How to make Labour Migration Management Future Ready

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Box 1 How will automation impact demand for Job search visas allow qualified talent to search on the. labour migration ground,A number of OECD countries such as Germany the. Future demand for labour migrants is likely to be, Netherlands and Norway have or are introducing job. concentrated in certain sectors and occupations This. search visas that allow particular groups of potential. includes a range of jobs not only at the high skilled. labour migrants to come to the country to search for. end caretaking is one example due to an increasing. work Chile for example has created a 12 month visa for. old age dependency ratio and a shortage of qualified. graduates of top global universities to seek work,native born workers In domestic services however. renewable once If they find a job they can stay, robotics and new technologies might partly replace. immigrant workers,Governments may directly subsidise foreign.
recruitment, Automation in the long run will lead to a stronger. When attracting foreign talent is seen as essential some. demand for high skilled labour In the short and, countries step in to subsidise employers In Estonia. medium term however as young entrants in the, Enterprise Estonia subsidises firms hiring foreign. labour market are moving away from occupation at, specialists who had not previously resided in Estonia The. risk of automation recruitment needs for lower, subsidy defrays recruitment and integration costs Korea.
skilled immigrant workers may actually increase, introduced various reduced tax rates for foreign high. How fast will this happen How long is the transition. skilled workers and allows for an optional flat rate on. period Will machines ever replace some types of, earned income in Korea applied for up to five years from. work Should recruitment levels and conditions be, arrival for certain high skilled foreigners in selected firms. adjusted Countries need to ask these questions in, order to not merely navigate but design the future. Ease of status change and retention of a qualified. labour force plays a role, As mobility increases so does competition Most OECD countries offer extended possibilities to.
between countries to attract talent former international students to stay and work in the. Mobile individuals are picking and choosing countries in country upon graduation This is a key element of the. which to study work and invest based partly on how 2016 EU directive on Students and researchers to allow. favourable the policies are regarding family members recent graduates to stay at least nine months to look for. and longer term settlement Although employment a job A number of points based selection systems such. conditions are key to attract talents migration policies as Australia Canada and Korea grant additional points. do make a difference The OECD Talent Attractiveness for host country study experience In most European. Indicators show that many countries could improve their countries years of residence as a student count fully or. ranking by more favourable migration policies for highly partially towards residence requirements for. qualified labour migrants naturalisation To improve retention of labour migrants. outside of metropolitan areas some governments, Reaching out actively to potential labour migrants is support a whole of family approach for settlement. important including spousal welcome services, Most OECD countries have begun to market themselves. to globally mobile individuals An online presence that Future skills needs become less definable. previously only explained and presented the legislation Future selection of labour immigrants may require new. now undertakes promotion Websites like Make it in forms of assessment of their skills Today most OECD. Germany and Workindenmark and similar websites in countries have labour migration systems that select. Estonia Sweden and New Zealand include English labour migrants based on employer demand job offers. language chat functions and service hotlines indicating a subject to basic criteria salary occupation or education. willingness to invest in marketing Some countries such Admitting migrants on the basis of fixed categories of. as Canada go a step further to market their immigration occupation code and educational certificates have. programmes on social media channels and provide rapid already been giving way to other means of assessing. individual responses to specific questions The Talent those skills which best predict economic contribution. Boost programme in Finland includes country brand over time. communications and personalised marketing,2 Migration Policy Debates OECD N 21 January 2020. Flexible selection grids are a start, Points systems which grant points for different skills Migration policies can contribute to human capital. experiences and characteristics and their interaction development of the receiving country. are a current example of a multifactor screening tool For Attracting skilled migrants is one means to bring skills. example the points system in Canada considers the and better link countries into a global circulation of ideas. positive interaction of higher educational degrees with and innovation Knowledge transfer underlies many. different levels of language skills To keep these grids short term programmes to attract international talent. effective an interactive feedback loop between such as Korea s Research Fellowships and Brain Korea 21. research evaluation and parametrisation of the labour Programme. migration management system also needs to be put in To avoid discouraging employers from investing in their. place own employees or reducing investment in local training. some countries like New Zealand require training efforts. Salary can be an additional indicator prior to recruitment Canada requires employers to. Wage can function as an additional indicator of skills and invest in skill development of the native resident. salary thresholds can substitute complex selection grids workforce as part of hiring foreign high skilled workers. A number of countries run programmes that use salary A further approach is to impose a skills levy on. thresholds as the main proxy for skill needs One recruitment of foreign skilled workers In the United. example is the EU Blue Card where the threshold may States and Australia funds from such levies are devoted. be lower when a job is on a shortage occupation list such to training resident workers. lists have been introduced in Germany Latvia and, Luxembourg among others New Zealand s Skilled New technologies can improve matching and.
