LAN amp Networking Sample Question Paper

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Q6 a What is ALOHA Explain CSMA protocols in detail 6 5. b Explain Virtual LAN in detail 6,Q 7 Differentiate between IPV 4 IPV 6 12 5. Q 8 Write short notes on,b Telnet 4,c Broadband 4 5. Q 9 Write short notes on,b Cryptography 4,Ans 1 a Business Applications. Home Applications,Mobile Users,Social Issues, b Connection oriented communication includes the steps of setting up a call from one computer to. another transmitting receiving data and then releasing the call just like a voice phone call However the. network connecting the computers is a packet switched network unlike the phone system s circuit switched. network Connection oriented communication is done in one of two ways over a packet switched. network with and without virtual circuits Connectionless communication is just packet switching where. no call establishment and release occur A message is broken into packets and each packet is transferred. separately Moreover the packets can travel different route to the destination since there is no connection. Connectionless service is typically provided by the UDP User Datagram Protocol which we will examine. later The packets transferred using UDP are also called datagrams. c Flow control is controlled by the receiving side It ensures that the sender only sends what the receiver. can handle Think of a situation where someone with a fast fiber connection might be sending to someone. on dialup or something similar The sender would have the ability to send packets very quickly but that. would be useless to the receiver on dialup so they would need a way to throttle what the sending side can. send Flow control deals with the mechanisms available to ensure that this communication goes smoothly. Congestion control is a method of ensuring that everyone across a network has a fair amount of access to. network resources at any given time In a mixed network environment everyone needs to be able to. assume the same general level of performance A common scenario to help understand this is an office. LAN You have a number of LAN segments in an office all doing their thing within the LAN but then they. may all need to go out over a WAN link that is slower than the constituent LAN segments Picture having. 100mb connections within the LAN that ultimately go out through a 5mb WAN link Some kind of. congestion control would need to be in place there to ensure there are no issues across the greater network. d Layered protocols are specifically encountered in networking technology The two main reasons for this. are abstraction and specialization A protocol creates a neutral standard from which rival companies can. create compatible programs The field requires so many protocols that they need to be organized and. directed to those specialists whose work each protocol impacts Using layered protocols a software house. can create a network program knowing that if it follows the guidelines of one layer the services of lower. layers will be provided by other companies This enables them to specialize Abstraction is the state of. assuming lower services will be provided by another protocol. e The Data Link layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data in and out across. a physical link in a network The Data Link layer is layer 2 in the Open Systems Interconnect OSI model. for a set of telecommunication protocols, The Data Link layer contains two sublayers that are described in the IEEE 802 LAN standards.
Media Access Control MAC,Logical Link Control LLC, The Data Link layer ensures that an initial connection has been set up divides output data into data frames. and handles the acknowledgements from a receiver that the data arrived successfully It also ensures that. incoming data has been received successfully by analyzing bit patterns at special places in the frames. f Token ring or 802 5 is a network where all computers on the network are connected in a circle fashion. The term token is used to describe a segment of information that is sent through that circle when a. computer on the network is able to decode that token the information is received on that computer The. token ring is used byARCNET token bus and FDDI Today 802 5 and Token ring is also considered. g Carrier Sense Multiple Access CSMA is a probabilistic Media Access Control MAC protocol in. which a node verifies the absence of other trafficbefore transmitting on a shared transmission medium. such as an electrical bus or a band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Carrier Sense describes the fact that a transmitter uses feedback from a receiver that detects a carrier. wave before trying to send That is it tries to detect the presence of an encoded signal from another station. before attempting to transmit If a carrier is sensed the station waits for the transmission in progress to. finish before initiating its own transmission, Multiple Access describes the fact that multiple stations send and receive on the medium Transmissions. by one node are generally received by all other stations using the medium. h Unshielded Twisted Pair UTP UTP is the copper media inherited from telephony which is being. used for increasingly higher data rates and is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for horizontal wiring. the connection between and including the outlet and the termination in the communication closet. A Twisted Pair is a pair of copper wires with diameters of 0 4 0 8 mm twisted together and wrapped with. a plastic coating The twisting increases the electrical noise immunity and reduces the bit error rate BER. of the data transmission A UTP cable contains from 2 to 4200 twisted pairs. UTP is a very flexible low cost media and can be used for either voice or data communications Its. greatest disadvantage is the limited bandwidth which restricts long distance transmission with low error. Shielded Twisted Pair STP STP is heavier and more difficult to manufacture but it can greatly improve. the signaling rate in a given transmission scheme Twisting provides cancellation of magnetically induced. fields and currents on a pair of conductors Magnetic fields arise around other heavy current carrying. conductors and around large electric motors Various grades of copper cables are available with Grade 5. being the best and most expensive, Grade 5 copper appropriate for use in 100 Mbps applications has more twists per inch than lower grades. More twists per inch means more linear feet of copper wire used to make up a cable run and more copper. means more money, Shielding provides a means to reflect or absorb electric fields that are present around cables Shielding. comes in a variety of forms from copperbraiding or copper meshes to aluminized. i In simple terms a VLAN is a set of workstations within a LAN that can communicate with. each other as though they were on a single isolated LAN. What does it mean to say that they communicate with each other as though they were on a. single isolated LAN, Among other things it means thatbroadcast packets sent by one of the workstations will reach all the others.
