Handbook of Usability Testing

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Handbook of Usability Testing Second Edition How to Plan Design and Conduct. Effective Tests,Published by,Wiley Publishing Inc,10475 Crosspoint Boulevard. Indianapolis IN 46256, Copyright 2008 by Wiley Publishing Inc Indianapolis Indiana. Published simultaneously in Canada,ISBN 978 0 470 18548 3. Manufactured in the United States of America,10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted. in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording scanning or. otherwise except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright. Act without either the prior written permission of the Publisher or authorization through. payment of the appropriate per copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center 222 Rosewood. Drive Danvers MA 01923 978 750 8400 fax 978 646 8600 Requests to the Publisher. for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department Wiley Publishing Inc 10475. Crosspoint Blvd Indianapolis IN 46256 317 572 3447 fax 317 572 4355 or online at. http www wiley com go permissions, Limit of Liability Disclaimer of Warranty The publisher and the author make no repre.
sentations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of. this work and specifically disclaim all warranties including without limitation warranties. of fitness for a particular purpose No warranty may be created or extended by sales or. promotional materials The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for. every situation This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged. in rendering legal accounting or other professional services If professional assistance is. required the services of a competent professional person should be sought Neither the. publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom The fact that an. organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and or a potential source of. further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the informa. tion the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make Further. readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or. disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support. please contact our Customer Care Department within the U S at 800 762 2974 outside the. U S at 317 572 3993 or fax 317 572 4002, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data is available from the publisher. Trademarks Wiley the Wiley logo and related trade dress are trademarks or registered. trademarks of John Wiley Sons Inc and or its affiliates in the United States and other. countries and may not be used without written permission All other trademarks are. the property of their respective owners Wiley Publishing Inc is not associated with any. product or vendor mentioned in this book, Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears. in print may not be available in electronic books,About the Authors. Jeff Rubin has more than 30 years experience as a human factors usability. specialist in the technology arena While at the Bell Laboratories Human Per. formance Technology Center he developed and refined testing methodologies. and conducted research on the usability criteria of software documentation. and training materials, During his career Jeff has provided consulting services and workshops on. the planning design and evaluation of computer based products and services. for hundreds of companies including Hewlett Packard Citigroup Texas. Instruments AT T the Ford Motor Company FedEx Arbitron Sprint and. State Farm He was cofounder and managing partner of The Usability Group. from 1999 2005 a leading usability consulting firm that offered user centered. design and technology adoption strategies Jeff served on the Board of the. Usability Professionals Association from 1999 2001. Jeff holds a degree in Experimental Psychology from Lehigh University His. extensive experience in the application of user centered design principles to. customer research along with his ability to communicate complex principles. and techniques in nontechnical language make him especially qualified to. write on the subject of usability testing, He is currently retired from usability consulting and pursuing other pas.
sionate interests in the nonprofit sector, Dana Chisnell is an independent usability consultant and user researcher. operating UsabilityWorks in San Francisco CA She has been doing usability. research user interface design and technical communications consulting and. development since 1982, Dana took part in her first usability test in 1983 while she was working as. a research assistant at the Document Design Center It was on a mainframe. office system developed by IBM She was still very wet behind the ears Since. viii About the Authors, then she has worked with hundreds of study participants for dozens of clients. to learn about design issues in software hardware web sites online services. games and ballots and probably other things that are better forgotten about. She has helped companies like Yahoo Intuit AARP Wells Fargo E TRADE. Sun Microsystems and RLG now OCLC perform usability tests and other. user research to inform and improve the designs of their products and services. Dana s colleagues consider her an expert in usability issues for older adults. and plain language She says she s still learning Lately she has been working. on issues related to ballot design and usability and accessibility in voting. She has a bachelor s degree in English from Michigan State University She. lives in the best neighborhood in the best city in the world. Executive Editor Vice President and Executive,Bob Elliott Group Publisher. Richard Swadley,Development Editor,Maureen Spears Vice President and Executive.
