rules and regulation to. consolidated Vedic religion, Sutras were compiled around 6th c BC These were comprised of three sutras. viz Dharmsutras Shrautsutras and Grihyasutras together they are called as. Kalpasutras They throw ample light on such processes going through during 6th c. 8 The Smritis, During the last centuries of BC and first centuries of AD India again witnessed. the period of speedy changes The economy was flourished India had great relations. with Roman world Buddhism was at its peak local dynasties were forming empires. thus no area be it society or culture was untouched by such changes Such was the. dynamic and vibrant scenario Vedic religion again felt to reconstruct their religion. and thus created the Smritis, The Smritis like Sutra are the books of norms codes rules regulations to. consolidate and reconstruct Vedic religion These were written by various scholars. like Manu Narad Parashar Yadnyavalka etc Hence we find many smrities on their. name e g Manu smriti Narad smriti etc, Up to 3 4th century AD Buddhism was its peak Under Mahayana the idol of. Buddha was started worshipping and thus it gained popularity On the other side. Vedic religion was felt alienated and needed popularity among the masses It was. introspecting and experimenting in its thoughts As a result Vedic religion for. common mass created a certain kind of literature and through it opened the doors. of religion to common mass The genre of literature is called as Puranas. The Puranas are mainly comprised of 18 Puranas and these were classified. according to the devotional cults prevailed in 3rd 4th c India For example the. Puranas of Shaiva consisted of Shaiv Puranas Vayu Puranas Skanda Puranas. whereas the Vaishnavas venerated Vishnu Purana Garud Purana Matsya Purana. Varaha Purana The Shakti cult devoted to mother goddesses and Ganapatya cult. also created their own Puranas, Such Puranas have common sections like origin of universe stories regarding.
respective God and its Family importance of pilgrim centres and pilgrimages. political dynasties and myths of lineages vansha and vanshanucharit etc. Subsequently other related subjects were also touched in the Puranas like. iconography architecture Vishnudharmottar Purana medicines geography. political history etc, In short to understand India of 3rd to 6th century AD the Puranas help. historians in a large manner,b Buddhist Canonical Literature. Buddhism was the religion of masses hence their literature and the language of. them were maintained as of the followers Hence these are in various languages. like Prakrit Pali Tibetan Chinese Sinhali etc To challenge Vedic religion these. were also written in Sanskrit language, The vast body of Buddhist literature comprised of mainly the Pitakas the. Jatakas etc, The Pitakas comprised of three compilations viz Vinaya Sutta Abhidhamma. and together they are known as Tri Pitakas, The Vinay Pitaka was compiled by Upali and comprised of five books These.
were basically created to provide codes of conducts for Monasteries Bhikus. Bhikkunis their daily routine ethics etc It has parts like Sutta vibhanga origin of. codes regarding Bhikkus Khandaka rules regarding entry into monastery and. admissions etc and Parivar, The Sutta pitaka compiled by Ananda These were created to teach Buddha s. teaching with examples parables and lectures This body of literature is oriented. towards common people The Sutta Pitaka comprised of five books nikayas like. Digha nikay Mazzim nikaya Sanyukta nikaya Anguttar nikaya Khuddak nikaya. The Khuddak nikaya was an important volume consisting of works like. Dhammapada Suttanipata Thergatha and Therigatha Jatakas were also become part. of Khuddak nikaya, The same i e Buddha s teaching is the main theme of Abhidhamma Pitaka. however it has a philosophical scientific form Obviously these were meant for. Buddhist scholars It comprised of Kathavastu an important Buddhist book. In short these books throw ample light on thoughts and codes of conducts of. 2 The Jatakas, The Jatakas are the compilation of the stories regarding previous births of. Buddha To solve the problems of his followers Buddha devised a beautiful method. to tell the stories from his own experiences that of his previous births and the. skeptic or problem follower drew answers from these stories These were the. Jatakaas who throw light on India during 6th c BC,3 Dipvamsha and Mahavamsha. These Buddhist works are of Shri Lankan origin They inform us about Ashoka. the Mauryan Emperor and various Buddhist scholars,4 Divyavadan.
This Buddhist work is of Napali origin It tells Buddhist stories and throws light. on northern dynasties from Mauryan kings to Shunga period. The Buddhist literature also comprised of other important works like Milind. Panha discussion between Bhikku Nagsen with Milind Menander Buddhist turned. Greek king Ashvaghosha s Buddha Charit biography of Buddha Mahavastu. Lalitvistar Manjushri Mulkalpa etc,c Jain Canonical Literature. Ancient Jain literature is in various languages like Prakrit Ardhamagadhi. Shaurseni Tamil Sanskrit etc The literature can mainly be classified into two parts. Anga 14 and Agamas purva Besides Chedasutras 6 and Mulsutras 4 are alos. important parts of it,1 Anga and Agam, These works throw light on the teaching of Mahavir The Acharang Sutra. reflects on codes of conducts of Jain monks whereas Bhagavati Sutra throws light. on Mahavir s biography and his exploits,2 Philosophical. These comprised of Samaysar Pravachansar etc These were mainly creat. for archaeological sources get legal momentum Then after the discovery of Indus civilization in 1922 boosted love for ancient Indian history among Indians Then up till now various types of sources are coming forth and their interpretation is becoming more challenging job for the historians of Ancient India The sources of Ancient Indian

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