Kapija a case study of a Bosnian community s initiative

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A case study of a Bosnian community s initiative for re building peace. A dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements. for the degree of,Doctor of Philosophy,Social Anthropology. at Massey University Palmerston North,New Zealand,Bemard Jervis. During 1 992 95 the Serb ian establishment i n Serbia and Bosnia Herzegovina executed a. pol icy of ethn ic cleansing against the Musl im and Croat population in Bosnia. H erzegovina On 25 May 1 995 the town square in Tuzla was shelled by a Bosn ian Serb. art i l l ery unit k i l ling seventy one people and i nj uring many others The aim was to divide. the Muslim Croat and Serb community of Tuzla i nto taking sides in a confl ict that saw. atrocities committed on a scale not seen in Europe since the Second World War This. study is about peace and conflict and gives some i n sight into how this commun ity dealt. with violence The decision to bury those kil led together in a common burial site. irrespective of ethnic background was made in the face of external rel igious and pol itical. oppositicm In taking t h i s action these fam i l ies rei n forced the long held trad ition in. Tuzla vf being a tolerant m ulti ethnic community Those buried together were buried as. friends not d ivided by rel i gion and national ism A s such the burial site is the single. most important symbol o f peace in this commun ity. Other key findings from th is study show the enorm ity of personal loss and grief for the. fam il ies of those kil led the impact of this incident on the whole community questions. about j ustice trans generational trauma ethnic identity mixed marriages and a chan ged. demographic make up of the town s population due to an increase of displaced persons. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, This study could not have been undertaken without the agreement and co operation of. those people I interviewed during my periods of fieldwork in Tuzl a during 2004 and. 2005 For the fami lies community and rel igious leaders and others who recalled what. happened in Kapija Square on 25 May 1 995 it was a pain ful m emory Often the. interv iews were very emotional and upsetting and I was mindful of th is at all times. Therefore I am grateful to these people for giving me their time and stories which I hope. in some small way may have served some cathartic value for them They seemed to be. appreciative of me talking to them about what had happened and the value of the. research I was mindfu l too of the stress that this could put on the two interpreters I. used E ldin Omerovic and Am ira Kovcic without whom I coul d not have conducted the. interviews In addition valuable assistance was provided by Jasmina Redzepagic at. Peace F lame House and Maida Berbic from the l ocal radio station Kameleon Radio. Their local contacts and networks made my task a lot easier Other valuable information. within th national context was provided by M irsad Tokaca the President of the Research. and Documentation Centre in Sarajevo, Ethical approval for my research was obtained from Massey U niversity Human Eth ics. Committee and the Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand I nc. I a m grateful for the fi n ancial contribution provided by the School of People. Environment and Planning and the Doctoral Comm ittee of Massey University that. al lowed me to complete my fieldwork,Com posed by Asim Horozic.
Dedicated to those k i lled and injured in,Kapij a Square Tuzla Bosnia Herzegovina. on 2 5 M ay 1 995,Sarajevo Philharmon i a,P l aying time I 0 24 minutes. Abstract ii,Acknowledgements i i i,Dedication iv,Chronology ix. I 11 ustrations xii, Chapter I O B J ECTIVES M ETHODOLOGY ETH ICS F I E L D WO R K. A N D TH E STRUCTU RE OF TH I S STU DY, 1 1 Research obj ectives methodology and ethical i ssues.
1 2 Choosing the research topic 3,1 3 Two phases of fieldwork 5. 1 4 Basic account of what happened on 25 May 1 995 8. 1 5 Conceptual framework 11,1 6 Con fl ict flow chart 13. 1 7 Observations 14,1 8 Personal considerations 17. 1 9 Reflections on the fieldwork experience 18,1 1 0 The structure of the study 19. Chapter 2 S E EK IN G AN EXPLANATION FOR THE ETHN I C. V I OLEN C E THAT OCC U RRED IN BOSN IA HERZEGOVINA. DU RING 1 992 95 23, 2 1 H i story of ethnic identity rel igion and language 23.
2 2 Modern h istory 26,2 3 The contemporary pol itical situation 30. 2 4 Post con tl ict accounts of what happened,during 1 992 95 33. 2 5 Genocide and crimes against h um an ity 35, 2 6 Pol itical and m i l itary structure i n Bosn ia Herzegovina. during 1 992 95 39, 2 7 Casualties of the war and outstanding issues 42. 2 8 Conclusions 43, Chapter 3 RESTORING T H E PEACE T H E ANTHROPOLOGY O F.
