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INTRODUCTION,TO N UTRITION,AND M ETABOLISM,INTRODUCTION. TO N UTRITION,AND M ETABOLISM,third edition,DAVID A BENDER. Senior Lecturer in Biochemistry,University College London. First published 2002 by Taylor Francis,11 New Fetter Lane London EC4P 4EE. Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada,by Taylor Francis Inc.
29 West 35th Street New York NY 10001, Taylor Francis is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group. This edition published in the Taylor Francis e Library 2004. 2002 David A Bender, All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic. mechanical or other means now known or hereafter invented including photocopying and recording or in any. information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Bender David A, Introduction to nutrition and metabolism David A Bender 3rd ed. Includes bibliographical references and index,1 Nutrition 2 Metabolism I Title.
QP141 B38 2002,612 3 9 dc21 2001052290,ISBN 0 203 36154 7 Master e book ISBN. ISBN 0 203 37411 8 Adobe eReader Format,ISBN 0 415 25798 0 hbk. ISBN 0 415 25799 9 pbk,Preface viii,Additional resources x. chapter 1 Why eat 1,1 1 The need for energy 2,1 2 Metabolic fuels 4. 1 3 Hunger and appetite 6,chapter 2 Enzymes and,metabolic pathways 15.
2 1 Chemical reactions breaking and making,covalent bonds 16. 2 2 Enzymes 19,2 3 Factors affecting enzyme activity 23. 2 4 Coenzymes and prosthetic groups 32,2 5 Classification and naming of enzymes 38. 2 6 Metabolic pathways 39,chapter 3 The role of ATP in metabolism 49. 3 1 The adenine nucleotides 50,3 2 Functions of ATP 50.
3 3 The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP 60,chapter 4 Digestion and absorption 77. 4 1 The gastrointestinal tract 78,4 2 Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates 81. 4 3 Digestion and absorption of fats 92,4 4 Digestion and absorption of proteins 103. 4 5 The absorption of minerals 111,vi Contents,chapter 5 Energy nutrition the metabolism. of carbohydrates and fats 117,5 1 Estimation of energy expenditure 118.
5 2 Energy balance and changes in body weight 126, 5 3 Metabolic fuels in the fed and fasting states 128. 5 4 Energy yielding metabolism 132,5 5 The metabolism of fats 150. 5 6 Tissue reserves of metabolic fuels 156,5 7 Gluconeogenesis the synthesis of glucose from. non carbohydrate precursors 167,chapter 6 Overweight and obesity 174. 6 1 Desirable body weight 174,6 2 The problems of overweight and obesity 178.
6 3 The causes and treatment of obesity 183,chapter 7 Diet and the diseases. of affluence 192,7 1 The diseases of affluence 193. 7 2 Types of evidence linking diet and diseases of. affluence 193,7 3 Guidelines for a prudent diet 200. 7 4 Free radicals and antioxidant nutrients 211,7 5 Other protective non nutrients in foods 220. chapter 8 Protein energy malnutrition,problems of undernutrition 229.
8 1 Problems of deficiency 230,8 2 Protein energy malnutrition 232. 8 3 Marasmus 233,8 4 Cachexia 237,8 5 Kwashiorkor 239. chapter 9 Protein nutrition and metabolism 243,9 1 Nitrogen balance and protein requirements 244. 9 2 Protein synthesis 255,9 3 The metabolism of amino acids 265. Contents vii,chapter 10 The integration and control.
of metabolism 286,10 1 Patterns of metabolic regulation 287. 10 2 Intracellular regulation of enzyme activity 288. 10 3 Responses to fast acting hormones by,covalent modification of enzyme proteins 293. 10 4 Slow acting hormones changes in enzyme,synthesis 300. 10 5 Hormonal control in the fed and fasting states 302. 10 6 Selection of fuel for muscle activity 306,10 7 Diabetes mellitus a failure of regulation of. blood glucose concentration 310,chapter 11 Micronutrients the vitamins.
and minerals 322,11 1 The determination of requirements and. reference intakes 323,11 2 Vitamin A 332,11 3 Vitamin D 342. 11 4 Vitamin E 348,11 5 Vitamin K 353,11 6 Vitamin B1 thiamin 358. 11 7 Vitamin B2 riboflavin 362,11 8 Niacin 366,11 9 Vitamin B6 374. 11 10 Vitamin B12 379,11 11 Folic acid 384,11 12 Biotin 395.
