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Preface xix,Introduction and Institutions 1,Chapter 1 The United States in a Global Economy 2. Introduction International Economic Integration 2,Elements of International Economic Integration 3. The Growth of World Trade 4,Capital and Labor Mobility 6. Features of Contemporary International Economic Relations 8. Trade and Economic Growth 10,Twelve Themes in International Economics 11. The Gains from Trade and New Trade Theory Chapters 3 4 and 5 11. Wages Jobs and Protection Chapters 3 6 7 and 8 i 12. Trade Deficits Chapters 9 11 and 12 12,Regional Trade Agreements Chapters 2 13 and 14 12.
The Resolution of Trade Conflicts Chapters 2 7 and 8 13. The Role of International Institutions Chapters 2 8 and 12 13. Exchange Rates and the Macroeconomy Chapters 10 and 11 13. Financial Crises and Global Contagion Chapter 12 14. Capital Flows and the Debt of Developing Countries. Chapters 2 9 and 12 14,Latin America and the World Economy Chapter 15 14. Export Led Growth in East Asia Chapter 16 15, The Integration of the BRICs into the World Economy Chapter 17 15. Vocabulary 15 Study Questions 16, Chapter 2 International Economic Institutions Since World War II 17. Introduction International Institutions and Issues Since World War II 17. International Institutions 17, A Taxonomy of International Economic Institutions 18. The IMF the World Bank and the WTO 19,The IMF and World Bank 19.
The GATT the Uruguay Round and the WTO 20,CASE STUDY The GATT Rounds 22. Regional Trade Agreements 23,Five Types of Regional Trade Agreements 23. CASE STUDY Prominent Regional Trade Agreements 24,Regional Trade Agreements and the WTO 26. For and Against RTAs 27, The Role of International Economic Institutions 28. The Definition of Public Goods 29,Maintaining Order and Reducing Uncertainty 29.
CASE STUDY Bretton Woods 31,Criticism of International Institutions 33. Sovereignty and Transparency 33,Ideology 34,Implementation and Adjustment Costs 35. Summary 36 Vocabulary 37 Study Questions 38,PAFTF 2 International Trade 39. Chapter 3 Comparative Advantage and the Gains from Trade 40. Introduction The Gains from Trade 40, Adam Smith and the Attack on Economic Nationalism 40. A Simple Model of Production and Trade 41,Absolute Productivity Advantage and the Gains.
from Trade 42,CASE STUDY Gains from Trade in Nineteenth. Century Japan 44,Comparative Productivity Advantage and the. Gains from Trade 45,The Production Possibilities Curve 46. Relative Prices 46,The Consumption Possibilities Curve 47. The Gains from Trade 48,Domestic Prices and the Trade Price 50.
Absolute and Comparative Productivity Advantage,Contrasted 51. Gains from Trade with Wo Absolute Advantage 52,CASE STUDY Changing Comparative Advantage in the. Republic of Korea 1960 2007 53,Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness 54. Economic Restructuring 56,CASE STUDY Losing Comparative Advantage 58. Summary 60 Vocabulary 60 Study Questions 61,Contents xi.
Chapter 4 Comparative Advantage and Factor Endowments 63. Introduction The Determinants of Comparative,Advantage 63. Modern Trade Theory 63,The Heckscher Ohlin HO Trade Model 64. Gains from Trade in the HO Model 65,Trade and Income Distribution 68. The Stolper Samuelson Theorem 69,The Specific Factors Model 71. CASE STUDY Comparative Advantage in a Single Natural. Resource 73, Empirical Tests of the Theory of Comparative Advantage 74.
Extension of the Heckscher Ohlin Model 75,The Product Cycle 76. CASE STUDY United States China Trade 78,Foreign Trade versus Foreign Investment 79. Off Shoring and Outsourcing 81,CASE STUDY Off Shoring by U S Multinational. Corporations 82,Migration and Trade 83,The Impact of Trade on Wages and Jobs 85. CASE STUDY Do Trade Statistics Give a Distorted Picture of Trade. Relations The Case of the iPhone 3G 86,Summary 88 Vocabulary 89 Study Questions 90.
Chapter 5 Beyond Comparative Advantage 92,Introduction More Reasons to Trade 92. Intraindustry Trade 93,Characteristics of Intraindustry Trade 93. The Gains from Intraindustry Trade 96,CASE STUDY United States and Canada Trade 98. Trade and Geography 99, Geography Transportation Costs and Internal Economics. of Scale 99,CASE STUDY The Shifting Geography of Mexico s.
