Injuries in extreme sports link springer com

Injuries In Extreme Sports Link Springer Com-Free PDF

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Laver et al Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2017 12 59 Page 2 of 8. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an epidemio Westman evaluated the skydiving injury rate during. logic overview of the available literature on common five consecutive years and more than half a million. injuries affecting the extreme athletes the risk of their jumps in Sweden 18 The incidence of non fatal events. occurrence and available prevention measures in this was found to be 48 per 100 000 jumps or 2100 jumps. athletic population per incident as total or 3200 jumps per licensed jum. pers and 88 of those occurred around the landing, Epidemiology of extreme sports injuries with 51 of injuries involved the lower extremities 19. Despite great evolution in traditional sports epidemiology involved the upper extremities 18 involved the back. injury mechanisms in ES are less understood Higher in and spine and 7 involved the head with 41 of the in. jury rates are seen in two groups new and inexperienced juries categorized as minor 47 as moderate and 12. athletes who have just started engaging in extreme sports as severe Most serious injuries were experienced by. and experienced extremists 4 In some of these ES we licensed skydivers while students in training had a six. do not have a clear picture of the injury pattern due to times higher injury rate Interestingly women over. lack of formal recorded events What we do observe is an presented with injuries in this study and they also had a. injury increase during competitions rather than higher proportion of landing injuries than men. training a trend well recognized in common team sports Although many parameters and participants may have. 9 10 as athletes are trying to push their limits even changed over the last 20 years injury rates remain simi. further for prizes audience or fame lar Modern equipment has decreased overall morbidity. and mortality but it has also led to faster landings with. Specific extreme sports and their associated increased limb injuries. Skydiving BASE jumping, Skydiving is a major air sports of parachuting from an BASE jumping BASE stands for Building Antenna. aircraft the International Parachuting Commission Span a bridge arch or dome and Earth a cliff or. IPC reported in 2009 approximately 5 5 million jumps other natural formation often less than 500 ft above. made by almost one million jumpers in 40 countries ground level has around 3000 active members it is. 11 including tandem jumps The reported number of considered the most dangerous adventure sports in the. jumpers self operating their equipment added up to world and a skydiving offshoot using specially adapted. some 220 000 skydivers performing some 4 7 million parachutes to jump from fixed objects Fig 1. skydives 12 with the majority of jumps being per Very few studies have been conducted on this small. formed by a small number of skydivers whereas a larger unique population Soreide et al determined that BASE. number of participants perform fewer jumps 13 17 jumping is associated with a five to eightfold risk for fa. Since the late 1980s a few epidemiological studies tality or injury when compared to regular skydiving 19. have been conducted in order to establish the injury and The fatality rate associated with BASE jumping was. fatality rates associated with the sport Fatalities are seen found to be 0 4 per 1000 jumps from a single site 19 al. more frequently in those who are considered expert or though lacking information on demographic characteris. seasoned jumpers 60 vs 20 with 71 occurring tics or jumpers experience level In a study by Monasterio. where the skydiver had at least one good parachute on and Mei Dan among 35 experienced BASE jumpers 20. with the majority of fatalities 79 been caused by an estimated injury rate of 0 4 was found in 9914 jumps. human error 12 a finding similar to Soreide s results 19 Twenty one. Barrows et al documented jumping incidents during 60 jumpers in that study were involved in 39 accidents. two consecutive world free fall skydiving conventions in The majority of accidents 28 accidents 72 involved. Illinois in 2000 2001 13 They followed 8976 skydivers the lower limbs 12 31 involved the back spine 7 18. making 117 000 skydives in 20 days indicating a total the upper limb and 1 3 was a head injury It seems the. injury rate of 170 per 100 000 jumps while only 30 of sports attracts predominantly male participants In. those required a visit to an emergency department and Monasterio and Mei Dan s study 75 of injuries were cat. as few as 10 continued to hospital admission Most egorized as moderate or severe as opposed Soreide s series. 