PEACE BU IL D I N G 46,3 1 Anthropology of peace 46. 3 2 The mean ing of peace 47,3 3 Social justice freedom and h uman rights 51. 3 4 War crimes tribunals 53,3 5 Restorative principles 55. 3 6 Peace by peaceful means 57,3 7 Peace processes 59. 3 8 Conclusions 63, Chapter 4 I NTERVIEWS W I T H A FAM I LY MEMB ER OF SOMEONE.
KI L L E D IN KA P IJA SQUARE 65,4 1 List of interviewees 67. 4 2 Concl usions 1 16,Chapter 5 INTERVIEWS WITH COM MUN ITY AND. REL I G I OU S LEAD ERS 1 17,5 1 L ist of interviewees 1 18. 5 2 Conclusions 1 44, Chapter 6 INTERVIEWS WITH SIGN I F ICANT OTHERS 1 47. 6 1 L ist of nterviewees 1 47,6 2 Conclusions 1 94.
Chapter 7 TRUTH AND RECON C I L I AT ION 196,7 1 Account of what happened i n Kapija Square. on 25 May 1995 197,7 2 The graves 198,7 3 Ethnic background 200. 7 4 M ixed marriages 202, 7 5 The importance of each partici pant s story 205. 7 6 Trans generational trauma 206, 7 7 Three basic facts statements that arose from the. interviews 207, 7 8 Support of community and rel igious leaders for.
this project 207,7 9 Justice 209,7 10 M i l itary service 211. 7 11 D i splaced persons 213,7 12 Peacebuilding 214. Chapter 8 CONCLUS ION 217,Appendices I Proj ect Information sheet 227. 2 Proj ect Participants consent form 233,3 Proj ect Interview questions 234. 4 Eth ics review of ethics meeting 2004 237, 5 Proj ect Interpreters confidential ity agreement 239.
6 Summary guidel ines for fieldwork 240,7 Restorative framework Core values guidelines. and principles 242, 8 B i lj ena Plavsic addresses the international crim inal. tribunal for the former Yugoslav i a at The Hague 2002 244. 9 UN Convention on Genocide 1948 248, I 0 I n au gural speech of publ ic prosecutor to war crimes. chamber Saraj evo Bosn ia Herzegovina 25 I, 11 Names of those buried at A l ej a Mladosti cemetery 254. 1 2 N am es of those buried i n graves elsewhere 256. 11 UN PROFOR i nvesti gation report,o n the shell ing of Kapija Square 257.
References 259,CHRONOLO G Y,BOSN IA AND S E R B I A. 61h 7 th Centuries Ancestors of South S lavs enter t h e Bal kans from Poland and the. 869 Death of Saint Cyri l symbol of the Christian izing of the South. a Dalmatia and Croatia came within the domain of,Charlemagne s Roman Cath o l i c F rankish Empire. b Serbia and Macedon ia came w ithin the Byzantine Empire and. Orthodox Christian ity, I Oth Century De Administrando Imperio first m ention of Bosnae as part of. 1159 Stefan Nemanja founds Serbia as an independent kingdom. Late 12th century Independent state of Bosn ia, 1219 Saint Sava becomes the first Archb i shop of the Serbian Orthodox. 1235 1265 War with Hungary Bosnia defeated, 1346 Founding of the Patriarchate of Serbian Orthodoxy.
1353 Trvtko is crowned King of Bosnia Serbia and the Western Lands. extended to Serbia and the Dalmatian coast, 1389 Death of Lazar at the battle of Kosovo Serbia defeated by Turkey. 1453 Ottomans take Constantinople and change its name to Istanbul. 1459 Last Serb stronghold at Smederevo fal l s to the Ottomans Serbia. now part of the Ottoman Empire, 1483 Ottomans take control of al l Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1 53 1 Gazi Husrev Beg Mosque constructed in Sarajevo the major. mosque in Bosnia,1 55 1 Coloured Mosque o f Foca is constructed. 1 5 56 Construction of the great Mostar bridge, 1 5 57 Construction of the Drina River bridge at Visegrad. 1 804 Karadjordj e s revolt agai nst Ottoman rule, 1818 Assassination of Karadjordje by rival M i los Obrenovic founder of.
