Local Malaysian Leech as Alternative Healing Treatment

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Local Malaysian Leech as Alternative Healing Treatment. Zulhisyam A K et al, Leeches have been used for centuries in the treatment of variety of diseases including. thromboembolic disorders and inflammatory states With the advent of modern medicine leeching. is slowly demising yet interest in the medicinal use of the leech are still demanding Leeches have. been used successfully to restore the flow of blood in microcirculation after plastic surgery. Mutimer et al 1987,Local Leech Status and Issue, Leeches is a sanguivorous haemopagic freshwater leech with a wide distribution in Southeast. Asia such as in southern China the Philippines Thailand Vietnam and Malaysia In Malaysia these. leeches are known as Lintah Kerbau 406th Medical Lab Special Repor 1968 There has been. numerous collection of this species for medical purposes in the 20th century Steiner et al 1990. Electricwala et al 1993 Singhal Davies 1996 The Department of Wildlife Protection and. National Parks PERHILITAN previously operated the leech industry in Malaysia Since 22nd of. January 2009 the Department of Fisheries Malaysia has taken over the operation of local leech s. industry Department of Fisheries Malaysia 2009 The Fisheries Department have since identified. the leech species that can be used for commercial purposes The taxonomic status of the local leech. is as follows Order Hirudinea Species Hirudinaria manillensis Local name Buffalo leech or lintah. kerbau Figure 1, Figure 1 Body of Local Leech Age Two Years and Three Months. However it is not known or proven conclusively that the locally named Buffalo Leech is not. of H manillensis although this has been confirmed by Department of Fisheries Malaysia In addition. local taxonomists have not been able to identify the species used for medicinal purposes Rosly. Hassan April 2 2010, In Malaysia there are two types of different local species namely dark brown buffalo leech. and green buffalo leech Figure 2 and 3 Zulhisyam A K et al 2014 Previously the folks used a. green buffalo leech for medical purposes especially for cupping treatment Nevertheless there are. also entrepreneurs that used a dark brown local leech for medical purposes without knowing the. basic protein function between the species However in Malaysia researches on gathering more. information of the hirudin protein is still far and between. https doi org 10 24035 ijit 10 2016 007, e ISSN 2289 6023 International Journal of Islamic Thought ISSN 2232 1314.
Vol 10 Dec 2016, Figure 2 Comparsion of Body Color and Pattern on Dorsal and Onventral Sides. Cupping from the Islamic Perspective, Leech therapy is one of the most important and widely practiced methods of regimental therapy. used for local evacuation of morbid tumors Ibn Sina 1998 Today there are many products which. have been derived from leeches for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes in and around also the. world Without realizing many of our own entrepreneurs have also made their work and some. have already exported their products to overseas markets which augur well for this new industry. In order to meet the demand for clinical use in Chinese traditional medicine and other scientific. research there has been growing interest in culturing and breeding of leeches in many countries. Yang 1996 Trontelj Utevsky 2005, Leeches are forbidden haram for consumption as food but it is recommended sunnah. for cosmetic purposes and as medicinal remedy Mohd Amri Abdullah June 10 2009 Nowadays. the breeding of leeches for medical purposes has bright commercial potential and of late many. entrepreneurs have embarked on the farming of leeches Besides that the Malaysian National. Fatwa Council of Islamic Affairs which have had a meeting on the 31st of March 2007 has come out. with an edict that the usage of worms and leech should be encouraged From Abu Hurairah r a. the Prophet Muhammad s a w said, Allah will not deliver any disease but He also reveal to him namely the disease is. the cure or remedy al Bukhari Sahih al Bukhari Kitab al Tib Hadith No 5354. Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani 1883 when explaining the said hadith stated that the disease. mentioned is the disease of the body and for every diseases there is a cure or remedy which can be. https doi org 10 24035 ijit 10 2016 007, Local Malaysian Leech as Alternative Healing Treatment.
