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Copyright by Institute of Archaeology of the Jagiellonian University Krak w 2012. R DACTEUR EN CHEF,Marek Nowak,S CRETAIRE DE LA R DACTION. Marcin S Przyby a,comit DE R DACTION, Wojciech Blajer Jan Chochorowski Krzysztof Cia owicz Piotr Kaczanowski Ulla Lund Hansen. Vjacheslav I Molodin Ewdoksia Papuci W adyka Jacek Poleski P l Raczky Pawe Valde Nowak. R DACTEURS DU SUJET, Renata Madyda Legutko Janusz Ostrowski Krzysztof Sobczyk Joachim liwa. comit de lecture, Justyna Baron Anna Bitner Wr blewska Edwin van den Brink Ursula Brosseder. Morten Hegewisch Ulla Lund Hansen Miroslav Popelka Jan Schuster Anna Zako cielna. DITEURS DE LANGUE, Piotr Godlewski Andreas Rau Jan Schuster Aeddan Shaw.
MAQUETTE DE COUVERTURE, Wydawnictwo i Pracownia Archeologiczna PROFIL ARCHEO Magdalena Dzi gielewska. MISE EN PAGES, Wydawnictwo i Pracownia Archeologiczna PROFIL ARCHEO Magdalena Dzi gielewska. EN COUVERTURE, Micha owice Czarnocin commune site 1 The urn from grave 80 photo Jan Bulas. ADRESSE DE LA R DACTION, Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Jagiello skiego ul Go bia 11 PL 31 007 Krak w. mniauj interia pl,mszprzybyla gmail com,www farkha nazwa pl RechACrac.
www archeo uj edu pl RechACrac, La version originale des Recherches Arch ologique Nouvelle Serie est la version papier. Recherches Arch ologiques Nouvelle Serie est r guli rement sur la liste dans The Central Euro. pean Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities,ISSN 0137 3285. Marzena J Przyby a J nger und sp tkaiserzeitliche Metallnadeln aus dem S dteil Nordeuropas. regionale Differenzierung Verwendung und sozialer Kontext 5. Natalia Ma ecka Drozd The emergence and development of architecture on the casemate. foundation platforms in the Nile Delta 69, Andrey P Borodovski ukasz Oleszczak Intermountain valley of the Lower Katun during. the Hunno Sarmatian period 97, Joanna D bowska Ludwin Karolina Rosi ska Balik Marcin Czarnowicz Agnieszka. Ocha Czarnowicz Trade or conquest The nature of Egyptian South Levantine relations. in Early Bronze I from the perspective of Tell el Farkha Egypt and Tel Erani Israel 113. Szymon Kalicki Pawe Valde Nowak Barbara Witkowska Neolithic deposit of flint cores. in Zag rzyce Kazimierza Wielka district 123, Joanna Zag rska Telega Jacek Pikulski Jan Bulas Anita Szczepanek Excavations of multicultural.
site 1 at Micha owice Czarnocin commune wi tokrzyskie province season 2011 135. Piotr Wroniecki Discovery of new Iron Age groove type features from Micha owice in 2010. A geophysical case study 161,Recherches Arch ologiques. NS 4 2012 69 96,ISSN 0137 3285,Natalia Ma ecka Drozd1. The emergence and development of architecture on the. casemate foundation platforms in the Nile Delta, Abstract Foundation platforms with casemate construction appeared in Egypt in the mid. dle of the second millennium BC but the most complete development of them is related to. the first millennium BC At this time casemate technique became widespread and extremely. influential in the urban landscape Given the area where most casemate platforms have been. identified the diversity of structures which were erected on such foundation or the range of. chronology of these layouts the complexity of the discussed issue should be mentioned here. This highlights the necessity of recognizing why this form of foundation came into being and. how it developed The factors which are to be included in this analysis are construction qual. ity of casemate platforms natural conditions and political circumstances in which they could. be raised and moreover religious beliefs or social and demographic changes This multifac. eted subject allows us to realize how complex cultural phenomenon Egyptian civilization was. and what information could be obtained thanks to an analysis of its urban architecture. Keywords ancient Egypt the Nile Delta town architecture foundation methods. 1 Introduction footing on the ground The Egyptians knew. the role of foundations as the main factor, The main issue related to the urban archi in supporting the entire structure affecting. tecture in ancient Egypt was its adaptation the stability of the building and defining. to natural conditions Annual floods and sig its solidity According to the results of the. nificant environmental humidity especially latest research some very well developed. in the Nile Delta forced Egyptians to de techniques of building foundations existed. velop unique skills connected with planning in Egypt Foundation platforms with a case. and construction The most important ele mate construction were one of the most. ment of every building was its appropriate unique forms and it seems that this architec. tural solution should be strictly linked with,Institute of Archaeology Jagiellonian Univer.
