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When is it Necessary to Use Muscle Systems to Enhance 3D. Martin Barreby, Department of Mathematics Natural and Computer Science. University of G vle,S 801 76 G vle Sweden,motakay hotmail com. To build muscles to enhance the animation of a 3D character takes more time and. effort than the standard character rig In some cases the muscles will not be. noticeable and therefore are unnecessary This research tried to find the moments. when the muscles did or did not make a difference The new Maya Muscle System. is also explored and the procedure to create muscles for a standard rig is explained. The test that was performed showed that the muscles are more noticeable in all. Keywords muscles maya muscle system animation rigging. Table of Contents,1 Introduction 1,2 Questions 2,3 Method 2. 3 1 Rigging 2,3 1 1 Skeleton rig 2,3 1 2 Muscle setup 3. 3 2 Animating 3,3 3 Test for reviewers 3,4 Background 4.
4 1 Character rigging 4,4 1 1 Joints and joint chains 4. 4 1 2 Skinning and paint weights 5,4 1 3 Digital Tutors Character Setup in Maya 5. 4 2 Parenting objects 5,4 2 1 Other constraints 6,4 3 Using muscles in character rigs 6. 4 3 1 Previous methods 6,4 3 2 Maya deformers 7,4 4 Maya Muscles 7. 4 4 1 Digital tutors Introduction to Maya Muscles Maya 2008 Ext 1 8. 4 4 2 Muscle Builder 8,4 4 3 Capsules 8,4 5 Muskeelar plug in 9.
5 Development progress 10,5 1 Skeleton rig 10,5 2 Muscles rigging 10. 5 3 Animation 14,5 4 Tests 17,6 Test Results 19,6 1 The Character Rig 19. 6 2 Tests 19,6 3 Future research 19,7 Discussion 20. 7 1 Tests 20,7 2 Animation 20,7 3 Rigging 20,8 Conclusions 21. 9 References 22,Appendix 23,1 Introduction, Using muscles to enhance a three dimensional 3D animation for a character is.
nothing new It has been used for many years For example look at the short movie. of Bruce Lee created by Shannon Ma and Andrew Ma which was made with. Wavefront Maya 1 0 and Alias Power Animator V8 0 somewhere between years of. 1998 and 1999 6 To make realistic body animations there has to be muscles. underneath the skin otherwise it appears stiff and unreal similar to a plastic doll or. a mannequin The problems with using muscles are that they take time to apply to a. rig There are many preparations that have to be made such as how the muscles. should behave what shapes they should have and where they are going to be. With Autodesk Maya 2008 service pack 1 they included a special Muscle System to. ease the rigging process with muscles and automate a great deal of the work. However even with these tools it still takes some time to rig a character with. muscles and most often it is important to save time whenever possible My. research will explore when is it necessary to use muscles in a character s skeleton. sometimes called a rig and when can they be excluded Depending on the. distance and scene it might still be unnoticeable if the body has muscles or not. I will take a character who wears a T shirt rig his arms with muscles and animate. him from different views and situations These scenes will be rendered out both. with and without the muscles The clips will then be shown to a group of people. who will review them At first I will not tell them what they are viewing A scene. will be shown twice one with the muscles and one without and afterwards ask the. viewers if they can spot any differences between the clips If they can what was it. At this point they will know what the differences are and then I will ask them to. view other clips where they will determine if the character has muscles or not I. want to create guidelines for animators and riggers in the future where they can tell. more easily when to add extra hours to create a rig with muscles or if it is just an. unnecessary effort, I believe that if a character is shown from a zoomed out view taking up about half. the screen the muscles will not be necessary and it also depends on the motion or. action that he will be doing If he for example he picks up a newspaper I believe. that people will not notice his arm muscle even though it would flex in real life It is. not the muscle that is the center of attention in those cases However if the. character would be lifting a heavy weight something would not feel right if the arm. muscles kept their shapes When this thesis is finished people can view their. storyboard and then read my suggestion sheet and from that source make their. decision whether or not to rig with muscles,2 Questions. There are several main questions that I am interested in exploring in this research. paper which are listed below, Why spend extra time on rigging muscles Of course it makes a character. behave and move much more realistic however in some cases this might. not be important enough to make a necessary difference. I would also like to find out how to add Maya Muscles to a standard. character rig I will use the Digital Tutors standard rig from their tutorial. Character Setup in the Maya video 4 5, First of all I will use a character that I have modeled earlier and rig him after the. digital Tutors tutorial DVD He has a t shirt and bare arms making it easier to show. the muscles deformations in his arms The muscles will be created and setup in the. characters arms At this point the character will be animated in four different. situations and four different angles on each animation will be rendered out All. animations will also be rendered out twice one with muscles and one without. making it a total of thirty two clips The animations will then be reviewed by twenty. test subjects who will view the movies and judge whether the character has or has. no muscles in each clip They will fill in a simple form of questions The form can be. found in the Appendix section,3 1 Rigging,3 1 1 Skeleton rig.