66 of the injuries were considered minor with 32 of where most injuries were considered minor 20 This. these were abrasions and contusions and 22 lacera could be explained by the fact that the single high site. tions Of the jumpers who visited the emergency depart 1000 m studied in Soreide s series offered relatively safe. ment for follow up treatment half suffered from jumping conditions allowing greater speed generation be. extremity trauma which was related to lower extremity fore parachute deployment and controlled landing The. in 80 of patients with a rate of 0 5 fractures per rate of injuries requiring hospitalization in Monasterio. 100 000 jumps and Mei Dan s study was 294 per 100 000 jumps and 16. Laver et al Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2017 12 59 Page 3 of 8. Fig 1 BASE jumping With permission and courtesy of Omer Mei Dan. times higher compared to the rate of such injuries in free various studies 27 This wide range could be explained. fall skydiving found by Burrows et al 18 per 100 000 by varying methodology and data collection techniques. jumps 13 A more recent study by Mei Dan et al ana in different series. lyzing fatality rates associated with wingsuit use in BASE In indoor climbing injury rates are much lower with. jumpers showed a growing pattern of wingsuit related fa 0 027 0 079 injuries 1000 h of participation and fatal. talities with 49 wingsuit related fatalities between 2008 ities are very rare 28 Overuse injuries are more com. and 2011 and 90 in the first 8 months of 2013 compared mon in this discipline most commonly involving the. to 16 between 2002 and 2007 21 Most fatalities oc upper extremities mainly finger injuries Although. curred in the summer period in the northern hemisphere climbing relies on the synchronized and optimal func. and were attributed to cliff or ground impact being tion of the whole body activity and performance are pri. mostly the result of flying path miscalculations 21 marily limited by finger and forearm strength Various. gripping techniques lead to transmission of extremely. Climbing high forces to the fingers making overuse injuries of the. Climbing is an adventure sports which has developed fingers and hands the most common complaints in rock. from alpine mountaineering Its popularity has vastly climbers 24 25 28 31 Some injuries such as flexor. grown in the past three decades with the introduction tendon pulley ruptures or the lumbrical shift syndrome. of indoor climbing gyms and climbing walls becoming are very unique and specific for the sports and are rarely. globally spread and evolved to new categories like ice seen in other patient populations 24 Very little data. climbing bouldering speed climbing and aid climbing. reaching an estimated two million participants in Europe. and about nine million in the USA 22 Fig 2, There are various disciplines encapsulated under the. umbrella of climbing some are less risky than others. with sports climbing or free climbing among the safest. A cross sectional survey on rock climbing showed a. lower frequency injury rate compared to football and. horse riding 23 but with more catastrophic or fatal. consequences, Most studies show that the incidence of overuse injur. ies is associated with climbing frequency and difficulty. 24 25 Most injuries are sustained by the lead climber. with falls being the most common mechanism of acute. injuries 26 Overall most registered injuries in climb. ing studies are of minor severity The fatality rate re. Fig 2 Bouldering With permission and courtesy of Volker Schoffl. ported in climbing ranges from 0 to 28 climbers in. Laver et al Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2017 12 59 Page 4 of 8. exists for ice climbing and although severe injuries Lacerations accounted for 42 of all acute injuries. and fatalities occur most recognized injuries are of contusions 13 sprains strains 12 and fractures 8. minor severity and are comparable with other out Thirty seven percent of acute injuries were to the lower. door sports 27 32 extremity and 37 to the head and neck Fifty five per. Most studies on mountaineering report fatality injury cent of injuries resulted from contact with one s own. rates per 1000 climbers or 1000 summits making it board 12 from another surfer s board and 17 from. difficult to compare to the more common 1000 h of the sea floor This data correlates well with previous. sports participation used in other disciplines In moun reports showing high incidence of lacerations caused by. taineering additional environmental factors avalanches the sharp fin the tail or the nose of the surfboard An. crevasses altitude induced illnesses with neurological interesting finding showed a considerable proportion of. dysfunction etc can directly influence injuries and head injury in contrast to the fact very few surfers use. fatalities 33 In high altitudes it is important to also protective headgear 44 45. follow the prevalence of altitude illness estimated Fatality rates are unknown in surfing Reports from. between 28 and 34 above 4000 m 34 35 and can be a Hawaii from 1993 to 1997 found that bodyboarders and. major cause of injury accident or even death 36 38 surfers accounted for 17 of 238 ocean related drownings. 