Immersive Analytics for Geology Field Sketch Like

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current smartphone and tablet Android devices , We can summarize our main contributions as follows 1 The. integration of immersive analytics techniques to a case study which. combines AR with an interactive visualization which resembles the. field sketches performed by geologists 2 The results of a user. study of the geologists interaction with the proposed immersive. tool 3 Interesting insights of the remaining challenges for the. geological context as an area for further exploration of immersive. analytics ,2 I MMERSIVE A NALYTICS IN G EOSCIENCES. Fieldwork involves making careful observations and measurements. in the field which can be really challenging even for experienced. professionals 2 This strong visual approach for the measurement. and analysis of geological data becomes an excellent area to explore. the application of immersive visualization and analytics 8 . Geovisualization in immersive environments was explored by. means of Virtual Reality Westerteiger 14 described how useful. immersive technologies can be used for the fieldwork planning and. for the analysis of the data samples In fact complex 3D volume. data can be intuitively explored using immersive environments 1 Figure 2 Typical workflow performed by geologists to analyze and. interpret folded structures , Thanks to the massive adoption of mobile devices immersive. technologies can be used in a broader sense including the applica . tion of visualization methods for data gathering and analysis during. the fieldwork AR simplifies the comprehension process of under 3 I MMERSIVE I NTERACTIVE S KETCH L IKE V ISUALIZATION. standing geological data by showing relationships among data to the 3 1 Typical workflow Geological Mapping. surface AR devices have been proved to offer significant improve . ments when performing complex tasks and in the interpretation of Geologists fieldwork oriented to folded structures interpretation. complex systems in the real world 5 6 10 In situ visualization involves a careful iterative observation process see Fig 2 Even. by means of AR was explored to present on site visualization and though the prior fieldwork planning and preparation is an important. interactive exploration beyond tabular data and basic 2D plots 12 task that can be done in the office the actual fieldwork becomes. Extended overview techniques were also evaluated using AR in a really daunting activity because of its both observational and. outdoor environments in order to overcome the problem of data interpreting nature Geological folds can be clearly observed from. visualization over large areas 13 distant points of view see Fig 1 Right The geologist can observe. the field attitude of folds vital information to interpret the complex. AR has proven its potential in this area as its main feature is geological processes responsible of their formation During this. to assist the user during the interpretation of 2D data and the cor stage the geologist obtains a general insight and takes notes of. responding 3D features in the real environment Moreover taking the relevant features to be measured which means bearing and. care of the visual coherence of the output image i e spatial regis inclination angles . tration and visual cues and the application of situated visualization. However in areas subjected to several episodes of folding it is. techniques 7 11 i e visualization techniques used to present AR. really challenging to identify the measurement location which has. information grants a more effective integration of augmentations. been previously defined from a distant viewpoint Working on each. within the real scene However outdoor AR still has some well. selected location involves a complex constant association between. known drawbacks mainly due to limited device capabilities 11 . 2D information depicted in the sketch and the 3D information. For instance the display technology and the built in inertial and. present in the real environment In fact the geologist must be. orientation sensors tend to be inaccurate In addition the necessity. cautious enough to not bias their attention to the folds that can be. of all these sensors in conjunction becomes a problem in terms of. easily recorded because of the references present in the environment. energy consumption Another challenging problem is to incorporate. i e trees in the field or distinctive rock structures . the proper interactions to explore data since the augmentations must. Finally after the fieldwork the geologist analyze the collected. complement and not obscure the conducted work by the user . data in the laboratory Nevertheless the drawn sketches over the. Nevertheless there is still an open opportunity to further incor fieldwork are still useful to link the gathered data to the outdoor. porate these technologies to different activities conducted by pro environment . fessionals of geosciences Our case study analyzed and evaluated. the workflow performed by geologists to study and understand geo 3 2 Proposed Immersive Tool. logical data In particular we explored the potential of combining. AR and sketch like interactive visualizations to assist the analysis We focused on the described workflow and explored an immersive. of geological structures Based on the conducted evaluation we analytic tool to assist the geologist on two main steps . show how these technologies help to bridge the gap between the to get a general insight of the area of work . current data exploitation they are used to and the one offered by the to work on the selected locations . immersive analysis Based on our experience in interdisciplinary The developed immersive tool provides a 3D terrain overlay. research work we envision an increasing interest of professionals of that can be used to incorporate geo tagged information see Fig 1. other areas to incorporate immersive and interactive exploration to Right Moreover the geologist can take a snapshot of the location. their respective fieldwork he she is observing and will explore later This snapshot is useful. of the image , The step i consists on downsampling the input image applying. n steps of a median blur the number of steps depends on the im . age resolution The edge features are obtained using an adaptive. threshold The output from this step is an image with edge features . The step ii involves obtaining a reduced color palette of the. initial image We used a bilateral filter to reduce the color palette of. the image method generally used to produce cartoon effect images . Then the result from the previous step is combined with this color. reduced image , Finally a couple of post processing methods are applied to the re .