To create the skeleton for the character I will use Digital Tutors Character Setup. video in Maya which will not take too much time to build It is also a stable rig and. has many handles to provide more control of the character s movement. 3 1 2 Muscle setup, For the muscle rig the Digital Tutors Introduction to Maya Muscle will be used to. learn and understand how the muscles should be set up I will also view the. Autodesk s movie instructions to learn how the system works. 3 2 Animating, The animations will be short and a little exaggerated therefore it becomes very. clear what motions the character is performing Four different animations will be. rendered out from different distances Four different distances should be enough to. view the motions, The first distance will be a close up on the arm or both arms while the next showing. half the character The third distance will be a full shot with the character fitting in. the screen Then in the fourth the character should take a sixth to a eighth of the. screen By dividing it in this method a description in the final guidelines will be easy. to understand for animators who will be using them The video clips will be. rendered out in widescreen since that is more or less a standard format. I will create a variety of different animations In the first animation the character. will be flexing his arms similar to a body builder With the second animation the. character will be picking up a newspaper from a table And in the third animation. the character will be lifting a barbell while in the forth he will be pulling out a. drawer Totally there will be sixteen short clips,3 3 Test for reviewers. Twenty people will take a short test where they will view a series of animations. from different angles Every clip will be shown twice one where the character is. rigged with muscles and one where he has no muscles Except from that the clips. will be identical I changed how the reviewers would be looking at the animation. test Originally they would not be aware of what to look for however I was afraid. that they would pick out many different things that were not relevant to the. muscles The reviewers will be fully aware of what they should be looking for ahead. of time In other words there will not be a part of the test where the reviewers will. not know what they are looking for The reason for this is that it might become. confusing and unclear and they might think that they have found another. difference Excluding the part where the reviewers do not know what to look for. ahead of time makes the test simpler First explain the concept of the muscles and. then allow them answer number 1 or 2 in the sixteen fields depending if they saw. muscles in the first or second clip,4 Background, The Maya Muscle System is something that is quite new in the animation area and it.
has not been documented a great deal as of yet It was released in 2008 with the. Maya Extension 1 and is developed by Comet Digital LLC 7. 4 1 Character rigging, To make a 3D character move in a 3D software the animator must know how the. character is developed Essentially he she has to know where the joints are. located therefore the most natural and easy method is to build a skeleton inside of. the character mesh with the aim of behaving similar in real life It does not mean. that every bone in a human skeleton needs to be created Only few joints are. essential for the movement of the character such as the shoulders elbows knees. 4 1 1 Joints and joint chains, The joints are sometimes also called bones depending on the software In Maya. they are called joints which I will call them from now on They follow a hierarchy. and somewhere on the body there is always a root joint and most often this root. joint is at the hips of a humanoid character or more precisely at the root of the. spine which is because every limb is created from that center point The pelvic. girdle is attached to the root of the spine then the thighbones Then the bones. continue all the way down to the toes, The spine also continues its way up to the shoulders neck and head and from the. shoulders the bones continues to create the arms out to the fingertips Figure 1 In. 3D software this process is created exactly the same way causing the joints to. rotate correctly If there were no hierarchies similar to this the software used. would not know if for example the arm should rotate around the shoulder or if the. whole body should rotate around the shoulder, Figure 1 The root joint the joint below the hip joint. 4 1 2 Skinning and paint weights, To attach the skeleton to the character mesh the Maya Skin Tool is used The.
computer calculates what parts of the body mesh is affected by the corresponding. joint This is as simple as first selecting the skeleton root then the character mesh. and then selecting Smooth Bind under the Skin Tool menu However there are still. many things the software does not calculate correctly which cause some joints to. have control over other joints that they should not Then the rigger would have to. paint weights on the character on areas that each joint would affect. 4 1 3 Digital Tutors Character Setup in Maya, Digital Tutors is a company that makes video tutorials in 3D modeling and. animation 1 They are officially authorized instructors in Maya as well to other. computer software One of their tutorial videos called Character Setup in Maya. teaches how to build a more advanced character rig for a character This standard. rig has been implemented on the character in this thesis. 4 2 Parenting objects, When rigging there is a technique to make objects follow other objects by making. them parents and children It is a simple relationship between two or more objects. making the child object or objects following the parent object in translation scaling. and rotation If for example a muscle object in Maya is going to be attached or. following a skeleton joint the muscle should be a child to the joint the parent. since it is the joint that controls the limb in a 3D rig. 4 2 1 Other constraints,There are also other types of constraints 5. Point constraint makes the child follow the parent if the parent is translated. but does not scale or rotate with the parent, Aim constraint makes the child object follow a translating object with. rotation such as an eyeball following a passing bird It does not translate. rotate or scale with the parent, Orient constraints makes the child rotate with the parent but does not scale.
or translate with it, Scale constraint makes the child scale with the parent but it does not. translate or rotate with it, Parent constraint is similar to the regular parenting and lets the child. translate with the parent but rotate around the parents pivot point It does. not however scale with the parent but the distance between the parent and. the child does scale making the child moving closer or farther away. depending if the parent is scaling out or in,4 3 Using muscles in character rigs. Building muscles underneath a 3D character skin is something that has been used. many times before to make a characters skin move more realistic The concept is to. build for example a bicep muscle and animate in the same manner as an arm. bends The muscle shape will then push the skin as it would in real life The muscles. are also attached to the joints or bones as they are in a real body. 4 3 1 Previous methods, This topic reviews methods before the tool Maya Muscle System was established. Previously the muscle was first manually built to resemble a real muscle The tricky. For the muscle rig the Digital Tutors Introduction to Maya Muscle will be used to learn and understand how the muscles should be set up I will also view the Autodesk s movie instructions to learn how the system works 3 2 Animating

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