Identification of Knowledge Skills and Abilities for Army

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U S Army Research Institute,for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Department of the Army,Deputy Chief of Staff G1,Authorized and approved for distribution. MICHELLE SAMS Ph D,Research accomplished under contract. for the Department of the Army by,ICF International. Technical review by,Mark Crowson Center for Army Leadership.
Scott Beal U S Army Research Institute, DISTRIBUTION Primary distribution of this Technical Report has been made by ARI. Address correspondence concerning this report to U S Army Research Institute for the. Behavioral and Social Sciences ATTN DAPE ARI ZXM 6000 6th Street Bldg 1464. Mail Stop 5610 Ft Belvoir Virginia 22060 5610, FINAL DISPOSITION Destroy this Technical Report when it is no longer needed Do. not return it to the U S Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. NOTE The findings in this Technical Report are not to be construed as an official. Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Form Approved,REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No 0704 0188. 1 REPORT DATE DD MM YYYY 2 REPORT TYPE 3 DATES COVERED From To. April 2014 Final August 2010 August 2012,4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACT NUMBER. Identification of Knowledge Skills and Abilities for Army Design W5J9CQ 11 C 0041. 5b GRANT NUMBER,5c PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER,6 AUTHOR S 5d PROJECT NUMBER.
Heather M K Wolters A790, Trevor Conrad Christopher Riches Robert Brusso Kenny Nicely 5e TASK NUMBER. Ray Morath Heidi Keller Glaze 405,5f WORK UNIT NUMBER. 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME S AND ADDRESS ES 8 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT. U S Army Research Institute ICF International NUMBER. for the Behavioral Social Sciences 9300 Lee Highway. 6000 6 Street Building 1464 Mail Stop 5610 Suite 4300. Fort Belvoir VA 22060 5610 Fairfax VA 22031, 9 SPONSORING MONITORING AGENCY NAME S AND ADDRESS ES 10 SPONSOR MONITOR S ACRONYM S. U S Army Research Institute ARI, for the Behavioral Social Sciences 11 SPONSOR MONITOR S REPORT. 6000 6 Street Building 1464 Mail Stop 5610 NUMBER S. Fort Belvoir VA 22060 5610 Technical Report 1339, 12 DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution Statement A Approved for public release distribution is unlimited.
13 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contracting Officer s Representative Dr Heather M K Wolters. 14 ABSTRACT, The Army Design Methodology is an evolving concept and this research identifies required knowledge skills and abilities. KSAs for leaders and their staffs to effectively use design Identified KSAs can inform and direct training and leader. development that facilitate the application of design and positively impact operational success This research employed. both qualitative and quantitative methods to determine design KSAs Results support a framework of six competencies. and 43 KSA related to the cognitive and social communication components of design In order to enhance the development. and application of design competencies broadly throughout the force the Army needs to identify and select Soldiers with a. propensity to demonstrate the KSAs provide them additional developmental opportunities both inside and outside the. classroom and finally reward them for engaging in design thinking. 15 SUBJECT TERMS, Design Methodology Competencies Knowledge Skills Abilities. 16 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 17 LIMITATION 18 19a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE. OF ABSTRACT NUMBER PERSON,OF PAGES Dorothy Young, a REPORT b ABSTRACT c THIS PAGE Unlimited 68 19b TELEPHONE NUMBER. Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 703 545 2316. Standard Form 298 Rev 8 98,Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39 18. Technical Report 1339,Identification of Knowledge Skills and Abilities.
for Army Design,Heather M K Wolters,U S Army Research Institute. Trevor Conrad,Christopher Riches,Robert Brusso,Kenny Nicely. Ray Morath,Heidi Keller Glaze,ICF International,Fort Leavenworth Research Unit. James W Lussier Chief, U S Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. 6000 6th Street Building 1464,Fort Belvoir VA 22060.
April 2014, Approved for public release distribution is unlimited. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The authors would like to thank those who provided time support and access to research. participants to include COL R Todd Ebel School for Command Preparation Dr Bruce. Stanley School of Advanced Military Studies and Dr Anna Waggener U S Army War. College In addition we wish to especially thank all of those who participated in the research and. offered their time to share their experiences and insights regarding design. IDENTIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE SKILLS AND ABILITIES FOR ARMY DESIGN. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY,Research Requirement, The Army Design Methodology continues to evolve and there is a need to identify the. requisite knowledge skills and abilities KSAs for leaders and their staffs to effectively use. design By ascertaining the relevant KSAs recommendations could be developed to inform and. direct training and leader development that facilitate the application of design and positively. impact operational success, The literature shaped the general understanding of design and the development of a. proposed set of competencies from which to further explore the underlying factors associated. with being able to effectively apply design methodology To validate these competencies design. practitioners were asked to share their experience with design or design type thinking and their. views regarding essential KSAs The input from interviews was then analyzed in order to. compare and contrast their perceptions with what was learned from the literature Once the. competency model was revised to reflect the KSAs derived from the analyses its accuracy and. comprehensiveness were assessed via a survey distributed to multiple practitioners. Overall the research confirmed the accuracy of a general model of six competencies. Holistic Thinking Sensemaking Innovative Thinking Adapting Sensegiving and. Collaborating and 43 KSAs required for design Using existing research and literature as an. initial framework for exploring design understanding of the requirements for applying the. methodology grew and evolved through discussions with design practitioners When the general. model was later proposed for review and confirmation the specified knowledge skills and. abilities found support from a broad array of Army leaders. Utilization and Dissemination of Findings, This research provides a framework for understanding the KSAs and competencies that.
facilitate design thinking and can be used to build a system of screening developing and. rewarding Army leaders capable of excelling at design Early career screening for leaders with. the design KSAs can allow the Army to commit developmental time and resources to those most. likely to excel in design later in their careers Additionally rewarding those who do utilize their. design KSAs indicates to others that design thinking is valued in the Army That will encourage. others to develop their skills to successfully engage in design thinking. IDENTIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE SKILLS AND ABILITIES FOR ARMY DESIGN. INTRODUCTION 1,Operational Environment 1,Existing Need 2. Research Purpose 2,Literature Review 2,Holistic Thinking 3. Sensemaking 7,Sensegiving 10,Adapting 13,Innovative Thinking 15. Collaborating 18,Interview Protocol 20,Interview Participants 21. Interview Procedure 21,Analysis of Interview Data 21.
