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Likely Mechanism of Dye Adhesion on Fabrics, chromophore is a functional group present in the dyestuff most ideal for dyeing cotton and some other. molecule of a dye which imparts the molecule with cellulose fibres The azoic dyeing technique involves. the ability to absorb uv radiation strongly thereby the application of insoluble azo dye on fibre by direct. leading to colour generation Some examples are contact using a coupling component The toxic nature. listed include the following of the chemicals used is now responsible for decline. in applicatio The dispense dyes are water insoluble. Table 1 Examples of chromophores and some applications finely ground materials which in the process of. dispersing agent are applied as spray or powdering. form on polyester nylon and acrylic fibres The, dyeing rate can be significantly influenced by choice. of dispersing agent used during the grinding process. The sulphur dyes are used to produce dark,colours they are cheap and it involves reaction. between an organic compound such as nitrophenol,and sulphide source. III SYNTHETIC DYES, A Synthetic dye is any of the organic dyes originally.
derived from coal tar derivatives but currently,synthesized from benzene and its derivatives The. first human made organic dye mauveine was,discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856. A typical example of a dye structure classified by. Thousands of synthetic dyes have since been,using chromophore is the Yellow azo dye where the. prepared Synthetic dyes quickly replaced the,double bond in the Azo group N N is in. traditional natural dyes They cost less they offer a. conjugation with the double bonds in the two, vast range of new colours and they imparted better.
aromatic groups This increases the intensity of, properties upon the dyed materials They are used in. colour generation Majority of dyes stuff is primarily. medicine chemistry plastics paint printing ink,consumed by the textile industries and this. rubber and cosmetics, necessitates industrial classification of the substance. particularly the azo types The dyes used in the textile. IV STRUCTURES OF DYES, finishing industries are acidic basic direct mordant. vat reactive and dispense types Others are sulphur. dyes and the azo types The acidic dyes are applied. on silk wool and nylon They are anionic have ability. to attach to the cationic group of the fibre through salt. formation Aspland 1997 Basic dyes are water, soluble cationic dyes which contain some other dye.
which helps the uptake of dye on the fibre i ACID BLACK DYE. Longstaff 1983 Direct and substantive dyes are used. on cotton paper wool silk and nylon They are pH,indicators as well Gregom 1986 The mordant dyes. are chemical substance which improves the fastness. of the dye against water light and perspiration The. mordant dye helps to form a strong link between the ii BASIC RED DYE. fabrics and the dye example include metal,hydroxide tannic acid aluminum iron and. chromium The colour of the final product depends, on the dye and the mordant used for example a piece. of cloth immersed in turkey red alizarin is red with. aluminum mordant but violet with iron mordant,Most mordant produced from heavy metals are. hazardous to health and care must be taken in their. applications Vat dyes are insoluble in water and, cannot be applied directly but reduction in alkaline.
medium produce water soluble alkaline metal salt of. the dye which has affinity for textile fibre The, reactive dye as they are called have the ability to react. with the fibre substrate through formation of covalent. bonds This makes the reactive dye a permanent iii VAT DYE. Proceedings of 62nd ISERD International Conference Boston USA 14th 15th January 2017 ISBN 978 93 86291 88 2. Likely Mechanism of Dye Adhesion on Fabrics,V FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN DYES. iv REACTIVE DYE,v AZOIC DYE,VI CLASSIFICATION OF FABRICS. Generally fabrics are classified on the basis of the. origin of fibres natural or synthetic or its processing. or its end use Balter 2009, Classification on the basis of origin gives natural or. synthetic fabrics The natural fabrics are those created. from the fibres of animal coats the cocoons of, vi DIRECT RED DYE silkworms and plant seeds leaves and stems They do.
not change colours on exposure to uv light until they. lose tensile strength Lorenzani 1998 The synthetic. fabrics on the other hand are man made from, inorganic or organic materials They can be made to. specification depending on end use condition,Garret 1963. VII FABRICS OF NATURAL ORIGIN,vii NITRO DYE MARITUS YELLOW. The fabrics obtained from natural fibres include,cotton silk linen wool leather ramie hemp and. jute The cotton fabric is one of the most unique of. them all as it has distinctive features which makes it. adjust easily with climatic conditions It keeps body. cool in summer by absorbing sweat easily and gives. warmth feel in winter season Silk is equally weather. friendly and it is the strongest natural fabric which. also has the quality of softness luster beauty and. luxurious appearance The linen another naturally, sourced fabric is considered king of natural fabric.
