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Journal of American Science 2014 10 4 http www jofamericanscience org. 2 Materials and methods Chromatographic instrumentation. 2 1 Materials HPLC was performed using a Merck Hitachi. The B mori silk cocoons were kindly supplied HPLC system Merck Hitachi Japan equipped with. from silk worm cultivates Elbagour City Minoufiya a Merck Hitachi Models L 6200 intelligent pump. Governorate Egypt The cocoons were kept in air Merck Hitachi L 6000 pump a Rheodyne injection. dried room until use Chemical reagents in analytical valve fitted with a 20 L loop Alltech Carnforth. grade were used Lancashire UK and F 1050 fluorescence detector. Merck Hitachi Japan Results were recorded on a, 2 2 Methods Merck Hitachi Japan Model D 2500 chromato. 2 2 1 Preparation of natural silk fibroin NSF integrator. To prepare fibroin solution silk cocoons were HPLC condition. first degummed for 30 min in a boiling solution of Amino acids chromatographic separations were. sodium carbonate 0 02 M followed by thorough carried out with a 150 x 4 6 mm stainless steel. rinsing This treatment was repeated twice and then Econosphere C 18 reversed phase column containing. the obtained fibroin filaments were dried in a vacuum 3 m packing Alltech Carnforth Lancashire UK A. oven at 35 0C Binder Germany To dissolve the guard column 7 5 x 3 2 mm containing 5 m C 18. fibroin filaments Ajisawa s method Ajisawa 1998 reversed phase packing Alltech Carnforth. was employed in which 15 g of fibroin filaments was Lancashire UK was attached directly to analytical. added to a bath of water ethanol Sigma calcium column A gradient elution using methanol was. chloride Sigma 194 g 92 g 111g and left to swell for performed for better analytes separation and column. 20 min The bath was then heated to 60 0C Complete cleansing prior to subsequent injections The mobile. dissolution occurred after about 7 h To purify the phases consists of 50 mM sodium acetate pH 5 7. fibroin solution dialysis against distilled water was containing 5 THF A phase and methanol B. carried out for 72 h by a tubular cellulosic membrane phase The elution profile was 0 2 min 5 10 B. Sigma D 9527 175 mL foot After dialysis the 2 11 min 10 35 B 11 20 min 35 65 B 20 22. solution was centrifuged 7500 rpm Jouan 65 100 B 22 24 min isocratic 100 B 24 30 min. Centrifuge France for 15 min and then left for 20 100 5 B Separations were performed at ambient. min The solution was finally filtered by vacuum temperature using a flow rate 1 5 mL min 1 The. fluorescence detector was set to operating at 340 nm. 2 2 2 Sericin and fibroin measurement in the excitation and 455 nm in the emission mode. Protein determination was done as followed by, Lowry procedure Lowry et al 1951 2 2 4 NSF applications Skin cosmetic tools. preparation, 2 2 3 Amino acid analysis of NSF 2 2 4 1 Production of T shirts and Pillow from. Samples hydrolysis filtration and cotton knitted fabric treated with NSF. derivatization Fibroin samples 2 0 mg were In a trying to open a new avenue in the field of. dissolved in 2 0 ml of a mixture hydrochloric acid skin cosmetic untreated and treated cotton knitted. 6N Propionic acid 96 by the ratio of 1 1 at fabrics have been applied in producing T shirt and. room temperature for 20 min with slight vortexing pillow as follow Cotton knitted fabrics Double Knit. Solubilized samples were vacuum dried in pyrolyzed Inter lock Delta for Spinning and Weaving. vials and purged at argon gas Hydrolysis was carried AlMahalla El Kobra Ghabia Governorate Egypt. out by placing 200 ul of constant boiling 6N HCI in were brushed on tables sprayed with NSF solution. the bottom of the react vial along with two sodium 2 5 by using aerosol bottles ElNegma ElZahabia. sulfite crystals The vessel was again purged with Factory Egypt followed by sprayed with thickening. argon gas sealed under vacuum and placed at 150 C agents starch 1 or GA 0 5 solutions The. for 1 hour Sodium sulfite is used as an oxygen fabrics were dried at room temperature 24 3 0C for 8. scavenger and aids in the recovery of cysteine serine hrs and brushed by using thermal compressor for 2. and threonine Upon hydrolysis all samples were seconds and directed to T shirt Figure 1 and pillow. filtered Whatman GF F 0 2 m under gentle Figure 2 manufacturing through the various stages. vacuum pressure 5 psi and stored in pre cleaned of production including design cutting sewing. Decon 90 1 ml plastic screw top bottles in freezers Singer Japan and iron vapor machine Japan. 20 0C until analysis The hydrolyzed samples were,derivatized with OPA 2ME reagent was prepared. according to Lindroth and Mopper 1979, Journal of American Science 2014 10 4 http www jofamericanscience org.