KSA Survey 23,Survey Participants 23,Analysis of Survey Data 24. RESULTS 24,Content Analysis Findings 24,Survey Findings 25. Holistic Thinking 27,Sensemaking 28,Innovative Thinking 29. Adapting 30,Sensegiving 30,Collaborating 31,DISCUSSION 32. Recommendations for Enhancing the Development and Application of Design KSAs 33. Future Research 37,Conclusion 37,CONTENTS Continued.
REFERENCES 39,APPENDICES, APPENDIX A KSA SURVEY RESULTS DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR KSAs A 1. APPENDIX B KSA CRITICALITY SURVEY RESULTS BY COMPETENCY B 1. Identification of Knowledge Skills and Abilities for Army Design. Acknowledging the unpredictability of war is fundamental to. our view of future conflict We seek to provide concepts and. methods that will better enable us to find our way through the. fog friction and chaos of warfare,General J N Mattis. Commander U S Joint Forces Command,Introduction,Operational Environment. The operational environments of the Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns highlighted. challenges faced by commanders attempting to address highly complex and dynamic problems. The Army s existing decision making processes and procedures were not always well suited to. framing and addressing the novel and fluid situations faced by Army leaders and these apparent. shortcomings prompted the Army to investigate new procedures. For example early in the campaigns of Iraq and Afghanistan Army leaders were finding. it difficult to achieve desired end states using existing concepts such as effects based operations. EBO The Israeli Defense Force IDF also faced similar difficulties in applying EBO in its. own engagements Matthews 2008 For example EBO proved to be too prescriptive. predictive centralized and failed to anticipate the reaction of the complex systems involved. Mattis 2008 In addition at lower echelons the Military Decision Making Process MDMP. could address medium structured problems but lost its utility when the problem and. subsequent solution was difficult to define For example Field Manual 5 0 C1 The. Operations Process U S Department of the Army 2011a describes establishing a safe and. secure environment as an ill structured problem faced by the Army in Iraq in 2003 p 3 3 that. exemplified the type of problem that the current MDMP was not well suited to address. In 2005 the U S Army s School of Advanced Military Studies SAMS began to work. with the IDF and study how Systemic Operational Design SOD philosophy methodologies. and thought structures could be applied to Army campaigns SOD is a holistic approach to. understanding complexity through systems logic and is thought to be well suited to addressing. complex and ill defined problems It relies on discourse to identify explore and exploit new. knowledge that will better frame the problem In contrast to traditional military thinking it. requires non linear constructive and creative thinking Sorrells Downing Blakesley Pendall. The Army recognized the applicability and appropriateness of design for facing complex. problems It presented design as part of a cognitive process in TRADOC Pamphlet 525 5 500. The U S Army Commander s Appreciation and Campaign Design U S Department of the. Army 2008 Design found further adoption at the joint level as the commander of U S Joint. Forces Command General Mattis also recognized the design methodology as better suited than. the current MDMP for guiding the thought processes necessary for shared understanding and the. development of comprehensive solutions Mattis 2008. Although innovative and adaptive Army commanders had already been applying. elements of design informally the establishment of the Army Design Methodology and its. introduction into doctrine helped to codify it as an essential cognitive tool for commanders In. 2010 Field Manual 5 0 The Operations Process described in detail how design is fundamental. to the operations process FM 5 0 describes design as a methodology for applying critical and. creative thinking to understand visualize and describe complex ill structured problems and. develop approaches to solve them U S Department of the Army 2010 p 3 1 In support of. conceptual planning design has four goals understanding ill structured problems anticipating. change creating opportunities and recognizing and managing transitions. Existing Need, The Army Design Methodology continues to evolve As leaders are formally trained to. use design and the operational force has time to apply the methodology more will be learned. about its utility and ways to improve its use In particular there is a need to identify the requisite. knowledge skills and abilities KSA for leaders and their staffs to effectively use design. Improving leader and staff capabilities in design thinking will facilitate the application of a. deeper understanding of operational problems,Research Purpose.
This research had two primary tasks, 1 Ascertain the knowledge skills and abilities necessary for commanders and their staffs. to apply design and facilitate planning and decision making. 2 Develop recommendations for improving the ability of commanders and their staff to. apply the Army Design Methodology, The research was intended to link the academic literature to the practical needs of the. Army and its commanders in terms of applying design By bringing together the experiences of. leaders who have applied design and what is known about critical thinking creative thinking. and collaboration the research could provide informed recommendations on the expertise skills. and characteristics necessary for effective design. Literature Review, A literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying competencies and. underlying knowledge skills and abilities that support commanders and staffs ability to carry. out the Army Design Methodology The focus was on identifying competencies and their. underlying KSAs that appeared critical to effective design and avoiding the pitfall of identifying. Identification of Knowledge Skills and Abilities for Army Design Heather M K Wolters U S Army Research Institute Trevor Conrad Christopher Riches Robert Brusso Kenny Nicely Ray Morath Heidi Keller Glaze ICF International April 2014 United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

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