Introduction to the Study of Military History

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Introduction to the Study of,for Canadian Students. COLONEL C P STACEY O C O B E C D,FORMER DIRECTOR DIRECTORATE OF HISTORY. CANADIAN FORCES HEADQUARTERS,Sixth Edition 4th Revision. DIRECTORATE OF TRAINING,CANADIAN FORCES HEADQUARTERS. This sixth edition 4th revision of Military History for Canadian Students. has been published in response to a continuing demand particularly by the. Royal Canadian Army Cadet Corps, Revisions have been limited to minor textual changes and the book lists.
have been brought up to date In its present form this book continues to. serve as a useful introduction to the study of military history. W A B Douglas,Director of History,National Defence Headquarters. F O R E W O R D,THE STUDY OF MILITARY HISTORY, This pamphlet is designed to provide an introduction to the study of mili. tary history suitable for Canadian students and particularly for members of. the Canadian Officers Training Corps, It is not intended to provide in itself a completely adequate account of the. subject but merely to supplement other books such as Colonel A H Burne s. The Art of War on Land Books by British and American authors usually take. little account of Canadian aspects of military history and while it is obviously. desirable that Canadian students should not limit their knowledge of the subject. to Canadian campaigns it is equally important that they should know some. thing of the military history of their own country This pamphlet accordingly. offers nine examples of campaigns of Canadian interest chosen from different. periods of history It also includes a very brief history of the development of. Canadian Army organization All this material is reprinted from the Canadian. Army Journal, The comments on the campaigns are presented mainly in terms of the usu. ally accepted Principles of War Those principles in the form adopted by the. Canadian Chiefs of Staff are printed as an appendix Another appendix offers. definitions of a few military terms with which the student requires to be fa. miliar A very brief list of books for further reading is also included. Some knowledge of military history is an essential part of any officer s. education It is unnecessary to labour the argument There has been no great. modern commander who has not been in some degree a student of war and. while it might be argued that changing conditions and changing weapons. reduce the value of the study of the campaigns of the past the fact remains. that the fundamental problems and principles of military leadership do not. change as a result of technological advances The Principles of War can be. illustrated from ancient as well as modern campaigns There is in fact no. campaign of whatever date from which something cannot be learned con. cerning the behaviour of human beings at war, The intelligent officer will not of course expect the study of history to pro.
vide him with formulas to overcome every situation that may confront him An. officer who tries to solve his problems by consciously searching the historical. precedents will not have a long career Nevertheless the judicious study of. history can be an essential aid even in tactical or administrative matters This is. particularly the case naturally with recent history Many lessons have been. learned over and over again at unnecessary cost in lives simply because of. neglect of the experience of the past, It is not in matters of tactical detail however that military history makes. its main contribution to the education of a soldier The historical study of. military institutions and campaigns is an admirable method of training and. conditioning the mind for the solution of the problems of the present and. the future By thoughtfully reading the records of the campaigns and great. captains of the past the modern soldier can discover the qualities of mind. and heart which go to the making of a great commander and can thereby. prepare himself for his own future tasks Providence says Colonel G F. R Henderson in his life of Stonewall Jackson is more inclined to side. with the big brains than with the big battalions Jackson s own career is. evidence that the best means of training the intellect for the larger problems. of command is the study of past wars,TABLE OF CONTENTS. PREFACE ii,FOREWORD The Study of Military History iii. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANADIAN ARMY,I The First Two Centuries The Old Militia 1. II The Volunteer Militia 1855 1902 11,III The Early Twentieth Century 1902 1918 22.
IV The Canadian Army 1919 1953 31,CAMPAIGNS AND BATTLES 1690 1945. SIR WILLIAM PHIPS ATTACK ON QUEBEC 1690 47,THE CONQUEST OF CANADA 1758 1760 57. THE DEFENCE OF UPPER CANADA 1812 65,THE NORTH WEST CAMPAIGN 1885 75. THE CAPTURE OF VIMY RIDGE 1917 86,THE BATTLE OF AMIENS 1918 98. THE CONQUEST OF SICILY 1943 109,THE NORMANDY ASSAULT 1944 122.
THE BATTLE OF THE SCHELDT 1944 134,APPENDICES,A The Principles of War 147. B Glossary of Some Basic Terms Commonly,Used in Military History 150. C Books for Further Reading 151,The Attack on Quebec 1690 51. The Conquest of Canada 1758 1760 59,The Detroit Campaign 1812 67. The North Shore Line 27 March 1885 78,North West Campaign 1885 80.
Vimy Ridge April 1917 89,The Battle of Amiens 8 11 August 1918 104. The Conquest of Sicily July August 1943 112,The Normandy Assault 6 12 June 1944 128. Battle of the Scheldt October November 1944 137,THE DEVELOPMENT OF. THE CANADIAN ARMY,I The First Two Centuries The Old Militia. The history of the Army in Can The French Regime, ada is as long as the history of the It can be said that a militia based.