sult of this second step It consists of a skeletonize method followed. by an open close morphological operations to obtain sharpening. edges As a result the final image to be displayed is obtained . 3 4 Methods and Implementation, Since we wanted to focus on common mobile devices due to its. massive use we developed the immersive AR tool using the Android. platform We used OpenCV to detect features in the images and. OpenGL ES 3 0 to render the results of the feature detection The. render engine and critic time tasks were fully implemented using. the Native Development Kit NDK and Java Native Interface JNI . allowing a fluid real time performance experience . We have a fully functional immersive system in which the user is. provided with an interactive augmented view using a virtual terrain. superimposed over the real one We use Digital Elevation Models. DEM provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM . as height maps for the terrain synthesis 4 Due the limitations of the. Figure 3 Top Example of geological folds Bottom The same image hardware available in commercial mobile devices we used the lower. but with the sketch like visualization used to enhance the features of resolution 3 arc second per tile SRTM instead of the 1 arc second. the folds SRTM Since large terrain height maps contains billions of samples . still far too many for render interactively by brute force 9 we. choose Geometry Clipmaps as the Level of Detail LOD technique. for the next step because it allows to relate points of interest identi to allow real time rendering The render engine design was based. fied in the overview with the actual location of the geologist in the on the 3D virtual globe engine presented by Cozzi et al 3 . field It also comprehends an interactive sketch like visualization The user can add billboards virtual 3D models and pick positions. associated to the area where the measures are going to be taken over the terrain Also the user can store all the data gathered in the. Furthermore the geologist can use finger gestures on the snapshot field in an internal database this includes storing the position of. to move a virtual window that encloses a visualization enhancing multiple points of interest and sketches from different viewpoints . the edge features of the folded structures see Fig 3 Regarding to. the second main step of the traditional workflow the system allows 4 U SER E VALUATION. to add environment information and the geologist can still interact We designed a user evaluation to measure the potential of the pro . with the sketch like visualization to further interpret its features posed tool After a short introduction to the system we proposed to. using the collected data conduct their usual workflow assisted by the system Five geologists. In addition to these features the immersive tool has a great ad of ages from 30 to 57 with mean of 44 0 were the participants of. vantage because it can be seamlessly incorporated to the traditional the formal evaluation three males and two females There was. workflow This is due to the integration of elements to the immersive no restriction to the time spent in each session and we observed. system that are present in the typical workflow e g sketch maps taking notes of how they performed the evaluation We conducted. compass GPS devices etc It does not replace the traditional tools the evaluation in Sierra de La Ventana Buenos Aires Argentina. but offers an integrated view of the environment allowing to get because it is interesting from the geological point of view and also. insight of relationships among geological data that otherwise would because the geological structures can be measured in a relative ac . be difficult to discover For instance it grants an augmented view of cessible mountains zone 1200 m a s l The devices used were two. the environment easing the link of 2D information to the 3D nature smartphones a LG Nexus 4 with a 4 7 display and a LG G3 D855. of the geological structures Moreover the interactive sketch like TITANIUM with a 5 5 display A Samsung Galaxy Tab S with a. visualization is relevant when the geologist is collecting data be 8 4 display was also provided . cause it allows to keep track of the points of interest identified from. a distant point of view and those on site location where the geologist Observations and Feedback. is actually making the observations and measurements i e distant. Several observations were generated during our interdisciplinary. view in contrast to on site view , work and we also obtained a rich feedback from the geologists that. performed the fieldwork evaluation We consider relevant as the sys . 3 3 Sketch like visualization based on a edge detector. tem is in an early stage to expose feedback details collected during. In this prior stage the sketch like visualization that resembles the this initial evaluation We observed and perceived that participants. field sketch drawn by geologists was designed mainly as an edge really engaged interacting with the system From a questionnaire. detector over a non photorealistic rendering It consists of two main interview 5 best positive score and 1 worst negative score the over . steps i apply the edge detector to the moving window and ii all result was positive towards the system mean 4 2 sd 0 84 . overlay the result of the first step over a non photorealistic version Participants considered that the system complements their fieldwork. mean 4 2 sd 0 84 and that it is easy to use mean 4 0 R EFERENCES. sd 0 7 They acknowledged that the visualization was of signifi 1 M I Billen O Kreylos B Hamann M A Jadamec L H Kellogg . cance to their geological structure analysis mean 4 2 sd 0 45 O Staadt and D Y Sumner A geoscience perspective on immersive. However from the questionnaire it was not clear if the system was 3D gridded data visualization Computers and Geosciences 2008 doi . cumbersome or if it caused fatigue mean 3 8 sd 0 45 10 1016 j cageo 2007 11 009. The geologist appointed that the generated sketch like visualiza 2 A L Coe Geological field techniques Wiley Blackwell 2010 . tion helps to perceive information that is difficult to see or is hidden 3 P Cozzi and K Ring 3D engine design for virtual globes . at first sight Folded structures that are hard to notice on site are 4 T G Farr P A Rosen E Caro R Crippen R Duren S Hensley . more easily recognized with the proposed sketch like visualization M Kobrick M Paller E Rodriguez L Roth D Seal S Shaffer J Shi . Besides on this initial stage the visualization is based on a edge detec mada J Umland M Werner M Oskin D Burbank and D Alsdorf . tor the geologists liked the results it provides because it highlights The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission . AR and sketch like interactive visualizations to assist the analysis of geological structures Based on the conducted evaluation we show how these technologies help to bridge the gap between the current data exploitation they are used to and the one offered by the immersive analysis Based on our experience in interdisciplinary

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