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OECD OPEN GOVERNMENT REVIEW JORDAN HIGHLIGHTS, King Abdullah II speaks during the opening of the first ordinary session of 18th Parliament in Amman November 7 2016. WHAT DOES THE OECD STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT The OECD defines Open Government as a culture of. ANALYSE governance based on innovative and sustainable policies and. practices inspired by the principles of transparency accountability. In the context of its efforts to bring policies and public services and participation that fosters democracy and inclusive growth. closer to citizens the Government of Jordan asked the OECD. Open Government policies are a means to improve, to provide an analysis of the ongoing decentralisation reform. the quality of a country s democratic life in order to. from the perspective of the principles and practices of open. better meet the needs of its people They yield a great. government In addition to providing analysis of the context. variety of benefits to businesses and citizens as well as to. the policy areas covered in the OECD assessment include. implementing governments, l I mproving centre of government CoG capacity to steer. Key examples include, and lead decentralisation reform and its implementation. l Increasing trust in government, trengthening analytical and evaluation capacity for.
l Ensuring better policy outcomes,better policy making and service delivery. l Enhancing policy efficiency and effectiveness, nhancing transparency accountability and citizen l Strengthening policy and regulatory compliance. participation through a more open government approach l Promoting inclusive socio economic development. across all levels of Jordan s public administration l Fostering innovation. Angel Gurria Secretary General of OECD and Her Majesty Queen Rania Al The launch event Minister Fakhoury DSG Kiviniemi Ambassadors of France and. Abdullah of Jordan Germany to Jordan,2 PRELIMINARY VERSION. HIGHLIGHTS, WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS HIGHLIGHTS BROCHURE 3 Enablers for effective public service delivery at the local. level discusses the key issues needed in a decentralised. This Highlights brochure presents key facts and the context to ensure the conditions for bringing public. preliminary findings and recommendations of the OECD policies closer to citizens and businesses adapted to their. Strategic Assessment of the Decentralisation Reform and needs. Open Government in Jordan The Assessment includes the. following Chapters 4 The level of openness and participation and the. expected impact of decentralisation reform reviews the. 1 The context of the decentralisation reform and open context for open government across the different levels. government in Jordan provides an introduction to the of government and discusses the potential of the reform. historical political administrative and socio economic to strengthen open and democratic governance at the. environment placing the decentralisation reform process level of the governorates and municipalities. in the broader context of the democratisation and open. government agenda in Jordan King Abdullah II 26 January 2005 a s political development. is the gateway to the full participation of all segments of. 2 Enhancing the role of the Centre of Government in the grassroots and civil society institutions in the various. driving decentralisation reform in Jordan examines the aspects of the development process I assert here that political. leadership and co ordination functions of the main central development should start at the grassroots level then move. government actors that guide decentralisation reform up to decision making centres and not vice versa. JORDAN KEY STATISTICS latest figures available, Population 9 5 million 2016 GDP per capita 4 940 USD 2015.
Total Area 89 320 km Annual GDP growth 2010 2015 average 2 64. System of Monarchy with a parliamentary system Labour force participation rate Female 15 8. Government Male 66 9, Administrative Centralised system 12 governorates 100 Life Expectancy at birth Female 75 8. organisation municipalities Male 72 4, Source 2015 Census conducted by the Department of Statistics Population data World Bank data. OECD OPEN GOVERNMENT REVIEW JORDAN HIGHLIGHTS,Context The case for a decentralised approach. to development, Jordan s political and administrative system is characterised by a high degree of centralisation For. decades the national planning and development process has been directed by the central government. With the approval of the 2015 Decentralisation Law and Municipality Law the government has. undertaken a first important step towards promoting a more bottom up approach to the identification of. service needs and policy priorities based on the role of the new elected councils in the municipalities and. governorates,JORDAN S MAIN FEATURES, table political climate backed by financial and technical l S.
ignificant improvements in human development, support from the international community in a region over the last decades Between the 1980s and 2014 life. that is characterised by recurring political economic and expectancy at birth increased by 7 8 years mean years. security turmoil Through its memberships in regional of schooling increased by 6 8 years and Gross National. alliances e g Arab League Arab Fund for Economic Income per capita rose by 24 1 A well educated. and Social Development Organisation of Islamic Co population and low levels of illiteracy are key assets. operation and international bodies i e MENA OECD, Initiative Open Government Partnership Jordan is A. l doption of Jordan Vision 2025 the country s ten, solidly anchored in the global debate on good governance year strategy which seeks to promote decentralisation. and advocates for the implementation of key open, conomic growth rates of 4 to 8 in the 2000s and government principles including participation. the classification as upper middle income country transparency and accountability The vision places. since 2012 However growth rates slowed down to 2 6 citizens at the heart of the reform process. between 2010 15 and GDP per capita declined by 0 6 on. average during the same period, ositive results in the democratisation agenda as the.
