Lecture 9Lecture 9 Battery Storage Devices

Lecture 9lecture 9 Battery Storage Devices-Free PDF

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What is a Chemical Battery, A Chemical Battery is simply a device that allows energy to be stored in a chemical form. and to be released when needed Primary batteries only store energy and cannot be. recharged Most PV useful batteries also require that the energy can be re charged by. forcing the discharge reaction to be reversed and thus use rechargeable secondary. Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle,What is a Chemical Battery. A Chemical Battery consists of at least three,Cathode Negative potential lead. Anode Positive potential lead,Electrolyte A weak barrier that allows ions to. be transferred from anode to cathode Some, batteries may have more than one electrolyte and or.
h electrolyte,l l may be b solid,lid liquid,li id or even gaseous. or a mix of any phase,A battery requires mass transport to occur which. i limiting,li i i the,h overallll out put,Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle. Battery Chemistry 101 ECE Simplified, A Chemical Battery uses two primary reactions to reversibly store and discharge energy These reactions. are separated in space allowing a load to be connected between the points of the reaction anode and. Oxidation The valence state of the reactant increases For example. Zn 0 Zn 2 aq 2e, Where 2 electrons are released raising the valence of zinc from neutral 0 to doubly charged 2 when.
in a solution aqueous aq, Reducing The valence state of the reactant decreases For example. Cu 2 aq 2e Cu 0, Together this set of reactions is often referred to as Redox reactions An oxidation reaction must be. paired with a reduction reaction as the oxidation reaction produces the electrons required by the. reduction reaction Thus the combined reaction of electrons leaving Zn and ending up on Cu is. aq Zn Solid 0 2e Cu Solid 0 Zn 2 aq 2e,Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle. Battery Chemistry 101 ECE Simplified,Electrochemical Potential. The electrochemical potential is a measure of the potential energy difference between the average energy. of the outer most electrons of the molecule or element in its two valence states. The electrochemical potential has both magnitude and sign. The lowest energy configuration for materials is for their outer shell to be fully occupied by electrons. Hence a neutral element like lithium Li0 with one electron in its outer shell will have a higher energy. than the element with the electron removed Li Thus in the reaction. lithium metal has a higher energy than Li The oxidation reaction has a large positive electrochemical. potential with a value of 3 04V since the positive sign is defined such that the reaction proceeds. spontaneously assuming that there is another reaction which will accept the electron. Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle,Battery Chemistry 101 ECE Simplified.
Electrochemical Potential, The total cell voltage can be found by summing up the electrochemical potential of both the oxidizing and. reducing potentials The standard potential for the cell is equal to the more positive E0 value minus the. more negative E0 value For example,Zn 2 aq 2e Zn 0 E 0 0 76V. Cu 2 aq 2e Cu 0 E 0 0 34V, By convention all reaction tables are written as reduction reactions gaining electrons If a reaction. is to be used for oxidation you must account for the proper sign already negative in the tables indicating. it is an oxidation type reaction Thus,Cu 2 aq Zn Solid 2e Cu Solid Zn 2 aq 2e. must account for the Zinc being oxidized and thus the cell voltage is 0 34 V 0 76 V 1 10 V. Also note the value of electrochemical potential used here is the standard potential defined as the. electrochemical potential at 25 degrees C and at one atmosphere pressure and solutions of 1 Molar 1. mol liter If the actual conditions change for example when the electrolyte becomes depleted below 1. Molar the battery voltage will drop,Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle.
Battery Chemistry 101 ECE Simplified, Lead Sulfuric Acid Battery example Both anode and cathode are lead but one undergoes oxidation and. the other undergoes reduction When charging the battery. Anode oxidizes,Cathode reduces,Resultingg in a cell voltage. g of 1 685 0 356 V 2 04V,p cell Hence a 6 cell series connection is needed. for a 12 V battery,Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle. Battery Figures of Merit, Cell Voltage the resulting potential of the combined double reactions.