Zulhisyam A K et al, 1 Directly from what was given by the Prophet through his Sunnah either qawliyyah. saying fi liyyah action and taqririyyah consensus, 2 Through experience and knowledge either fitrah naturally which has been. provided by Allah to an individual by benefiting from nature or through thinking. research and experimentation until a cure or remedy is obtained for a specific. disease as what medical experts are doing today, An example of remedy shown by the Prophet Muhammad s a w is cupping as revealed by. his sayings, From Ibnu Abbas RA from the Prophet Muhammad said A cure or remedy is from. three occasions which is from a cut for cupping or taking honey or from hot iron. using heat from fire but I the Prohet prohibit my ummah from using treating. using hot iron al Bukhari Sahih al Bukhari Kitab al Tibb Hadith No 5357. From Humaid he said Anas bin Malik was asked on the subject of cupping and he. answered Rasulullah s a w did perform cupping and his cupper was Abu. Thaibah he requested Abu Thaibah to be given paid 2 measurement of food as. told to his family the family of Abu Thaibah and they agreed did not request. payment wage for himself or to free him from a certain agreement Than the. Prophet said the best remedy or cure that you can use to remediate or cure is. through cupping Or the Prophet cupping is one of the form of remedy and cure. that is the best for all of you Muslim Sahih Muslim Kitab al Masaqah Hadith. Through the hadith above cupping is considered one of the remedial or curing methods. encouraged by the sunnah as well as one of the practice that is categorized as one of the best. medical techniques The hadith narrated by al Bukhari explains in general three techniques but. only two are recommended which is cupping and taking honey the third has been prohibited. which is the hot iron technique Meanwhile the hadith narrated by Muslim explains in detail. cupping as one of the best medical techniques Other than that the hadith also mentioned that wage. must be given to the cupper al Nawawi 1392H, The Islamic Perspective on the Use of Leech in Cupping.
The practice of the sunnah and modern research today has provided the potential technique of. cupping using leaches Although it looks different from traditional cupping there is no wrong in this. practice from a religious perspective This is in line with the explanation that was given earlier For. the source of remedy and cure what Islam condones is what has been revealed by the prophet or. through experience or research from the benefit of nature. The use of leach in cupping is one example of alternative medicine This technique is. considered as the worldly knowledge that is allowed as long as it does not break the rule of the. Islamic law syariat This is guided by hadith of Anas narration the Prophet went past a group of. farmers who are busy pollinating date palm the Prophet exclaimed If they would not do thus. then it would still come out right The date crop that resulted was of a very poor quality Then he. passed by them and asked What is with your date palms They said you had told us such and. https doi org 10 24035 ijit 10 2016 007, e ISSN 2289 6023 International Journal of Islamic Thought ISSN 2232 1314. Vol 10 Dec 2016, such the Prophet replied You know best the affairs of your worldly life Hadith narrated by. Imam Muslim placed this hadith in the chapter The obligation to follow the message of the. Prophet in activities associated with the syarak Islamic Jurisprudence and it is not wrong if it is. not followed in things associated with worldly affairs In regards to this chapter it is understood. that Islam provides the space to make one s own decision in the management of worldly affairs. especially concerning worldly progress, Thus the use of leaches in cupping is considered a form of improvement in medical. techniques cupping that is approved by the Prophet as a form of remedy and cure In this. instance cupping is considered as a sunnah Prophet s practice with the only difference is in the. technique that is in line with the Islamic law, It is hoped that the practice of cupping which is approved by the Prophet s a w by a few. jurisdictions that has been revealed through him With the incorporation of the knowledge of man. which has been given the ability to think the practice of cupping should become better Any form of. sunnah will bring positive impact to both physical and the mental state of the person who practices. Leech Uses in Medicine, Traditionally leeches are widely used as a model animal in toxicological physiological.
