ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007 Mitigation techniques to limit

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ITU T Recommendation K 70, Mitigation techniques to limit human exposure to EMFs. in the vicinity of radiocommunication stations, ITU T Recommendation K 70 defines techniques which may be used by telecommunication. operators to evaluate the cumulative total exposure ratio in the vicinity of transmitting antennas. and to identify the main source of radiation It offers guidance on mitigation methods which allow. reduction of radiation level in order to comply with exposure limits It also provides guidance on. procedures necessary in the environment on site in which in most cases there is a simultaneous. exposure to multiple frequencies from many different sources Radiating sources may belong to. many operators and may represent different radiocommunication services e g cellular systems. trunking systems broadcasting radio relays wireless access etc. ITU T Recommendation K 70 was approved on 29 June 2007 by ITU T Study Group 5 2005 2008. under the ITU T Recommendation A 8 procedure, EMF exposure limits intentional radiator multiple sources environment transmitting antenna. ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007 i, The International Telecommunication Union ITU is the United Nations specialized agency in the field of. telecommunications The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector ITU T is a permanent organ of. ITU ITU T is responsible for studying technical operating and tariff questions and issuing. Recommendations on them with a view to standardizing telecommunications on a worldwide basis. The World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly WTSA which meets every four years. establishes the topics for study by the ITU T study groups which in turn produce Recommendations on. these topics, The approval of ITU T Recommendations is covered by the procedure laid down in WTSA Resolution 1.
In some areas of information technology which fall within ITU T s purview the necessary standards are. prepared on a collaborative basis with ISO and IEC. In this Recommendation the expression Administration is used for conciseness to indicate both a. telecommunication administration and a recognized operating agency. Compliance with this Recommendation is voluntary However the Recommendation may contain certain. mandatory provisions to ensure e g interoperability or applicability and compliance with the. Recommendation is achieved when all of these mandatory provisions are met The words shall or some. other obligatory language such as must and the negative equivalents are used to express requirements The. use of such words does not suggest that compliance with the Recommendation is required of any party. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, ITU draws attention to the possibility that the practice or implementation of this Recommendation may. involve the use of a claimed Intellectual Property Right ITU takes no position concerning the evidence. validity or applicability of claimed Intellectual Property Rights whether asserted by ITU members or others. outside of the Recommendation development process, As of the date of approval of this Recommendation ITU had not received notice of intellectual property. protected by patents which may be required to implement this Recommendation However implementers. are cautioned that this may not represent the latest information and are therefore strongly urged to consult the. TSB patent database at http www itu int ITU T ipr, All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means whatsoever without the. prior written permission of ITU,ii ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007. 2 References 1,3 Terms and definitions 3,4 Abbreviations and acronyms 5.
5 Evaluation of exposure levels 6,5 1 Full wave methods 7. 5 2 Synthetic model 8,5 3 Point source model 8,5 4 Influence of the reflections 8. 5 5 Uncertainty 8, 6 The EIRP and other parameters for the radiocommunication transmitting stations 9. 7 Evaluation of the cumulative exposure ratio in multiple sources environment 9. 8 Identification of the main source of radiation 10. 9 Compliance distances 11,10 Description of the mitigation techniques 11. 11 Conclusion 12, Annex A Radiation pattern of the transmitting antenna 13.
A 1 Horizontal and vertical radiation patterns 13, A 2 HRP and VRP for typical radiocommunication and broadcasting antennas 14. A 3 Two levels approach 14,Annex B The point source model 15. B 1 Description of the point source model 15,B 2 Applicability of the point source model 17. Annex C Simplified method for the calculation of the compliance distances 21. Annex D Examples of mitigation techniques 22,D 1 Decrease in the transmitter power 22. D 2 Increase in the antenna height 22,D 3 Decrease in the VRP downtilt 23.
D 4 Increase in the antenna gain 25,D 5 Changes in the VRP 27. D 6 Changes in the HRP 29,D 7 Multiple methods applied simultaneously 31. Appendix I Software EMF estimator 32,I 1 Applicability of the EMF estimator 32. I 2 Typical situation 33,I 3 Software description 33. I 4 Compliance distances 37,ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007 iii.
I 5 Coefficient concerning transmitter power 37, I 6 Library radiation patterns of the antenna systems 38. I 7 Examples of calculations 38,I 8 Additional comments 38. I 9 System requirements 38, Appendix II Parameters of typical radiocommunication systems 39. II 1 Mobile base stations 39,II 2 Trunked radio and wireless access systems 41. II 3 TV and DVB T transmitting stations 41,II 4 FM and T DAB transmitting stations 42.
II 5 AM and DRM transmitting stations 44,II 6 Radio relay links 45. iv ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007,Introduction, The real sources of intentional EMFs are transmitting antennas not transmitters themselves. because the radiation patterns of the transmitting antennas determine EMF distribution in the. vicinity of a transmitting station The compliance with unintentional radiation of the. radiocommunication or broadcasting transmitters such as around their enclosure or in the case of. an open enclosure for maintenance or tuning purposes is not under the scope of this. Recommendation, The accuracy of calculations during the exposure assessment depends on the methodology used and. on the information concerning radiating source In this Recommendation particular stress is laid on. the guidance referring to radiating source characteristics mainly the most important parameters. i e transmitting antenna radiation patterns This Recommendation offers information on radiation. patterns for a wide range of typical transmitting antennas used in radiocommunication and. broadcasting It also gives guidance on how to organize calculations depending on accessible data. This Recommendation presents the possible technical solutions to the problem when the reference. levels are exceeded in the multiple sources environment In the case when many operators have. radiating sources in the considered area the proper solution has to be found on the basis of an. agreement between all parties In the case when such an agreement is not possible the operator who. introduces the last change in the installations will be responsible for the appropriate limitation of the. exposure level from his source of radiation so as not to exceed the allowed global limit. ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007 v,ITU T Recommendation K 70. Mitigation techniques to limit human exposure to EMFs. in the vicinity of radiocommunication stations, This Recommendation provides guidance on mitigation techniques for limiting the exposure from.