11 13 Pantothenic acid 397,11 14 Vitamin C ascorbic acid 400. 11 15 Minerals 407,Appendix 416,Glossary 418,CD licence agreement 449. The food we eat has a major effect on our physical health and psychological wellbeing. An understanding of the way in which nutrients are metabolized and hence of the. principles of biochemistry is essential for an understanding of the scientific basis of. what we would call a prudent or healthy diet, My aim in the following pages is to explain both the conclusions of the many. expert committees that have deliberated on the problems of nutritional requirements. diet and health over the years and also the scientific basis on which these experts have. reached their conclusions Much what is now presented as facts will be proven to be. incorrect in years to come This book is intended to provide a foundation of scientific. knowledge and understanding from which to interpret and evaluate future advances. in nutrition and health sciences, Nutrition is one of the basic sciences that underlie a proper understanding of health. and human sciences and the ways in which human beings and their environment. interact In its turn the science of nutrition is based on both biochemistry and. physiology on the one hand and the social and behavioural sciences on the other. This book contains such biochemistry as is essential to an understanding of the science. of nutrition, In a book of this kind which is an introduction to nutrition and metabolism it is not.
appropriate to cite the original scientific literature which provides the sometimes. conflicting evidence for the statements made in the clinical problems and some of. the tables of data I have acknowledged my sources of data as a simple courtesy to my. follow scientists and also to guide readers to the original sources of information. Otherwise the suggestions for further reading and Internet sites listed under additional. resources are intended to provide an entry to the scientific literature. Two of my colleagues have provided especially helpful comments Dr Derek Evered. Emeritus Reader in Biochemistry at Chelsea College University of London and. Professor Keith Frayn University of Oxford I would like to thank them for their. kind and constructive criticisms of the second edition of this book I am grateful to. those of my students whose perceptive questions have helped me to formulate and. clarify my thoughts and especially those who responded to my enquiry as to what. they would like to see for the benefit of future generations of students in this new. Preface ix, This book is dedicated to those who will use it as a part of their studies in the hope. that they will be able in their turn to advance the frontiers of knowledge and help. their clients patients and students to understand the basis of the advice they offer. David A Bender,December 2001,Additional resources, At the end of each chapter there is a list of the additional resources that are available. on the CD that accompanies this book All of these can be run directly from the CD. or may be copied onto a hard disk or network for internal use only in educational. institutions instructions for installation are included in the ReadMe file on the CD. To access the resources listed here you will require an IBM compatible PC running. Windows 95 98 or higher,The resources on the CD consist of the following. PowerPoint presentations to accompany each chapter. If you have Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 installed on your computer then you can view. these presentations immediately If not the PowerPoint viewer is also on the CD and. can be installed by running Ppview32 exe from the folder extra files. Teachers are welcome to use these PowerPoint presentations or parts of them in. their lectures provided that due acknowledgement is made they are copyright David. A Bender 2002 and some of the figures are copyright Taylor Francis 2002 and. may not be published for profit in any form,Self assessment quizzes. For most chapters there is a computer based self assessment quiz on the CD This. consists of a series of statements to be marked true or false you assess your confidence. in your answer and gain marks for being correct or lose marks for being incorrect. scaled according to your confidence in your answer. These quizzes are accessed from the program Testme exe on the CD. Simulations of laboratory experiments, There are a number of simulations of laboratory experiments on the CD they are.
accessed by name e g the Enzyme Assay program Chapter 2 is accessed from the. Enzyme Assay icon,Additional resources xi,Problems at the end of chapters. At the end of most chapters there are problems to be considered These are of various. open ended problems to be thought about, defined calculation problems to which there is a correct answer but the answer is. not provided here, problems of data interpretation in which you are guided through sets of data and. prompted to draw conclusions again deliberately no answers to these problems. are provided, clinical problems in which you are given information about a patient and expected. to deduce the underlying biochemical basis of the problem and explain how the. defect causes the metabolic disturbances,Other resources.