2 2 4 2 Evaluation of the suggested and designed apply one of the suggested and designed pillow and. skin cosmetic tools T shirt suggested for skin cosmetic tools over 15. The applying protocol was approved in advance consecutive days The study subjects met daily during. by the Scientific Research Ethics Committee Faculty the 15 day of the experimental period and examined. of Home Economics Minoufiya University Shebin in the presence of the study investigator and. El Kom Egypt Subjects were recruited from the assistants Moisturizing efficiency of skin cosmetic. Minoufiya University community A total of 20 tools was evaluated according to panel tests designed. healthy men mean age 25 42 years range 20 36 by the assistance of dermatologilists in Minoufiya. years formed the study group They volunteered to University Hospitals. KF Untreated KF plus NSF KF NSF starch KF NSF GA, Figure 1 T shirts manufactured from cotton knitted fabric KF untreated and treated with NSF plus thickening. KF Untreated KF plus NSF KF NSF starch KF NSF GA, Figure 2 Pillow manufactured from cotton knitted fabric KF untreated and treated with NSF plus thickening. 2 2 4 3 Evaluation of fabrics and T shirt for measured in vitro using ultraviolet absorbance. ultraviolet radiation protection analyzer SPECTRO UV VIS Spectrophotometer. UV absorbance through a fabric is the crucial D2 lamp power supply LaboMed Inc USA. factor determining the UV protection of textiles was according to standard AS NZ 4399 AS NZ 1996. measured according to Hoffman et al 2001 Fabrics were classified with UPF values 15 15. Ultraviolet protection factor UPF is the scientific 24 25 39 and 40 or greater equal UV protection. term used to indicate the amount of Ultraviolet UV Class No Class Good Very good and Excellent. protection provided to skin by fabric It was respectively Measured UPF values were also. Journal of American Science 2014 10 4 http www jofamericanscience org. correlated to the color strength of the dyed fabrics cocoon composed of 71 23 fibroin and 28 77. All parameters were measured on triplicates and the sericin The protein content of fibroin was 0 4201 mg. values were presented as mean SD mL 1 and sericin was 0 2550 mg mL 1 for the. Egyptian silk cocoon The present data are in, 3 Results and discussion accordance with that obtained by Elhassaneen and. 3 1 Protein measurement of natural silk fibroin Hussien 2012. The protein content of sericin and fibroin is,given in table 1 It was found that Egyptian silk. Table 1 Percentage and contents of proteins in Bombyx mori Egyptian silk cocoons. Parameter Fibroin Sericin,Percentage in silk Range 67 11 74 1 25 9 32 89.
Mean SD 71 23 2 56 28 77 2 11, Protein content mgml 1 Range 0 3912 0 4547 0 2258 0 2794. Mean SD 0 4201 0 0210 0 2550 0 0190, 3 2 Structure amino acid of natural silk fibroin By After 15 consecutive days of application on. The amino acid composition of the Egyptian twenty volunteers the designed tested tools. silk cocoons fibroin of Bombyx mori is shown in manufactured from knitted cotton fabrics treated with. Tables 2 and 3 As for the fibroin chemical NSF and thickening agents starch or GA such. composition consists of residues of no less than 20 pillow and T shirt induced significant improvement. amino acids whose ratio varies between different in all panel test evaluation including moisturization. areas of its supramolecular structure Glycine alanine softening relaxation and overall appearance Such as. and serine were the most abundant amino acids shown in Table 4 the highest values for all of these. together comprising 83 24 of the total amino acids factors were recorded for pillow followed by T shirt. present Cocoons silk fibroin is composed respectively Prolonged using of pillow has reduced. predominantly of the small side chain amino acids the signs of aging and wrinkling skin of the all face. glycine alanine and serine which would allow them areas Such effects are mainly attributed to the unique. to conform to the antiparallel pleated sheet model physical and chemical properties of silk fibroin These. proposed by Pauling and Corey 1953 for Bombyx properties include nontoxicity biocompatibility and. mori We report some levels of sulfur containing biodegradability Foo and Kaplan 2002 Due to their. amino acids met cys 0 92 theorizing that these unique properties silk has been focused as. residues play important roles in the amorphous biotechnological and biomedical resources Reviewed. domains of the polymer through disulphide bonds in Padamwar and Pawar 2004 Also it has been used. The pendant fragments