radiocommunication installations especially in the multiple sources environment This guidance. presents methods for field strength distribution evaluation cumulative exposure ratio evaluation. identification of the main source of radiation and offers mitigation techniques methods for. reducing the levels of electromagnetic fields during simultaneous exposure in the multiple sources. environment, In this Recommendation the following reference limits are used electric field strength magnetic. field strength and power density Since compliance with the reference limits guarantees the. compliance with basic restrictions this is a conservative approach In the far field region the use of. the reference levels gives results which are very close to real radiation levels In the near field. region the obtained results will overestimate or underestimate real radiation levels Moreover this. Recommendation deals with reference levels calculated in free space so EMF influence on human. tissues or human body is not considered, This Recommendation also gives guidance on identifying those areas in which the highest radiation. levels should be expected This piece of information may be helpful to define the area for. measurements, The guidance given in this Recommendation applies to any exposure limits however in the. examples of calculations the ICNIRP exposure limits are taken. A software EMF estimator see Appendix I is attached to this Recommendation in order to support. its application The software implements the methodology described in this Recommendation and. gives the possibility to calculate the cumulative exposure for the reference levels It also contains. the library of the radiation patterns of transmitting antennas for a wide range of. radiocommunication and broadcast services The EMF estimator is not appropriate for the. equipment certification in order to put it on the market. This Recommendation is intended for use when considering the EMFs in areas around transmitting. stations e g around transmitting antennas in their places of installation. 2 References, The following ITU T Recommendations and other references contain provisions which through. reference in this text constitute provisions of this Recommendation At the time of publication the. editions indicated were valid All Recommendations and other references are subject to revision. users of this Recommendation are therefore encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the. most recent edition of the Recommendations and other references listed below A list of the. currently valid ITU T Recommendations is regularly published The reference to a document within. this Recommendation does not give it as a stand alone document the status of a Recommendation. ITU T K 52 ITU T Recommendation K 52 2004 Guidance on complying with limits for. human exposure to electromagnetic fields, ITU T K 61 ITU T Recommendation K 61 2003 Guidance to measurement and.
numerical prediction of electromagnetic fields for compliance with human. exposure limits for telecommunication installations. ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007 1, ITU R BS 80 3 ITU R Recommendation BS 80 3 1990 Transmitting antennas in HF. broadcasting, ITU R BS 705 1 ITU R Recommendation BS 705 1 1995 HF transmitting and receiving. antennas characteristics and diagrams, ITU R BS 1195 ITU R Recommendation BS 1195 1995 Transmitting antenna. characteristics at VHF and UHF, ITU R BS 1386 1 ITU R Recommendation BS 1386 1 2001 LF and MF transmitting antennas. characteristics and diagrams, ITU R BS 1698 ITU R Recommendation BS 1698 2005 Evaluating fields from terrestrial.
broadcasting transmitting systems operating in any frequency band for. assessing exposure to non ionizing radiation, ITU R F 1245 1 ITU R Recommendation F 1245 1 2000 Mathematical model of related. radiation patterns for line of sight point to point radio relay system antennas. for use in certain coordination studies and interference assessment in the. frequency range from 1 GHz to about 70 GHz, ITU R F 1336 1 ITU R Recommendation F 1336 1 2007 Reference radiation patterns of. omnidirectional sectoral and other antennas in point to multipoint systems for. use in sharing studies in the frequency range from 1 GHz to about 70 GHz. EN 50383 CENELEC EN 50383 2002 Basic standard for the calculation and. measurement of electromagnetic field strength and SAR related to human. exposure from radio base stations and fixed terminal stations for wireless. telecommunication systems 110 MHz 40 GHz, EN 50400 CENELEC EN 50400 2006 Basic standard to demonstrate the compliance of. fixed equipment for radio transmission 110 MHz 40 GHz intended for use. in wireless telecommunication networks with the basic restrictions or the. reference levels related to general public exposure to radio frequency. electromagnetic fields when put into service, EN 50413 CENELEC 50413 2007 Basic standard on measurement and calculation. procedures for human exposure to electric magnetic and electromagnetic. fields 0 Hz 300 GHz, EN 50492 CENELEC 50492 draft Basic standard for in situ measurement of.
electromagnetic field strength related to human exposure in the vicinity of base. ICNIRP ICNIRP Guidelines 1998 Guidelines for limiting exposure to time varying. electric magnetic and electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz. IEC EN 62311 IEC CENELEC 62311 2007 Assessment of electronic and electrical. equipment related to human exposure restrictions for electromagnetic fields. 0 Hz 300 Hz, IEEE P1597 1 IEEE P1597 1 draft Draft Standard for Validation of Computational. Electromagnetics CEM Computer Modelling and Simulation. UNCERT ISO IEC MISC UNCERT 1995 Guide to the expression of uncertainty in. measurement,2 ITU T Rec K 70 06 2007,3 Terms and definitions. This Recommendation defines the following terms, 3 1 antenna Device that serves as a transducer between a guided wave e g coaxial cable. and a free space wave or vice versa It can be used to emit or receive a radio signal In this. ITU R BS 1698 ITU R Recommendation BS 1698 2005 Evaluating fields from terrestrial broadcasting transmitting systems operating in any frequency band for assessing exposure to non ionizing radiation ITU R F 1245 1 ITU R Recommendation F 1245 1 2000 Mathematical model of related

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