viii MORDANT RED because of its versatility in application such as homes. ix furnishing and apparel production Linen does not. cause irritation and allergy yet it is strong and,durable It is easily maintained by mere hand. washing The wool fabric is a weather friendly, natural fabric which is soft strong and durable with. excellent aesthetic value It does not wrinkle easily. and is resistance to dirt wear and tears The wool,fabrics does not get inflame easily as it only. smoulders in flame Morgan 2005 A comfortable, x SULPHUR RED fabric in hot and cold weather resistant to. Proceedings of 62nd ISERD International Conference Boston USA 14th 15th January 2017 ISBN 978 93 86291 88 2. Likely Mechanism of Dye Adhesion on Fabrics, temperature aberration is the leather fabric It absorbs IX STRUCTURE OF FABRICS.
water vapour and retains dimensional stability under. stress Kite 2005 Other types of fibres in common The chemical structures of various fabrics are given. use include ramie hemp and jute below for the identification of different types of. functional groups that will enhance the understanding. VIII FABRICS OF SYNTHETIC ORIGIN of dye fabric association. These are fabrics produced by chemical processes by. man through the use of petroleum as raw material,These include acetate chiffon acrylic organza. lastex nylon velvet polyester taffeta denim rayon geor. gette viscose grey and polypropylene Acetate fabrics. are made from cellulose of cotton or wood pulp It is Cellulose Fabric. resistant to shrinkage moth and dew The fibre has,soft and luxurious appearance Kadolph 2007. The Chiffon fabrics are manufactured using silk, rayon polyester or cotton They are specially used for. making bridal gowns evening dresses pron dresses,and scarves This material commands magical look. on the wearer thereby exuding high personality The Nylon 6 6 Fabric. acrylic fabrics are synthetic materials used for, making shirts and ladies clothes and seats for chairs.
It maintains its quality for a long time because of its. excellent wear and tear resistances Koham,1995 Organza fabric refers to a thin plain weave. fabric made from silk yarn worms and filament, fibres of nylon and polyester They are nice to touch Wool Fabric. with high degree of sophistication and uniqueness A. special type of fabric made from latex is known as. lastex fabrics They are elastic in nature and are used. with other complex fibres Dedie 2005, Nylon fabric is synthetic materials used for clothing. shirts covers and industrial appliances They are made Silk Fabric. from the polyester of the amides obtained from,petroleum Munro 1990 Velvet fabrics are used for. making trousers shirt bed sheets covers and,curtains Polyester fabrics is another man made.
material which has the unique qualities of wrinkle. resistance and springing back to original shape They. are strong and soft materials and can be mixed with. other materials such as the cotton Taffeta fabrics are Polyester Fabric. crisp soft and smooth materials manufactured from,rayon silk or nylon They are used for women. garments Denim is a rugged cotton material which is. generally coloured with indigo dye to create blue, jeans The rayon fabric is a synthetic textile fabric. which is produced by forcing a cellulose solution, through fibre spinnerets Georgette fabric is a sheer. and strong silk or silk like clothing that often comes Nylon 6 Fabric. with a dull creped surface It is exquisite and unique. fabric which enjoys high demand in the market Functional Groups in Fabrics. Viscose fabric material is commonly used for coating. stocking and under wears as well as staple for towels Cellulose Fabric OH. and table cloth Grey fabric is used for cloth Wool Fabric COOH NH2 CONH C O. manufacturing due to its cost effectiveness and NH. longevity The material show cases aesthetics and Polyester Fabric CH2 C O COOR Aromatic. glamour The polypropylene is a synthetic material Nylon 6 6 and Nylon 6 CONH. suitable for winter season because of its ability to Silk Fabric COOH CONH NH2 C O. keep the body warm NH, Proceedings of 62nd ISERD International Conference Boston USA 14th 15th January 2017 ISBN 978 93 86291 88 2. Likely Mechanism of Dye Adhesion on Fabrics, X THE PHYSICO CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES The interaction between acid dye and cellulose fibres.