46 This data includes fatal shark attacks As 50 of a. Surfing surfer s time is spent paddling and 45 is spent. The sports of wave surfing is ever growing with a huge remaining still while only 3 5 is spent actually riding. market involved commercialization of surfing apparel waves most overuse injuries derive from paddling. and the surfing lifestyle fashion trends and media 47 48 Other data found overuse injuries to the shoul. coverage In 2009 it was estimated that there were more der 18 back 16 neck 9 and knee 9 42. than 2 4 million surfers in the USA 39 Despite being Injury prevention in surfing is practiced by following. one of the most popular outdoor sports in the world basic safety recommendations such as maintaining. less than ten studies have been conducted on wave adequate swimming skills the ability to swim 1 km in. surfing less than 20 min and being comfortable swimming alone. Surfing is considered relatively safe compared to more in the ocean 49 familiarizing with the surfing environ. traditional sports A survey of self reported injuries in ment and conditions entry and points currents and. Australia in 1983 found 3 5 moderate to severe injuries underwater hazards avoiding surfing to exhaustion and. resulting in lost days of surfing or requiring medical safely practicing breath holding training Using adequate. care per 1000 surfing days 40 The most common in equipment is also essential such as temperature. juries requiring medical attention or resulting in inability appropriate wetsuits protecting against hypothermia. to surf were lacerations 41 and soft tissue injuries protected rounded and shock absorbing surfboard. 35 A recent Australian survey found a rate of 2 2 sig noses and fins trailing edges and a board leash to keep. nificant injuries per 1000 surfing days 41 equating to the surfer s board close at hand and the board can be. 0 26 injuries surfer year of those 45 2 were caused by used as a flotation device should a surfer become. collision with another surfer or surfboard Distribution exhausted or injured. of lacerations sprains and contusions were similar to. other reported rates but they also reported 11 disloca Skiing and snowboarding. tion rate and 9 fractures Skiing and snowboarding are the two main piste based. Nathanson et al evaluated acute competitive surfing snow sports With roots in Nordic cross country. injuries at 32 professional and amateur surfing contests skiing Alpine skiing gradually evolved over time from. worldwide between 1999 and 2005 42 The injury rate method of transportation in Scandinavia thousands of. found was 5 7 per 1000 athlete exposures or 13 per years ago into the present recreational and competitive. 1000 h of competitive surfing with 6 6 significant injur sport becoming a winter Olympic sports in Garmisch in. ies per 1000 h of competitive surfing This injury rate 1936 with snowboarding becoming an Olympic sports. compares favorably to those found in American collegi in 1998 Fig 3. ate football 33 per 1000 h soccer 18 per 1000 h and Although variable between resorts currently approxi. basketball 9 per 1000 h where similar methods of data mately 60 of those on the slopes are Alpine skiers and. collection and injury definition were used 43 The rela 30 35 are snowboarders while the remainder perform. tive injury risk was calculated to be 2 4 times greater ski boarding snowblading and Telemark skiing Recent. when surfing in waves overhead or bigger and 2 6 times estimation report around 200 million skiers and 70. greater when surfing over a rock or reef bottom million snowboarders active in the world today. In a Web site based survey 1348 individuals reported The current risk of a recreational snow sport related. though lacking information on demographic characteris tics or jumpers experience level In a study by Monasterio and Mei Dan among 35 experienced BASE jumpers 20 an estimated injury rate of 0 4 was found in 9914 jumps a finding similar to Soreide s results 19 Twenty one 60 jumpers in that study were involved in 39 accidents

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