Nutrition books, Bender AE and Bender DA Food Tables and Labelling Oxford University Press Oxford. Bender DA and Bender AE Benders Dictionary of Nutrition and Food Technology. Woodhead Publishing Cambridge 1999, Bender DA and Bender AE Nutrition a Reference Handbook Oxford University Press. Oxford 1997, Garrow JS James WPT and Ralph A Human Nutrition and Dietetics 10th edn. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh 2000, Holland B Welch AA Unwin D Buss DH Paul AA and Southgate DAT eds. McCance Widdowson s The Composition of Foods 5th edn RSC HMSO London. Biochemistry books, Campbell PN and Smith AD Biochemistry Illustrated 4th edn Churchill Livingstone.
Edinburgh 2000, Champe PC and Harvey RA Lippincott s Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry 2nd edn. Lippincott Raven Philadelphia 1994, Elliott WH and Elliott DC Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Oxford University Press. Oxford 1997, Frayn KN Metabolic Regulation A Human Perspective Portland Press London 1996. Gillham B Papachristodoulou DK and Thomas JH Wills Biochemical Basis of Medicine. 3rd edn Butterworth Heinemann Oxford 1997,xii Additional resources. Marks DB Marks AD and Smith CM Basic Medical Biochemistry A Clinical Approach. Williams Wilkins Baltimore 1996, Stryer L Biochemistry 4th edn Freeman New York 1995.
Voet D and Voet JG Biochemistry 2nd edn John Wiley New York 1995. Zubay GL Parson WW and Vance DE Principles of Biochemistry William C Brown. Dubuque IA 1995,Review journals, Nutrition Research Reviews published biannually by CABI Publishing Wallington. Oxford for the Nutrition Society, Nutrition Reviews published monthly by the International Life Sciences Institute. Washington DC, Annual Reviews of Biochemistry and Annual Reviews of Nutrition published annually by. Annuals Reviews Inc, If you have problems with some of the chemistry in this book try the following. Wood EJ and Myers A Essential Chemistry for Biochemistry 2nd edn The Biochemical. Society Portland Press London 1991,Internet links,Professional organizations and learned societies.
American Council on Science and Health http www acsh org. American Society for Nutritional Sciences http www nutrition org. Association for the Study of Obesity http www aso org uk. Biochemical Society http www biochemsoc org uk default htm. British Association for the Advancement of Science http www britassoc org uk info. scan5 html,British Dietetic Association http www bda uk com. British Nutrition Foundation http ww nutrition org uk. COPUS Committee on Public Understanding of Science http www royalsoc ac uk. st cop01 htm, International Society for the Study of Obesity http www iaso org home html. International Union of Nutritional Sciences home page http www monash edu au. Learning and Teaching Support Network bioscience http ltsn ac uk NV. bioframes htm, National Sports Medicine Institute http nsmi org uk. North American Association for the Study of Obesity http www naaso org. Nutrition Society http www nutsoc org,Additional resources xiii. Information about nutrition and food,Arbor Nutrition Guide http arborcom com.
Eat Well Live Well Research and Information Centre Monash University http. www healthyeating org, Food and Nutrition Information Center US Department of Agriculture http. www nal usda gov fnic, International Food Information Service http www ifis org. Martindale s Virtual Nutrition Center http www sci lib uci edu HSG Nutrition html. Nutrition web sites reviewed from Tufts University http navigator tufts edu. General research tools and information, Cornell Cooperative Extension a useful source of information on nutrition and. agriculture http www cce cornell edu,Enzyme database http www . INTRODUCTION TO NUTRITION AND METABOLISM third edition DAVID A BENDER Senior Lecturer in Biochemistry University College London

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