Manufacturing 100,External Economies of Scale 101,Trade and External Economies 102. Industrial Policy 103,Industrial Policies and Market Failure 104. xii Contents,Industrial Policy Tools 106,Problems with Industrial Policies 107. CASE STUDY Do the WTO Rules Against Industrial Policies Hurt. Developing Countries 109,Summary 111 Vocabulary 112 Study Questions 112. Chapter 6 The Theory of Tariffs and Quotas 114,Introduction Tariffs and Quotas 114.
Analysis of a Tariff 114,Consumer and Producer Surplus 115. Prices Output and Consumption 116,Resource Allocation and Income Distribution 118. CASE STUDY A Comparison of Tariff Rates 120,Other Potential Costs 122. The Large Country Case 123,Effective versus Nominal Rates of Protection 124. CASE STUDY The Uruguay and Doha Rounds 125,Analysis of Quotas 127.
Types of Quotas 127, The Effect on the Profits of Foreign Producers 128. Hidden Forms of Protection 130, CASE STUDY Intellectual Property Rights and Trade 131. Summary 133 Vocabulary 133 Study Questions 134,Chapter 7 Commercial Policy 136. Introduction Commercial Policy Tariffs and Arguments for Protection 136. Tariff Rates in the World s Major Traders 137,The Costs of Protectionism 139. The Logic of Collective Action 140,CASE STUDY Agricultural Subsidies 141.
Why Nations Protect Their Industries 143,Revenue 143. The Labor Argument 144,The Infant Industry Argument 145. The National Security Argument 146,The Cultural Protection Argument 146. The Retaliation Argument 146, CASE STUDY Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property 147. The Politics of Protection in the United States 149. Countervailing Duties 149,Antidumping Duties 150,Contents XIII.
Escape Clause Relief 151,Section 301 and Special 301 152. CASE STUDY Economic Sanctions 152,Summary 154 Vocabulary 154 Study Questions 155. Chapter 8 International Trade and Labor and Environmental Standards 156. Introduction Income and Standards 156, Setting Standards Harmonization Mutual Recognition or Separate 157. CASE STUDY Income Environment and Society 159,Labor Standards 160. Defining Labor Standards 161,CASE STUDY Child Labor 162.
Labor Standards and Trade 163, Evidence on Low Standards as a Predatory Practice 165. CASE STUDY The International Labour Organization 166. Trade and the Environment 167,Transboundary and Non Transboundary Effects 167. CASE STUDY Trade Barriers and Endangered Species 169. Alternatives to Trade Measures 171,Labels for Exports 172. Requiring Home Country Standards 172,Increasing International Negotiations 173. CASE STUDY Global Climate Change 174,Summary 176 Vocabulary 177 Study Questions 177.
O 3 International Finance 179,Chapter 9 Trade and the Balance of Payments 180. Introduction The Current Account 180,The Trade Balance 180. The Current Account Balance 181, Introduction to the Financial and Capital Accounts 183. Types of Financial Flows 186,Limits on Financial Flows 189. CASE STUDY The Crisis of 2007 09 and the Balance of Payments 190. The Current Account and the Macroeconomy 192,The National Income and Product Accounts 193.
Are Current Account Deficits Harmful 197, CASE STUDY Current Account Deficits in the United States 199. International Debt 201,CASE STUDY Odious Debt 202,xiv Contents. The International Investment Position 203,Summary 204 Vocabulary 205 Study Questions 206. APPENDIX A Measuring the International Investment Position 207. APPENDIX B Balance of Payments Data 208, Chapter 10 Exchange Rates and Exchange Rate Systems 209. Introduction Fixed Flexible or In Between 209,Exchange Rates and Currency Trading 210.
Reasons for Holding Foreign Currencies 211,Institutions 212. Exchange Rate Risk 212,The Supply and Demand for Foreign Exchange 213. Supply and Demand with Flexible Exchange Rates 214. Exchange Rates in the Long Run 215, Exchange Rates in the Medium Run and Short Run 218. CASE STU DY The Largest Market in the World 222,The Real Exchange Rate 224. Alternatives to Flexible Exchange Rates 226,Fixed Exchange Rate Systems 227.
CASE STUDY The End of the Bretton Woods System 231. Choosing the Right Exchange Rate System 233,CASE STUDY Monetary Unions 235. Single Currency Areas 236,Conditions for Adopting a Single Currency 237. CASE STUDY Is the NAFTA Region an Optimal Currency Area 239. Summary 240 Vocabulary 241 Study Questions 241,APPENDIX The Interest Rate Parity Condition 242. Chapter 11 An Introduction to Open Economy Macroeconomics 244. Introduction The Macroeconomy in a Global Setting 244. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply 245,Fiscal and Monetary Policies 250. Fiscal Policy 250,Monetary Policy 251,CASE STUDY Fiscal and Monetary Policy during the.