first Arab country to pass an Access to Information Law. in 2007 and to join the Open Government Partnership in. 2011 Amendments to the Constitution in 2011 led to the. creation of the Independent Election Commission and a. Constitutional Court Preceding the 2016 parliamentary. elections the adoption of the 2015 Election Law led the. ground for a fairer representation of citizens and the 2015. Political Parties Law intends to encourage the creation. of political parties Jordan is a signatory to various. international conventions including the ICCPR1 the CRC2. UNCAC3 and the ACHR4, 1 International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. 2 Convention on the Rights of the Child,3 United Nations Anti Corruption Convention. 4 Arab Charter on Human Rights,4 PRELIMINARY VERSION. CONTEXT THE CASE FOR A DECENTRALISED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT. HIGHLIGHTS, MAIN SOCIO ECONOMIC AND GOVERNANCE DECENTRALISATION THE WAY FORWARD. CHALLENGES, The 2015 Decentralisation Law and Municipality Law reflect.
ost of the second largest number of refugees per the commitment of the Government of Jordan to move. capita in the world Jordan s proximity to the military towards a culture of popular participation at the sub. conflicts in Syria and Iraq has resulted in a large influx of national levels of government and were inspired by King. refugees 689 053 registered with UNHCR in 2015 which Abdullah II s vision of a political development process that. has put additional pressures on available economic starts at the grassroots level However a number of key. opportunities and access to public services i e housing challenges remain to be addressed. igh vulnerability of the economy to external economic l Build on the current momentum for decentralisation. shocks given the dependence on international grants reform to start a national debate on the final governance. relatively weak private sector activity and high import architecture of the state Engage with relevant stakeholders. levels due to adverse geographical characteristics to discuss the different models of decentralisation decon. i e water energy food High unemployment and centration delegation devolution etc as well as the legal. low economic participation rates affect all groups in and institutional changes needed to achieve them and. society but in particular women i e only 16 of women identify the best that fits Jordan s future development plans. participate in the labour market and youth, laborate a clear road map for the implementation of. he short lifespan of governments and parliaments the 2015 Decentralisation Law and Municipality Law. has threatened the continuity and sustainability of and relevant by laws featuring short term milestones. government initiatives Strong tribal affiliations continue prior to the local elections medium and long term. to be a major determinant of political life and sustain the objectives and effective follow up mechanisms to ensure. role of the parliament as a service provider rather than successful implementation. policy shaper or oversight body of government action. A bloated public sector i e public salaries and pension l E. nhance co ordination across all levels of government. obligations account for 27 of annual government in the national planning and development process and. expenditures leaves limited fiscal space for investments assign clear mandates to all sub national entities at. the governorate and municipal levels including for the. igh centralisation of political power and administrative elected councils to allow for a bottom up approach to the. organisation in policy planning and service delivery identification of service needs and policy priorities. The need to improve administrative capacities and self. generated resources at the governorate and municipality l Revise the rules and regulations that hamper the. level has resulted in dissatisfaction with the performance emergence of a culture of open and participatory policy. of sub national government Jordan is characterised by making across all levels of government strengthen public. large regional economic disparities and poverty remains institutions and align policies and actual practices with. a national challenge in among both the rural 16 8 and the principles of openness transparency accountability. urban 13 9 population 2010 and citizen participation. l I mplementation of the national commitments on open l Create a community of reform champions among public. transparent participatory and accountable governance officials and non governmental stakeholders to improve. has been hampered by the absence of institutionalised the government orchestrated character of the reform. forms of CSO citizen engagement across all levels of raising awareness providing training opportunities. government shortcomings in the integrity system and and institutionalising a partnership approach between. the legacy of traditional norms This has hindered equal local public officials CSOs and citizens This will help. opportunities for all segments of society including ensure citizens can become active drivers of the national. women and youth to fully participate in all spheres of planning and development process. public life, l Reconcile increasing expectations among Civil Society. Organisations and citizens to play a more active role. in shaping political planning and development with the. future tools and mechanisms at their disposal and not yet. foreseen in details in the laws,OECD OPEN GOVERNMENT REVIEW JORDAN HIGHLIGHTS. The role of the centre of government in driving,decentralisation reform in Jordan. The endorsement of the Decentralisation Law and Municipality Law by parliament in 2015 marks a. milestone in translating King Abdullah II s vision into practice Through the elected governorate and. local councils the laws introduce an unprecedented opportunity for public participation in national and. local development, The Centre of Government CoG has a critical role to provision of public services due to limited political power.
play in co ordinating the implementation of the 2015 and the lack of budgetary resources In the elaboration. Decentralisation and the Municipality Laws across different of Governorate Development Plans local stakeholders. ministries and levels of government and in communicating including public authorities local CSOs and community. the reform in a way that citizens can understand CSOs and members have so far played a marginal role in raising. citizens in close collaboration with all sub national entities local needs and shaping policy outcomes. will play a key role in ensuring that the reforms advance in. line with the objective stressed in Jordan Vision 2025 which l T. he governorates vary in size population 2 4 million in. is to become a more efficient effective and responsive state Amman compared to less than 90 000 in Tafilah 2012. and to empower citizens in the decision making process at density highly populated in the North West and major. the local level governorates and urban areas of Amman Zarqa and. Irbid compared to rural regions such as Badia Ma an. DEFINING FEATURES governorate etc and economic weight poverty rates. vary between 11 4 in Amman and 26 6 in Ma an 2014, l J ordan is a unitary state based on a high degree of. Germany to Jordan Angel Gurria Secretary General of OECD and Her Majesty Queen Rania Al l Adoption of Jordan Vision 2025 the country s ten year strategy which seeks to promote decentralisation and advocates for the implementation of key open government principles including participation transparency and accountability The vision places citizens at the heart of the reform process 4

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