country itself and forms a larger on the principle of universal service. part of it than many Canadians real existed in the St Lawrence valley. ize The Canadian soldier of today and in Acadia from the earliest years. is the heir of a very old and a very of French settlement there in the first. proud tradition and a tradition pe decade of the seventeenth century In. culiarly his own The Canadian every pioneer community surrounded. Army shares many historical experi by warlike natives every settler must. ences with other forces particu perforce be a soldier too on occasion. larly the British Army but some of and French Canada was no excep. those that helped to shape it are tion, uniquely Canadian and are shared About the middle of the century. with nobody when there were still only a couple, The present account is no more of thousand settlers in New France. than a thumbnail sketch of the long something like a formal militia sys. process that has brought the Army to tem began to take shape We have an. its present stage of development It order issued in 1651 by the Governor. mentions only the salient points in to the captain of the inhabitants of. the story It is concerned primarily Three Rivers requiring the people. with organization not with cam to have arms and to drill and to take. paigns and battles it is designed to turns at guard duty After 1663. provide some background for those when company rule ended and the. more dramatic episodes which are French Crown assumed direct control. rather more familiar to most Canadi of the colony an efficient and formi. ans and some of which are described dable defence organization came into. elsewhere in this pamphlet existence,2 INTRODUCTION TO MILITARY HISTORY. The basic conditions which made These were of two categories units. such an organization necessary are of the regular army of France the. evident Three menaces faced New troupes de terre and units of colo. France the Iroquois who terrorized nial regulars the troupes de la ma. the colony for many decades the rine, British colonies which were much Regiments of the French regular. more populous than the French and army proper served in Canada at only. which were involved in four long and two periods In 1665 the famous. bitter wars with them from 1689 on Carignan Sali res Regiment arrived. wards and behind the British colo to conduct a campaign against the. nies the naval and military power of Iroquois Most of it was sent back to. Britain herself which at last was France in 1667 68 and regular regi. brought to bear to destroy the empire ments appear in Canada again only in. of France in America That New 1755 when the last great struggle for. France succumbed to these menaces the colony is beginning In 1758. only after over seventy years of con Montcalm had eight fine French. flict was due in great part to the effi regular battalions under his com. ciency of her military system mand Two more were at Louisbourg. The system was effectively cen in Cape Breton Island These regu. tralized in a manner unknown in the lars were the most formidable ele. thirteen English colonies At the ment in the final defence of New. head of it was the Governor who in France, addition to being the political ruler However from the time when the.
of the colony was also the com Carignan regiment was withdrawn. mander of all its military forces He the colony was garrisoned by regular. retained this position even in the forces permanently localized there. presence of a large force of regulars These were termed troupes de la ma. from France commanded by a senior rine simply because they were under. general In the last days of French the Ministry of Marine which ad. rule this centralization of authority ministered the French colonies to. long a source of strength to the col call them marines as is sometimes. ony became a disadvantage for it done is misleading They were or. enabled Governor de Vaudreuil to ganized in independent companies. interfere with the military disposi which were united into battalions. tions of Montcalm with injurious only when some great crisis required. effect it As a result of this organization, The basis of the defence system of their discipline and general effi. New France was the presence of a ciency were rather lower than those. considerable body of regular troops of the regulars proper The number. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANADIAN ARMY 3, of companies varied from time to these captains of militia acquired. time In 1687 there were 32 Before civil as well as military functions and. the beginning of the Seven Years became the local administrators and. War there were 30 but in 1756 the mouthpieces for the central govern. number was increased to 40 the au ment, thorized strength of each being fixed In the frontier wars of the seven. at 65 men In the course of time the teenth and eighteenth centuries the. commissioned ranks of these compa militia of New France had an impor. nies had come to be filled largely tant part Since the militia companies. with Canadians the men were re comprised all the able bodied men of. cruited in France but there may have their parishes it will be understood. been some Canadians among them that they could be called out for ser. too vice as a whole only in great emer,gencies such as that arising out of. The third element in the Canadian Phips attack in 1690 when the mili. defensive system was the Militia tia played a vital role However it. What may perhaps be called the first was easy to call upon the companies. generalized Canadian militia regula to furnish detachments for prolonged. tions are contained in a letter from or distant service and it may be as. King Louis XIV to Governor de sumed that these would as far as pos. Courcelles dated 3 April 1669 It sible be composed of volunteers. instructs him to divide the inhabi Small militia forces of this sort are. tants into companies to appoint offi found taking part along with the. cers and to ensure that drill is car regulars in almost every action the. ried out once a month and that the French fought against the English. militiamen have arms and ammuni and their Indian allies It was in the. tion ready for use at all times Nor guerrilla warfare of the forests that. mally as the system developed each the Canadian militiaman made his. parish had one company of militia greatest and most distinctive contri. composed of all the male inhabitants bution In the words of Parkman the. capable of bearing arms but a popu habitant was more than ready at any. lous parish might have two or more, The Captain of Militia was an impor A report written by General Murray in 1762.
sketches the organization as the British found it at. tant man in the parish He was not the Conquest The Canadians are formed into a. the seigneur but a substantial habi militia for the better regulation of which each par. tant whose commission served to ish in proportion to its extent and number of inhabi. tants is divided into one two or more Companies, confer upon him a position in the who have their proper officers From these Com. community second only to that of the panies detachments are formed and sent to any. distance and in 1759 and 1760 the whole were in, seigneur himself As time passed arms for the defence of their country. 4 INTRODUCTION TO MILITARY HISTORY, time for any hardy enterprise and in the farmer soldiers on duty for only a. the forest warfare of skirmish and few weeks at a time. surprise there were few to match As a normal thing it will be ob. him An absolute government used served the militia had no organization. him at will and experienced leaders higher than the company and it is. guided his rugged valour to the best probably fair to say . Introduction to the Study of MILITARY HISTORY for Canadian Students Edited by COLONEL C P STACEY O C O B E C D FORMER DIRECTOR DIRECTORATE OF HISTORY

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