Battery Capacity fundamental unit of battery capacity is coulombs C but this is normally re written as. Amp hrs Ah amps C time so Ah C time sec x time hrs. Energy Capacity Ah Battery Voltage, Energy Density Ah Kg Important in portable applications more so than in PV. Cut Off Voltage The minimum battery voltage for which the battery can be discharged Below this. value permanent damage may be done to the battery, Battery State of Charge BSOC The fraction of the total energy or battery capacity that has been used. over the total available from the battery, Depth of Discharge DOD The fraction of energy that can be withdrawn from the battery without. significant devaluation of the lifetime of the battery. Specific Energy Density The capacity of the battery divided by the weight of the battery in Wh kg. Volumetric Energy Density The capacity of the battery divided by the volume in Wh m3 or Whr litre. Internal Series Resistance Internal series resistance of a battery limits the maximum discharge current of. the battery Important mostly for high instantaneous loads. Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle,Battery Charging and Discharging. Changes in battery voltage as it discharges while not what. we want can be used to monitor the state of charge of the. To measure the BSOC measure the voltage of the battery. and compare this to the voltage of a fully charged battery. This is subject to errors due to the battery voltage. depending on temperature,Charging and Discharging Rates.
The charging rate in Amps is given in the amount of. charge added the battery per unit time i e Coulombs sec. which is the unit of Amps More commonly charging, discharging rate is determined by the amount of time it. takes to fully discharge the battery in theory, The charge and discharge current of a battery is measured in C rate Most portable batteries are rated at 1C. whereas some lead acid batteries may be 0 05C or intended to be discharged in 20 hours. Example This means that a 1000mAh battery would provide 1000mA for one hour if discharged at 1C rate. The same battery discharged at 0 5C would provide 500mA for two hours At 2C the 1000mAh battery. would deliver 2000mA for 30 minutes, Sometimes you will see a battery rated as C20 1000mAh and indicates a 20 hour intended discharge time. Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle,Battery Charging and Discharging. Since the chemistry supplying the current is temperature driven chemical reaction rates increase. with temperature increased temperature increases capacity BUT at the cost of battery lifetime. Capacity often decreases as discharge rate increases since there is not enough time to re supply. the electrons through the normal chemical reaction chemical reaction is too slow to keep up with. current demand,Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle.
Battery Charging and Discharging,Precautions,Battery Damage. Different battery chemistries dictate different charging and discharging limits. Nickel cadmium batteries should be nearly completely discharged before charging. Lithium Ion and Lead acid batteries should never be fullyy discharged. Fire or Explosion Danger,Some Batteries can explode. p if over charged,g or overheated, Lead acid batteries can break down water to produce explosive hydrogen oxygen mixtures if. charged at too high a voltage,Li ion batteries have carbon and oxygen. yg containing g materials that can ignite,g if overheated.
charging or discharging Many modern batteries have charge discharge limiters fuses as. safety precautions US military does not supply Li Ion batteries for infantry due to shrapnel. damage induced ignition instead they use the safer but less capacity Li Polymer batteries. Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle,Battery Design. Many Modern batteries are based on Li,because th,the Li reduction. d ti reaction,very large standard electrochemical potential. of over 3 V This means that large single cell,voltages can result 4V. Additionally the crystal structure of some Li,compounds makes for easy intercalation de.
intercalation addition and removal of Li,C id LiCoO. Consider LiC O2 below,b l whichhi h is,i usedd for. 90 of modern Li ion batteries,The Lithium,Th Lithi can bbe easily. il removedd andd,replaced from the planes it is found in. resulting in high ion mobility Additionally,up to 50 of the Li can be removed from the.
t t without,th crystal,t l falling,f lli apart,making Li ion batteries have a high. Even more advanced,E d d structures,lik LiFePO,have ion channels that allow for even. easier movement of Li,Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle. Types of Batteries,M t common for,Most f PV bbecause th. they are cheap,Widely available,Long Lifetime,Low Energy Density.
Li it d Depth,Limited D th off Discharge,Can explode if not properly charged. k l Cadmium,C d i andd Nickel,Ni k l Metal,M t l Hydrides. Not typically used for PV, Li Ion Batteries Including the related Li Polymer Batteries. Ki off all,King ll bbatteries,Highest Volumetric and Specific Energy Densities. Very robust,M h researchh into,Mucho i t costt reductions.
d ti andd improvements,Addingg energy,gy storage,p the cost of a PV installation so. you best really need the batteries Better approach Smart Grid. Lecture 9Lecture 9 Battery Storage Devices See online Text PVCDROM for more detailed discussion Georgia Tech ECE 4833 Dr Alan Doolittle What is a Chemical Battery A Chemical Battery is simply a device that allows energy to be stored in a chemical form and to be released when needed Primary batteries only store energy and cannot be recharged Most PV useful batteries also require that

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