the area of the Nile Delta, sity Go bia Street 11 31 007 Krak w Poland Foundation platforms with a casemate. nbmalecka gmail com construction appeared in Egypt in the. 70 Natalia Ma ecka Drozd, middle of the second millennium BC but to reflect better the characteristic of the dis. the most advanced type is dated to the first cussed structures. millennium BC At this time the casemate Most ancient Egyptian casemate plat. technique became widespread and highly forms known today were discovered in. influential in the urban landscape The con the Nile Delta Fig 1 The sites with re. siderable complexity of the issue which is mains of such kind of architecture are. the subject of this paper can derive from the Awaris Buto Daphne Diospolis Inferior. specific region for the creation of casemate Heracleopolis Parva Memphis Mendes. platforms the diversity of structures erected Naukratis and Tanis2 Similar structures. on such foundations and the chronological are also known from the Valley but they. extent of these layouts Such a statement are later constructs and far less numerous. brings out the necessity of recognizing Moreover only in the Delta were casemate. the reason for the creation of this form of platforms used as foundations for various. foundation and the manner of its develop groups of buildings At this point we can. ment Factors which need to be included in define a few types of structures with dif. this analysis are the construction quality of ferent functions cultic defensive or resi. casemate platforms the natural conditions dential Structures defined as cultic are the. and political circumstances in which they so called peripteral temples Spencer. could be raised and moreover religious be 1979b 132 137 or Egyptian n 3 w b. liefs or social and demographic changes which means pure storehouses Traun. ecker 1987 Those were places within te, 2 The main features of platforms with menos where sacrifices for the gods were. a casemate construction stored made and distributed The large. platform from Tanis Fig 2 Fougerousse, Casemate construction was made of brick 1933 and the south platform from Hera. or stone walls forming a framework with cleopolis Parva Spencer 2006 358 359. free spaces called casemate chambers be can be included in this category Both. tween them Such chambers were often large platforms from Awaris Fig 3 Bi. filled with sand earth brick or stone rub etak 2005 13 17 Bietak Forstner M ller. ble The factors mentioned above helped to 2006 63 79 as well as the smaller and. create a solid structure and make the build more formalized forts discovered in Daph. ing process faster The term casemate is ne Petrie et al 1888 53 58 Diospolis. derived from storages or dungeons existing Inferior Spencer 1996 51 62 Memphis. in old castles for example in the Medieval Petrie 1909b and Naukratis Petrie 1886. Europe In Egypt casemate construc Fig 4 belong to the category of defensive. tion was used especially to build founda structures Residential buildings are repre. tion platforms Spencer 1979a 116 118 sented by the defensive palaces from Awar. Clarke Engelbach 1990 76 77 Arnold is and Memphis and most of all by the. 1991 109 114 but other uses are also tower buildings from Buto Fig 5 Har. known cf Oren 1984 In various publi tung 2003 212 215 Kreibig 2009 117. cations we can also find another name for Memphis Petrie 1909a 1 and Mendes. this kind of construction technique cel,lular German zellenartige Konstruktion 2.