Great Depression 253,Current Account Balances Revisited 256. Fiscal and Monetary Policies Interest Rates and,Exchange Rates 256. Contents xv, Fiscal and Monetary Policy and the Current Account 258. The Long Run 260, CASE STUDY Argentina and the Limits to Macroeconomic Policy 260. Macro Policies for Current Account Imbalances 262,The Adjustment Process 263.
CASE STUDY The Adjustment Process in the United States 264. Macroeconomic Policy Coordination in Developed Countries 266. Summary 267 Vocabulary 268 Study Questions 268,Chapter 12 International Financial Crises 270. Introduction The Challenge to Financial Integration 270. Definition of a Financial Crisis 271,Sources of International Financial Crises 273. Crises Caused by Economic Imbalances 273,Crises Caused by Volatile Capital Flows 274. CASE STUDY The Mexican Peso Crisis of 1994 and 1995 276. Domestic Issues in Crisis Avoidance 279,Moral Hazard and Financial Sector Regulation 279. Exchange Rate Policy 280,Capital Controls 281,CASE STUDY The Asian Crisis of 1997 and 1998 282.
Domestic Policies for Crisis Management 286, Reform of the International Financial Architecture 287. A Lender of Last Resort 288,Conditionality 289,Reform Urgency 291. CASE STU DY The Global Crisis of 2007 291,Summary 295 Vocabulary 297 Study Questions 297. PART 4 Regional Issues in the Global Economy 299, Chapter 13 The United States in the World Economy 300. Introduction A New World Economy 300,Background and Context 301.
CASE STUDY Manufacturing in the United States 303,The Shifting Focus of U S Trade Relations 304. The NAFTA Model 307, Demographic and Economic Characteristics of North America 307. Canada U S Trade Relations 308,Mexican Economic Reforms 310. xvi Contents,The North American Free Trade Agreement 311. Two NAFTA Specific Issues 313, CASE STUDY Ejidos Agriculture and NAFTA in Mexico 314.
New and Old Agreements 316,Labor and Environmental Standards 317. Investor State Relations 319,Job Loss Due to Trade 320. CASE STUDY The African Growth and Opportunity Act 322. Summary 323 Vocabulary 324 j Study Questions 325, Chapter 14 The European Union Many Markets into One 326. Introduction The European Union 326,The Size of the European Market 328. The European Union and Its Predecessors 330,The Treaty of Rome 330.
Institutional Structure 331,Deepening and Widening the Community in. the 1970s and 1980s 333,Before the Euro 333, The Second Wave of Deepening The Single European Act 335. CASE STUDY The Schengen Agreement 335,The Delors Report 336. Forecasts of the Gains from the Single European Act 337. Problems in the Implementation of the SEA 339, CASE STUDY The Erasmus Program and Higher Education 341. The Third Wave of Deepening The Maastricht Treaty 342. Monetary Union and the Euro 343,Costs and Benefits of Monetary Union 344.
The Political Economy of the Euro 345, CASE STUDY The Financial Crisis of 2007 2009 and the Euro 347. Widening the European Union 350,New Members 350, CASE STUDY Spain s Switch from Emigration to Immigration 351. The Demographic Challenge of the Future 353,Summary 354 Vocabulary 355 Study Questions 356. Chapter 15 Trade and Policy Reform in Latin America 357. Introduction Defining a Latin American Economy 357. Population Income and Economic Growth 358,Contents xvii. Import Substitution Industrialization 360, Origins and Goals of Import Substitution Industrialization 360.
Criticisms of Import Substitution Industrialization 363. CASE STUDY ISI in Mexico 364, Macroeconomic Instability and Economic Populism 366. Populism in Latin America 367, CASE STUDY Economic Populism in Peru 1985 1990 368. The Debt Crisis of the 1980s 369,Proximate Causes of the Debt Crisis 369. Responses to the Debt Crisis 371, Neoliberal Policy Reform and the Washington Consensus 373. Stabilization Policies to Control Inflation 373,Structural Reform and Open Trade 375.
CASE STUDY Regional Trade Blocs in Latin America 376. The Next Generation of Reforms 378,CASE STUDY The Chilean Model 379. Summary 381 Vocabulary 382 Study Questions 382, Chapter 16 Export Oriented Growth in East Asia 384. SIXTH EDITION James Gerber San Diego State Univer PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo TENT Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Preface xix v Introduction and Institutions 1 The United States in a Global Economy 2

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