in the VLAN broadcasts sent by one of the workstations in the VLAN will not reach any workstations. that are not in the VLAN broadcasts sent by workstations that are not in the VLAN will never reach. workstations that are in the VLANthe workstations can all communicate with each other without needing. to go through a gateway For example IP connections would be established by ARPing for the destination. IP and sending packets directly to the destination workstation there would be no need to send packets to. the IP gateway to be forwarded on the workstations can communicate with each other using non routable. j The DNS translates Internet domain and host names toIP addresses DNS automatically converts the. names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of Web servers hosting those sites. DNS implements a distributed database to store this name and address information for all public hosts on. the Internet DNS assumes IP addresses do not change are statically assigned rather than dynamically. The DNS database resides on a hierarchy of special database servers When clients like Web browsers issue. requests involving Internet host names a piece of software called the DNS resolver usually built into the. network operating system first contacts a DNS server to determine the server s IP address If the DNS. server does not contain the needed mapping it will in turn forward the request to a different DNS server at. the next higher level in the hierarchy After potentially several forwarding and delegation messages are sent. within the DNS hierarchy the IP address for the given host eventually arrives at the resolver that in turn. completes the request over Internet Protocol, Ans 2 The OSI or Open System Interconnection model defines a networking framework to implement. protocols in seven layers Control is passed from one layer to the next starting at the application layer in. one station and proceeding to the bottom layer over the channel to the next station and back up the. There s really nothing to the OSI model In fact it s not even tangible The OSI model doesn t do any. functions in the networking process It is a conceptual framework so we can better understand complex. interactions that are happening The OSI model takes the task of internetworking and divides that up into. what is referred to as a vertical stack that consists of the following layers. Physical Layer 1, This layer conveys the bit stream electrical impulse light or radio signal through the network at the. electrical and mechanical level It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. including defining cables cards and physical aspects Fast Ethernet RS232 and ATM are protocols with. physical layer components,Data Link Layer 2, At this layer data packets are encoded and decoded into bits It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge. and management and handles errors in the physical layer flow control and frame synchronization The data. link layer is divided into two sub layers The Media Access Control MAC layer and the Logical Link. Control LLC layer The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data. and permission to transmit it The LLC layer controls frame synchronization flow control and error. Layer 2 Data Link examples include PPP FDDI ATM IEEE 802 5 802 2 IEEE 802 3 802 2 HDLC. Frame Relay,Network Layer 3, This layer provides switching and routing technologies creating logical paths known as virtual circuits for. transmitting data from node to node Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer as well. as addressing internetworking error handling congestion control and packet sequencing. Layer 3 Network examples include AppleTalk DDP IP IPX. Transport Layer 4, This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems or hosts and is responsible for end.
to end error recovery and flow control It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 4 Transport examples include SPX TCP UDP,Session Layer 5. This layer establishes manages and terminates connections between applications The session layer sets up. coordinates and terminates conversations exchanges and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination, Layer 5 Session examples include NFS NetBios names RPC SQL. Presentation Layer 6, This layer provides independence from differences in data representation e g encryption by translating. from application to network format and vice versa The presentation layer works to transform data into the. form that the application layer can accept This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. providing freedom from compatibility problems It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Layer 6 Presentation examples include encryption ASCII EBCDIC TIFF GIF PICT JPEG MPEG. Application Layer 7, This layer supports application and end user processes Communication partners are identified quality of. service is identified user authentication and privacy are considered and any constraints on data syntax are. identified Everything at this layer is application specific This layer provides application services for file. transfers e mail and other network software services Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in. the application level Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. Layer 7 Application examples include WWW browsers NFS SNMP Telnet HTTP FTP. Ans 3a The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet. protocol suite TCP IP to link several billion devices worldwide It is a network of networks that consists of. millions of private public academic business and government networks of local to global scope that are. linked by a broad array of electronic wireless and optical networking technologies The Internet carries an. extensive range of information resources and services such as the inter linked hypertext documents. and applications of the World Wide Web WWW theinfrastructure to support email and peer to. peer networks for file sharing and telephony The origins of the Internet date back to research. commissioned by the United States government in the 1960s to build robust fault tolerant communication. via computer networks While this work together with work in the United Kingdom and France led to. important precursor networks they were not the Interne. LAN amp Networking Sample Question Paper Note What is the Principal difference between connectionless and connection oriented communication c Ans 1 a

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