OF THE MECHANISM OF DYE ADHESION is almost nonexistent but a partial attraction is. ON FABRICS proposed as follows NOUN 2011, Adhesion is the ability of two different materials to. stick together by material interactions and formation. of chemical bonds The process of dyeing depends, not only on the type of the dye but on the type of. fibre Generally reactions between dyes and fabrics. must take into account the various types of forces. exerted by one material upon another All dyeing, mechanism can be divided into three broad categories. Popoola 2015,1 Formation of specific bond between the dye. and fabric owing to the covalent bond,hydrogen bond ionic bond dipole dipole.
interaction and london forces The formation,of these bonds is dependent on the type of. functional groups present in the dye and the,2 Non specific attraction between dye and. fabric owing to ion exchange or van waals,The oxygen of the OH group in the cellulose. 3 In the absence of any interactions dyes can, molecule interacts with the electropositive or cationic. be adherent on fabric by physical, Na atom of the sulphonic acid group of the dye This.
entrapment,bond though weak but several of it promote the. adhesion of the dye on the cellulose material Another. The chemistry of interactions between some pairs of. dye fabric materials are also based on example is observed in the interaction between the. hydrophilic hydrophobic properties as well as the electronegative oxygen atom of the cellulose and the. formation of salt linkages between dye and fabric cationic Na atom of the dye molecule Acid dyes are. functional group generally applied to fibres such as silk wool nylon. 1 and modified acrylic fibres Acid dye wool,interaction may simply be represented by the. 2 1 Acid dye cellulose fabric,formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. between the H atom of dye and the electronegative N. atom of the fibre,2 Basic Dye Wool Fabric System, Proceedings of 62nd ISERD International Conference Boston USA 14th 15th January 2017 ISBN 978 93 86291 88 2. Likely Mechanism of Dye Adhesion on Fabrics, 3 Reactive dye Wool Fabric System The cellulose fabric is represented by the ROH in the.
mechanism The adhesion between the dye here and, the cellulosic molecule could be due to the H bonding. observed between the H atom of the dye and the,electronegative oxygen atom of the cellulose. 8 Direct Red Dye Cellulose System,4 Azo Dye Wool Fabric System. In No 8 above the cellulose fabric is represented by. the ROH in the mechanism A dipole dipole, attraction between the Na atom and the Oxygen atom. where non bonding electrons are found can enhance, adhesion Several of such attractions between the two.
molecules proposed for the affinity of the two,surfaces for each other. 5 Acid Black Dye Cellulose 9 Reactive Dye Cellulose Fabric Sytem. Cellulose fabric,6 Azo Dye Cellulose System,dye fabric system for adhesion. 7 Mordant Red Dye Cellulose Fabric System,dye adhesion with cross linking. The fibre reactive dye adhesion is due to the, formation of ether linkages R O R to the OH groups. of the cellulose R OH The cellulose is activated by. treatment with Na2CO3 base to form alkoxide RO,groups which then attack the trianzene rings.
Proceedings of 62nd ISERD International Conference Boston USA 14th 15th January 2017 ISBN 978 93 86291 88 2. Likely Mechanism of Dye Adhesion on Fabrics, nucleophilically and substitute for the chlorine In addition to polar forces the normal non polar. leaving groups equation 2 The two chlorine atoms Vander Waals forces operate in dye molecule having. can be replaced leading to the cross linking dye aromatic nuclei where the several electrons. fibre thereby enhancing durability of the fibre participate in the non polar attraction The polyesters. LIKELY MECHANISM OF DYE ADHESION ON FABRICS 1D MALOMO 2S A ABIMBADE 3A K OLUWASEUN 4 most ideal for dyeing cotton and some other cellulose fibres The azoic dyeing technique involves the application of insoluble azo dye on fibre by direct contact using a coupling component The toxic nature of the chemicals used is now responsible for decline in applicatio The dispense dyes are water

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