L Aabb Oo Rr Attoryy Ommannuuaall Fforr Geenneerraall-Free PDF

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LABORATORY MANUAL FOR,GENERAL CHEMISTRY I,Last Update 7 July 2015. Last update June 2011 1,TABLE OF CONTENTS,Preface ii. To the student iii,Safety in the laboratory iv,Common laboratory equipment ix. Experiment 1,Basic laboratory techniques Relates to Chap 1 1. Experiment 2, Identification of substances by physical properties Relates to Chap 1 12.
Experiment 3, Separation of the components of a mixture Relates to Chap 1 17. Experiment 4,Chemical formulas Relates to Chap 3 23. Experiment 5,Chemical reactions Relates to Chap 3 29. Experiment 6,Vinegar analysis Relates to Chap 4 36. Experiment 7, Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Relates to Chap 4 39.
Experiment 8,Analysis of bleach Relates to Chap 4 47. Experiment 9,Bomb calorimetry Relates to Chap 5 53. Experiment 10,Flame test Relates to Chap 6 58,Appendix I 60. Appendix II 61,Appendix III 63,Lab Manual i, Most students who take freshman chemistry are not planning for a career in this. discipline As a result the introductory chemistry course usually serves several. functions at various levels It begins the training process for those who seek to. become chemists It introduces non science students to chemistry as an important. useful and we hope interesting and rewarding part of their general education This. manual has been prepared with these objectives in mind. To assist the students we have included review questions to be answered before the. experiments are begun These are designed both to help the student understand the. experiment and as an incentive to read the experiment in advance An effort has been. made to minimize the cost of the experiments We have at the same time striven for a. broad representation of the essential principles while keeping in mind that many. students gain no other exposure to analytical techniques Consequently balances pH. meters and spectrophotometers are used in some of the experiments A list of. necessary materials is given at the beginning of each experiment. Each of the experiments contains a detachable report sheet at the end of each. experiment,Lab Manual ii,To the Student, You are about to engage in what for most of you will be a unique experience You are.
going to collect experimental data on your own and use your reasoning powers to. draw logical conclusions about the meaning of these data Your laboratory periods are. short and in most instances there will not be enough time to come to the laboratory. unaware of what you are to do collect your experimental data make conclusions. and or calculations regarding them clean up and hand in your results Thus you. should read the experimental procedure in advance so that you can work in the lab. most efficiently, After you ve read through the experiment try to answer the review questions we ve. included at the end of each experiment These questions will help you to understand. the experiment in advance, Some of your experiments will also contain an element of danger For this and other. reasons your lab instructor is present to assist you He is your friend Treat him well. and above all don t be afraid to ask him questions Within reason he will be glad to. Chemistry is an experimental science The knowledge that has been accumulated. through previous experiments provides the basis for today s chemistry courses The. information now being gathered will form the basis of future courses There are. basically two types of experiments that chemists conduct. 1 Qualitative to determine the nature of processes which are often. unanticipated and sometimes unpredictable, 2 Quantitative to determine the amount of a measurable change in mass. volume or temperature for example including the time rate of change on. processes for which the qualitative data are already known. It is much easier to appreciate and comprehend the science of Chemistry if you. actually participate in experimentation Although there are many descriptions of the. scientific method the reasoning process involved is difficult to appreciate without. performing experiments Invariably there are experimental difficulties encountered in. the laboratory that require care and patience to overcome There are four objectives. for you the student in the laboratory, 1 To develop the skills necessary to obtain and evaluate a reliable original result. 2 To record your results for future use, 3 To be able to draw conclusions regarding your results with the aid of some.