of fibroin macromolecules are in various fields such as cosmetics food additives and. nonpolar side chain Glycine alanine methionine medical materials Min et al 2004 and Taddei et al. tryptophane valine phenylalanine proline 2006 In addition silk fibroin can be prepared in. isoleucine and leucine 75 15 uncharged polar side various forms such as gel powder film matrix or. chains Asparagine serine glutamic acid cystine fiber depending on applications Park et al 2004 and. threonine and tyrosine 20 78 and charged polar Reviewed in Padamwar and Pawar 2004. side chains Asparatic acid glutamic acid histidine. arginine and lysine 4 12 Since fibroin consists to 3 4 Ultraviolet protection factor UPF of cotton. 3 4 of nonpolar hydrophobic amino acids it is knitted fabric treated with natural silk. necessary to take into account also hydrophobic fibroin NSF plus thickening agent. dispersion interactions making fibroin resistant to Data in table 5 shows the ultraviolet protection. the majority of solvents Sashina et al 2006 The factor UPF and ultraviolet protection class UVPC. results of the present study protein and amino acid of cotton knitted fabric treated with varying. contents of Egyptian natural silk fibroin were concentrations of natural silk fibroin NSF It can be. dramatically not differed with that recorded in many observed that the ultraviolet protection factor UPF. countries Sashina et al 2006 Prasong et al 2009 values increase with an increase of NSF. and Manohar and Venkateswara 2011 concentration It is clear that UPF values for NSF. applied at higher concentrations gave higher UPF, 3 3 Evaluation of the suggested and designed skin values For example the UPF of the cotton knitted. care tools fabric at a 0 25 NSF on weight of fabric was 11 2. and that increased to UPF 20 6 at a concentration of. Journal of American Science 2014 10 4 http www jofamericanscience org. 1 Samples of cotton knitted fabrics treated with readily chelated with the fabric and NSF residues. NSF could be classified as having no class UV Montenegro and Boiero1 2012 reviewed that the. protection UPF values 15 to good UV protection tendency of GA polysaccharides to associate in. UPF values between 15 24 Many previous aqueous solution These molecular associations can. studies reported that UPF values are dependent on a deeply affect their function in a particular application. multitude of fabric construction factors such as pores due to their influence on molecular weight shape and. in the fabric thickness and weight in addition to size which determines how molecules interact with. processing parameters such as dyeing and finishing other molecules and water There are several factors. Sarkar and seal 2003 and Hussien and Elhassaneen such as hydrogen bonding hydrophobic association. 2013 an association mediated by ions electrostatic. Table 6 shows the ultraviolet protection factor interactions which depend on the concentration and. UPF and ultraviolet protection class UVPC values the presence of protein components such as in NSF. of cotton knitted fabric treated with NSF and that affect the ability to form supramolecular. different thickening agents Cotton knitted fabric complexes It was also reported that by using mild. treated with NSF showed good class of UV UV radiation it is possible to induce GA crosslinking. protection UPF values 15 24 which improved by Kuan et al 2009 The process reduced the solution. treating with different thickening agents and recorded viscosity and improved emulsification properties. very good class UPF values 25 40 Comparison of This GA modification can be used in food products. two thickening agents showed that the gum arabic requiring better reduced viscosity emulsifying. gave the highest UV protection on cotton knitted properties such as dressings spreads and beverages. fabric UPF 34 8 From the results it is clear that as well as in other nonfood products such as. GA thickening agent is well known for its ability to lithographic formulations textiles and paper. form coordinate complexes and in this experiment all manufacturing. Table 2 Amino acid composition of Egyptian Bombyx mori fibroin. Treatment of Cotton Knitted Garments with Natural Silk Fibroin for Skin Care and Ultraviolet Radiation Protection Yousif A Elhassaneen1 and Abdallah A Hussein2 1Dept of Nutrition and Food Science 2Dept of Clothes and Textile Faculty of Home Economics Minoufiya University Shebin El Kom Egypt Corresponding author yousif12 hotmail com Abstract This study aimed to investigate some

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