Migrant Category SMC uses salary thresholds to transparency but need careful balancing. supplement the assessment of skilled employment Current migration systems are designed to deal with a. levels The capacity to quickly adapt this sort of criteria to certain type of matching principally full time dependent. rapidly changing economic realities is key to success employment by a sponsoring firm New data technology. allows for more transparency in hiring and matching. Licencing and recognition issues can be addressed prior foreign labour to present needs at least in theory. to selection, Many labour migrants selected for their skills are Automatic matching platforms to facilitate. nonetheless unable to practise in an occupation due to international recruitments. difficulty in professional licencing One trend has been to. A number of OECD countries such as Australia Canada. shift this process before selection Policies such as the Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Germany. specific temporary visas as offered by Germany allow Netherlands and Sweden as well as the EU have in. for licencing and qualification recognition in the country recent years experimented with public web based. prior to finding employment portals for job matching in addition to existing private. platforms such as Monster and LinkedIn New Zealand. Skill development for origin and destination country runs a matching platform SkillFinder for people who. can occur in parallel wish to work in New Zealand Candidates are filtered by. To address skill needs notably at middle skill levels some the government and their details shared with employers. countries participate in skills development of potential or recruiters in response to vacancies When the job. migrants When destination country private and public matching platform is linked to the migration. actors step in to support training to meet their own management and selection system governments can. needs it becomes a partnership Different cost sharing assure employers that foreign born candidates are. structures can support skills development in origin indeed eligible for immigration Canada operates an. countries ensuring migrants have the skills needed by automatic matching tool on its national employment and. employers abroad and at home Such Skills Mobility job advertising platform Job Bank Employers recruiting. Partnerships might even support return migration or for positions subject to labour market testing must. extend training to a group including some who never advertise their position on this platform and invite. migrate benefiting the home country skills pools Some matched candidates from within Canada to apply for. of these partnerships e g New Zealand and Australia their position. target temporary migration Italy has provisions in place Simplifying procedures and modernizing infrastructure. to ensure that participants in such partnerships are helps. ensured priority access to a work permit,Migration Policy Debates OECD N 21 January 2020 3. Modern labour migration systems can do away with offers a one stop shop for highly qualified immigrants. paper based applications and processing The and entrepreneurs for temporary residence permits. Employment Permits Online System EPOS of Ireland France has started a similar one stop process and priority. allows applying for work permits online or via a mobile visa service for international students The International. app It includes functions to submit supporting House in lemiste City in Estonia provides foreign. documentation and pay fees Similarly Australia aimed specialists with all necessary information and various. at a clearer and faster online migration processing In public services for migration and integration. New Zealand applications submitted for permanent, residence on paper include a higher fee than those Box 2 Will future workers have to migrate. submitted only digitally Chile has already eliminated The entire current labour migration framework is. paper applications for permanent residence permits predicated on a concept of residence and regulation. of residence status Non standard forms of, Expectations of speed and efficiency are ever employment such as remote and virtual work are. increasing increasing and this requires adjusted policies not only. Customer service expectations are high in the digital age for attracting labour migrants but also in a range of. Timing is important those attracted and selected need linked policies such as taxation What defines work. to be able to arrive in the country quickly Employers and labour migrant is thus becoming more fluid. needs often arise on short notice and labour migrants For example there is a growing number of digital. can choose to go elsewhere if they face uncertain waiting nomads who perform their work in countries other. times to pass migration procedures Employers may than where they are fiscally resident If digital nomads. renounce recruitment when the process is long are working from one country s co working space. should they be considered labour migrants If services. Pool based two step systems eliminate application are mostly provided by digital nomads or service. backlogs providers abroad should the latter have work. One increasingly popular approach to reducing permits Should new types of residence permits be. processing backlogs is the two step so called Expression considered to accommodate foreigners employed in a. of Interest EOI system An EOI system builds a pool of third country Countries need to evaluate what new. candidates who meet eligibility criteria from which the set ups are required to regulate migration under such. highest ranked labour migrants are picked in regular new non standard forms of employment. intervals This also eliminates backlogs as the, government can decide the number of candidates it Increasingly complex systems become harder to.
invites to submit their final application,evaluate and explain. Accrediting sponsors and employers allows for fast Labour migration systems have to balance many. track channels but be mindful of SMEs different objectives and keep up with increasingly. To address employers time constraints many OECD differentiating labour market needs Countries often. countries for example Hungary Ireland the United respond to this challenge by creating different sub. Kingdom and Spain have established a fast track system classes and tiers of admission However this risks. for employers and other sponsors that have passed a creating a confusing patchwork of permits and visas In. previous certification process In Slovenia a fast track addition instruments available for labour migration. procedure allows registered high value added or start management have never been more sophisticated and. up companies faster recruitment of foreigners Lithuania complex to implement and evaluate. runs a list of approved sponsors who may recruit directly. No single model of labour migration management dominates Most OECD countries have seen their policies grow more complex and diversified in recent decades with different programmes and tools coming into use providing temporary and permanent streams serving a wide variety of economic goals This continuous innovation aims to improve outcomes adapt to changing environments address new issues

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