coaching and reading in the beginning, 4 To learn to communicate your results critically and knowledgeably. By attentively reading over the experiments in advance and by carefully following. directions and working safely in the laboratory you will be able to accomplish all. these objectives, Best wishes for an error free and accident free term. Lab Manual iii,SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY, Safety in the laboratory must be emphasized The compounds you will work with do have. some hazards associated with them Therefore it is important to follow the safety rules. outlined in this lab manual You should assume that all compounds encountered in the. laboratory are toxic and handle them accordingly Safety goggles for eye protection are. recommended and lab coats are to be worn by all students at all times when entering the. laboratory Many chemicals common in chemical laboratories will make holes in clothing. Always wash your hands thoroughly when leaving the laboratory The location and use of the. safety equipment in laboratory were already discussed in CHE1401 and will be reminded by. your instructor the first day the laboratory class meets You should become familiar with the. proper use of the safety shower eye wash fountain fire blanket and fire extinguisher. Report any accidents which occur immediately to the laboratory supervisor. Safety rules to be strictly followed by all students. 1 Wear goggles when required, 2 Do not touch chemicals with your hands Spatulas will be provided for handling solid. 3 Do not eat or drink in the laboratory,4 Do not taste any chemical.
5 Do not smell any chemicals directly Use your fingers to waft the odor to your nose. 6 Do not pipet solutions by mouth Rubber pipet bulbs are provided at each lab station. 7 Do not put flammable liquids near an open flame, 8 When heating a test tube make certain that the open end of the tube is directed away from. the students, 9 When finished with your Bunsen Burner for a given portion of an experiment turn it off. 10 Do not sit on the lab benches, 11 Do not engage in games in the laboratory Failure to follow this rule will result in. immediate dismissal from the lab and subsequent conduct action. 12 Do not pour any chemicals into a sink without authorization from the instructor. 13 Notify your instructor if a mercury spill should occur. 14 All broken glassware should be cleaned up immediately The instructor should be notified. of all breakage especially if a thermometer is involved. 15 Do all reactions involving malodorous noxious or dangerous chemicals in a fume hood. 16 If a chemical gets on your skin immediately wash the affected area with large quantities. of water The instructor should be notified no matter how insignificant the incident might. 17 When pouring one liquid into another do so slowly and cautiously To dilute an acid. pour the acid into the water never pour water into an acid. 18 No student shall be permitted to work alone in the lab you should be supervised by a. laboratory instructor or the lab technician during make up sessions. 19 Exercise good housekeeping practices in the laboratory Be sure that the lab benches. remain free of disorder during the experiment In the event of a spill clean the area. immediately and be sure to use a wet sponge to wipe off the work station at the end of the. lab session, 20 Know what you have to do before entering the lab Read the experiment carefully before. coming to the laboratory, For more information a booklet titled Student s Chemistry Laboratory Safety Manual.
will be provided to you in your first lab session Please get acquainted with it. Be cautious and think about what you are doing,Lab Manual iv. Safety rules, The laboratory can be but is not necessarily a dangerous place When intelligent. precautions and a proper understanding of techniques are employed the laboratory is. no more dangerous than any other classroom Most of the precautions are just. common sense practices These include the following. 1 Wear approved eye protection when required while in the laboratory Your safety. eye protection may be slightly different from that shown but it must include. shatterproof lenses and side shields to provide protection from splashes. Typical eyewash Approved eye protections, The laboratory has an eyewash fountain available for your use In the event that a. chemical splashes near your eyes you should use the fountain BEFORE THE. MATERIAL RUNS BEHIND YOUR EYEGLASSES AND INTO YOUR EYES. The eyewash has a panic bar which enables its easy activation in an emergency. 2 Eating drinking and smoking are strictly prohibited in the laboratory at all times. 3 Know where to find and how to use safety and first aid equipment. 4 Consider all chemicals to be hazardous unless you are instructed otherwise. Dispose of chemicals as instructed by your instructor Follow the explicit. instructions given in the experiments, 5 If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes wash immediately with. copious amounts of water and then consult your laboratory instructor. 6 Wear shoes at all times Baboosh shoes are not allowed in the laboratory. Lab Manual v, 6 Never taste anything Never directly smell the source of any vapor or gas instead.