In order to standardize the nomenclature adopted, Fundamentzellen In this paper the term the ancient names of the sites given by classic authors. casemate was adopted since it appears except Awaris are used After Lecl re 2008. The emergence and development of architecture on the casemate foundation platforms 71. Fig 1 The Nile Delta Extent of sites with remains of casemate platforms in Dynastic Times Reproduced after. Butzer 1976 fig 4,72 Natalia Ma ecka Drozd, Fig 2 n 3 w b of Psametik I in Tanis Reproduced after Brissaud Zivie Coche 1998 pl I. Wilson 1982 5 11 Besides this there is the above mentioned structures The basic. a group of casemate platforms whose cor material used to raise casemate platforms. rect interpretation is difficult For example like most buildings in Egypt was brick. the north platform from Heracleoplis Parva McHenry after Kemp 2000 80 deter. Spencer 2006 359 is supposed to be a mined the four basic elements necessary to. defensive structure What is more some of occur in the soil in order to make bricks. the discussed platforms may have a second These are coarse sand or aggregate fine. ary use as burials as was the case in Buto sand silt and clay All of these elements. Kreibig 2009 115 119 There are also ex have different features Coarse sand ag. amples of constructions used as graves from gregate makes brick strong and fine sand. the very beginning Such structures were fill the spaces between bigger grains Silt. discovered at Tell Tebilla Mumford 2000 and clay are necessary for the cohesion and. 2001 or Imet Petrie et al 1888 but will ductility of building material The content. not be taken into account in this paper of those ingredients in brick can vary and. While discussing foundation platforms even the absence of one of them still allows. with a casemate construction it is necessary to make a brick with satisfactory features. to determine the primary features of this Additionally Hughes after Kemp 2000. type of architecture Material and building 80 highlights one more component inde. technique are elements that connect all of pendent of those above the minerals present. The emergence and development of architecture on the casemate foundation platforms 73. Fig 3 Palaces in Area H Awaris Simplified plan Reproduced after Bietak 2010 fig 28. in most soils Their role is to cement the in a dry environment but susceptible to ero. particles of silt and sand Straw was not in sion by water The second type mud brick. stead of the common opinion necessary in contained more clay and therefore had less. all cases If brick did not have enough clay strength but was more resistant to moisture. but had more than enough organic material Kemp 2000 80. straw was a useful element In such cases As additions to the bricks some other. straw gave the brick more strength and al materials were used as well including. lowed it to dry faster If sand and alluvial stone and wood Stone mostly limestone. soil were of good quality the presence of was primarily applied in the finishing of. straw was unnecessary Clarke Engelbach works It could line the lower parts of brick. 1990 208 We can distinguish two types of walls or the level of the floor just above the. bricks because of the manner of the con foundation Since most of the known case. nection of their components The first type mate platforms were built in a land lacking. with a high content of sand was very strong in stone it can be stated with a high degree. 74 Natalia Ma ecka Drozd, of probability that most of this material of mud and sand brick was used and in such. came from the Memphite region Aston et cases sand bricks reinforced the foundation. al 2000 12 Limestone besides aesthetic and were used as walls lining inner chambers. advantages had some construction impor Bietak Forstner M ller 2006 68 or cor. tance too Apart from reinforcing a struc ners of outer walls Spencer 1996 55 Fig. ture the stone slabs protected brick walls 5 The other way to consolidate the structure. against erosion was by the usage of a specific construction. There were also different kinds of wood process of the walls It consisted of laying. used by ancient Egyptians with most of successive layers of bricks in such a way that. them imported from the Levant ancient they were bent upwards towards the corners. Syria When it comes to the casemate plat and the lowest point was always in the middle. forms wood was used to reinforce the con of wall Fig 6 1 This was associated with. struction of brick walls It formed an inner the creation of the concave face of the walls. skeleton which resembled the so called clearly visible in the plans Fig 5 Fig 6 2. post and beam construction Moreover Such an arrangement was used for example. wooden floors and doors existed within the in Mendes Wilson 1982 7 8 or Diospolis. constructions Inferior Spencer 1996 54 In one case. Platforms with a casemate construction n 3 w b in Tanis the outer walls became. were built in a specific way and the building additionally inclined to the center Fig 6 3. technique was developed across the centu Fourgousse 1933 82 83 It seems that a. ries First of all a trench had to be dug with similar technique of construction was applied. Keywords ancient Egypt the Nile Delta town architecture foundation methods 1 Introduction The main issue related to the urban archi tecture in ancient Egypt was its adaptation to natural conditions Annual floods and sig nificant environmental humidity especially in the Nile Delta forced Egyptians to de

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