neurobiological biochemical histological and many other studies Mann 1962a Flerov Lapkina. 1976 Lapkina Flerov 1979 Sawyer 1986a Lapkina 1992 Huguet Molinas 1992 1996. Blackshaw Nicholls 1995 Petrauskien 2001 The use of leeches for clinical or medicinal. purposes e g blood letting has occurred since the 5th century BC with considerable usage in the. 19th century followed by a decline in the early 20th century Kasparek et al 2000 However in. recent years the medically beneficial usage of leech is once again increasing Baskova et al 1983. 1992 For example H medicinalis is used by plastic surgeons to restore venous circulation in tissue. grafts where blood stagnation is a problem Sawyer 1986b Rigbi et al 1987 Roters Zebe 1992. Whitaker et al 2004 Huang et al 2006b, Extracts i e hirudin from this species have been shown to have an important thrombolytic. effect on experimental thrombosis Tan Liu 2002 Huang et al 2006a 2006b Li et al 2006. There has been an increasing collection of this species for medicinal purposes in the 20th century. and this combined with a general loss and pollution of wetland habitats have caused a dramatic. decline of H manillensis throughout its geographical range Steiner et al 1990 Electricwala et al. 1993 Singhal Davies 1996,Hirudin Protein in Leech, It is a common knowledge that when the leech ceases to feed the host bleeds for a long time It has. long been known that leeches contain a substance with anticoagulant properties namely hirudin. protein Numerous studies with experimental animal models have been performed that. corroborated the antithrombotic efficacy of hirudin Kaiser 1991 However in Malaysia work on. gathering more information on hirudin protein is still far and between. Many studies have been conducted to determine the molecular structure of hirudin but it is. not confirmed if the species observed by Gruetter et al 1990 is similar to the Buffalo leech He. found that hirudin from the leeches contained numerous acidic amino residues except for. methionine tryptophan alanine or argine According to Bagdy et al 1976 the structure of hirudin. has some unique features There are three disulphide linkages located within the first 39 N. https doi org 10 24035 ijit 10 2016 007, Local Malaysian Leech as Alternative Healing Treatment. Zulhisyam A K et al, terminal residues of native hirudin Hirudin contains a highly acidic C terminal segment There are. 5 acidic amino acids 4 Glu and one Tyr SO3H within the last 9 C terminal residues Jui Yoa Chang. 1983 emphasized that removal of the acidic C terminal amino acids of native hirudin by both. chemical and enzymatic methods resulted in a concomitant loss of hirudin inhibition activity. The analysis of the anticoagulant effect of hirudin has shown that it is a selective inhibitor. which is highly specific for thrombin according to the different time taken for blood to clot. According to Markwardt 1992 hirudin protein forms tight stoichiometric complexes with. thrombin whereby the active centre of the enzyme is blocked Figure 2 The complex formed is. very stable in the physiological pH range but can be dissociated by acidification or heating whereby. thrombin is denatured and hirudin released in its active form Markwardt 1970. Figure 3 Scheme of the hirudin interaction with the active site of thrombin Markwardt 1992 According to. Zulhisyam 2012 the study revealed that the molecular weight of the protein was about 11 36 kDa and the. anti coagulant agent is only found in the head of leeches salivary glands. Problems in the Leech Industry, In order to place the leech industry as a potential industry there are a lot of factors that need to be.
known and explored Several factors determine leech distribution in freshwater environments such. as availability of food organisms nature of the substrate depth of water presence of water. currents size and nature of the body of water hardness and pH temperature of the water. dissolved oxygen siltation and turbidity and salinity Sawyer 1986b However there are less. numbers of studies attempting to investigate the factors affecting growth and production of leeches. in this country particularly the effect of water temperature dissolved oxygen pH and light. intensity on growth performance of these leeches bred in a farm as well as their feeding. requirements Understanding the growth conditions reproduction and development required could. help maximize the quality of leech farming and those for medical purposes. Leech farming is seen as a solution to the growing demand f. Local Malaysian Leech as Alternative Healing Treatment and an Islamic Perspective ZULHISYAM A K AHMAD ZAKI AMIRUDDIN JAMALUDIN M H LEE S W amp WAN YUSOFF W S 1 ABSTRACT The therapy is known from the time of extreme antiquity dating back more than 2 500 years ago and still being practiced nowadays This fact testifies to its

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