by means of your cupped hand bring a small sample to your nose see figure. below Chemicals are not to be used to obtain a high or clear your sinuses. Wafting vapors towards one s nose, 8 Perform in the hood any reactions involving skin irritating or dangerous chemicals. and or ill smelling chemicals A typical fume exhaust hood is shown below. Fume hood found in the laboratory, Exhaust hoods have fans to exhaust fumes out of the hood and away from the. user The hood should be used when noxious hazardous and flammable. materials are being studied It also has a shatterproof glass window which. may be used as a shield to protect you from minor explosions Reagents that. evolve toxic fumes are stored in the hood Return these reagents to the hood. after their use,Lab Manual vi, 9 Never point a test tube that you are heating at yourself or your neighbour It may. erupt like a geyser,Beware of spattering,10 Do not perform any unauthorised experiments. 11 Clean up all broken glassware immediately, 12 Always pour acids into water not water into acid because the heat of solution.
will cause the water to boil and the acid to spatter. 13 Avoid rubbing your eyes unless you know that your hands are clean. 14 NOTIFY THE INSTRUCTOR IMMEDIATELY IN CASE OF AN. 15 Many common reagents for example alcohols acetone and especially ether are. highly flammable Do not use them anywhere near open flames. 16 Observe all special precautions mentioned in,experiments. 17 Learn the location of fire protection devices,In the unlikely event that a large chemical. fire occurs a powder extinguisher and a CO2,extinguisher are available in the lab. In order to activate the extinguisher you,must pull the metal safety ring from the. handle and then depress the handle Direct,the output of the extinguisher at the base of.
the flames The carbon dioxide smothers, the flames and cools the flammable material Powder and CO2 extinguishers. quickly If you use the fire extinguisher be sure to return the extinguisher in at. the stockroom so that it can be refilled immediately If the carbon dioxide. extinguisher does not extinguish the fire evacuate the laboratory immediately. and call the security One of the most frightening and potentially most serious. accidents is the ignition of one s clothing Therefore certain types of clothing are. hazardous in the laboratory and must not be worn Since sleeves are most likely. to come closest to flames ANY CLOTHING THAT HAS BULKY OR LOOSE. SLEEVES SHOULD NOT BE WORN IN THE LABORATORY Ideally. students should wear laboratory coats with tightly fitting sleeves Long hair also. presents a hazard and must be tied back If a student s clothing or hair catches fire. Lab Manual vii,his or her neighbours should take prompt action. to prevent severe burns Most laboratories have a,water shower for such emergencies A typical. laboratory emergency water shower has the,following appearance. In case someone s clothing or hair is on fire,immediately lead the person to the shower and.
pull the metal ring Safety showers generally,dump 151 to 190 litres of water which should. extinguish the flames These showers cannot be,shut off once the metal ring has been pulled. Therefore the shower cannot be demonstrated,Showers are checked for proper operation on a. regular basis however,18 Whenever possible use hot plates instead of. Bunsen burners,A safety shower,Lab Manual viii,COMMON LABORATORY EQUIPMENT.
Lab Manual ix,Lab Manual x,Lab Manual xi,EXPERIMENT 1. Basic laboratory techniques, To learn the use of common simple laboratory equipment. Relates to chapter 1 of Chemistry the Central Science 12th Ed. L AABB OO RR ATTORYY OMMANNUUAALL FFORR GEENNEERRAALL HCCHEEMMIISSTTRRYY II Last Update 7 July 2015 CHE 1401 Last update 1June 2011 Name Section LABORA ATTOORRYY FMMANNUUAALL FOORR G EENNERRAALL MCCHHEEMIISSTTRRYY II Last Update 7 July 2015 CHE 1401 Lab Manual i TAABBLLEE NOOFF CCOONTTEENNTTSS Preface ii To the student iii Safety in the laboratory iv Common laboratory

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