the first modem Serbian dynasty, 1 829 Treaty of Adrianople Serbia gains autonomy under M i los. 1 847 Njegos publishes The Mountain Wreath, 1 864 Death of Yuk Karadzic col l ector of Serb poetry and lore. 1 878 Treaty o f San Stefano Ottomans cede B osn ia to Austro Hungari an. 1 903 Descendants of Karadjordje establ ish a new dynasty in Serbia. 1914 F irst World War com menced fol lowing the assassination of the. Grand Duke of Austro Hungary by a Serb n ationalist in Sarajevo. Serbia joined Great Britain France and Russia against Germany. the Austro Hungarian Empire of which Bosnia was a part and. 1917 Un ion of South Slavs is declared, 1918 End of First World War Germany Austro Hungarian Empire and. Turkish Ottoman Empire defeated, 1918 Kingdom of Serbs Croats and S lovenes later to be cal led. Yugoslavia is established under the authority of King Peter I of. 1 93 9 Yugoslavia reorgan ized Bosn ia divided between Croatia and. 1 93 9 Second World War com menced Great B ritai n France and Soviet. Un ion formerl y Russia against Germany Japan and I taly. 1 940 Yugoslavia occupied by Germany, 1 940 Independent Croatian state declared with German puppet.
government establ i shed, 1 945 End of Second World War Germany Japan and Italy defeated. 1 945 Tito declares a federation of Yugoslavia with 6 republics and 2. autonomous regions within a socialist ideology Commun ism. 1 98 1 Marshal Tito dies,1 990 S l oven ia breaks away from Yugoslavia. 1 99 1 Croatia Serb ia war, 1 992 Secret agreement between Serbia and Croatia to attack Bosnia and. divide the country between them withi n a policy of ethn ic. 1 995 Dayton Peace Agreement brokered by the Un ited States ends the. war in Bosn ia The country is partitioned into two entities. determ ined by maj ority ethnic identity i e Federation of Muslims. and Croats and the Republ ika Srspka, 1 999 Death of President Franj o Tudj man of Croatia. 2003 Bosnia appl ies for membership of the European Un ion. 2003 Death of President Alij a I zetbegovic of Bosnia Herzegov ina. 2006 Death of Slobodan Mi losevic former President of Serbia from a. heart attack while in custody at the International Crim inal Tri bunal. for the former Yugoslavia at The Hague on charges of genocide. and crimes against humanity, 2006 Referendum in Montenegro votes for i ndependence from union.
with Serbia, 2006 Serbia s app l ication for membership to the European Union is. presently suspended, Source Michael A Sells 1996 The Bridge Betrayed Religion and Genocide in Bosnia University of. Cal i fornia Press, Additional material from 1 992 95 onwards Bemard Jervis. ILLUSTRATIONS, KA P I J A SQUARE I MM EDIATEL Y A FTER 25 M A Y 1 995 Photo ZLO C IN publi shed by. Bi H War Crimes Commission 1 995,KAP IJ A SQUARE 2004 Photo Bernard Jervis.
M EMOR I A L IN KAPIJA SQUA R E 1 Photo Bemard Jervi s. PLAQUE M A R K IN G W H ERE T H E SHELL EXPLODED Photo Bernard Jervis. BURYING THE DEAD A FTER 25 MAY 1 995 Photo ZLOC IN publ i shed by BiH War. Crimes Commission 1 995, IND I V I DU A L G RA YE IN A LEJA M LADOSTI C E M ETERY Photo Bernard Jervis. T H E GRA Y ES Photo Bernard Jervis, A LEJA M LA DOSTI C E M ETERY Photo Bernard Jervis. I 0T H ANN I VERSARY COMM E MORATIONS 2005 Photo Bernard Jervis. REMEMBRANCE WALL FOR A L L 800 PEOPLE K I LLED IN TUZLA DURING. 1 992 95 Photo Bernard Jervis,1 Trans l ation of poem on Memorial. One does not l ive here only i n order to l ive,One does not l ive here only in order to die. Construction of the Drina River bridge at Visegrad Karadjordje s revolt against Ottoman rule Assassination of Karadjordje by rival Milos Obrenovic founder of the first modem Serbian dynasty Treaty of Adrianople Serbia gains autonomy under Milos Obrenovic Njegos publishes The Mountain Wreath

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