Technical Editor Joseph B Wikert,Janice James,Project Coordinator Cover. Production Editor Lynsey Stanford,Eric Charbonneau. Proofreader,Copy Editor Nancy Bell,Foxxe Editorial Services. Editorial Manager Jack Lewis,Mary Beth Wakefield,Cover Image. Production Manager Getty Images Photodisc,Tim Tate McMillan Digital Art.
Acknowledgments,From Jeff Rubin, From the first edition I would like to acknowledge. Dean Vitello and Roberta Cross who edited the entire first manuscript. Michele Baliestero administrative assistant extraordinaire. John Wilkinson who reviewed the original outline and several chapters. of the manuscript, Pamela Adams who reviewed the original outline and most of the. manuscript and with whom I worked on several usability projects. Terri Hudson from Wiley who initially suggested I write a book on this. Ellen Mason who brought me into Hewlett Packard to implement a. user centered design initiative and allowed me to try out new research. For this second edition I would like to acknowledge. Dave Rinehart my partner in crime at The Usability Group and co. developer of many user research strategies, The staff of The Usability Group especially to Ann Wanschura who was. always loyal and kind and who never met a screener questionnaire she. could not master, Last thanks to all the clients down through the years who showed con. fidence and trust in me and my colleagues to do the right thing for their. xii Acknowledgments,From Dana Chisnell, The obvious person to thank first is Jeff Rubin Jeff wrote Handbook of Usability.
Testing one of the seminal books about usability testing at a time when it. was very unusual for companies to invest resources in performing a reality. check on the usability of their products The first edition had staying power It. became such a classic that apparently people want more For better or worse. the world still needs books about usability testing So a thousand thank yous. to Jeff for writing the first edition which helped many of us get started with. usability testing over the last 14 years Thanks too Jeff for inviting me to. work with you on the second edition I am truly honored And thank you for. offering your patience diligence humor and great wisdom to me and to the. project of updating the Handbook, Ginny Redish and Joe Dumas deserve great thanks as well Their book A. Practical Guide to Usability Testing which came out at the same time as Jeff s. book formed my approach to usability testing Ginny has been my mentor for. several years In some weird twist of fate it was Ginny who suggested me to. Jeff The circle is complete, A lot of people will be thankful that this edition is done none of them more. than I But Janice James probably comes a close second Her excellent technical. review of every last word of the second edition kept Jeff and me honest on. the methodology and the modern realities of conducting usability tests She. inspired dozens of important updates and expansions in this edition. So did friends and colleagues who gave us feedback on the first edition to. inform the new one JoAnn Hackos Linda Urban and Susan Becker all gave. detailed comments about where they felt the usability world had changed. what their students had said would be more helpful and insights about what. they might do differently if it were their book, Arnold Arcolio who also gave extensive specific comments before the. revising started generously spot checked and re reviewed drafts as the new. edition took form, Sandra Olson deserves thanks for helping me to develop a basic philosophy. about how to recruit participants for user research and usability studies Her. excellent work as a recruiting consultant and her close review informed much. that is new about recruiting in this book, Ken Kellogg Neil Fitzgerald Christy Wells and Tim Kiernan helped me.
understand what it takes to implement programs within companies that. include usability testing and that attend closely to their users experiences. Other colleagues have been generous with stories sources answers to. random questions and examples which you will see sprinkled throughout. the book as well Chief among them are my former workmates at Tec Ed. especially Stephanie Rosenbaum Laurie Kantner and Lori Anschuetz. Acknowledgments xiii, Jared Spool of UIE has also been encouraging and supportive throughout. starting with thorough thoughtful feedback about the first edition and con. tinuing through liberal permissions to include techniques and examples from. his company s research practice in the second edition. Thanks also go to those I ve learned from over the years who are part of the. larger user experience and usability community including some I have never. met face to face but know through online discussions papers articles reports. To the clients and companies I have worked with over 25 years as well as the. hundreds of study participants I also owe thanks Some of the examples and. stories here reflect composites of my experiences with all of those important. Thanks also go to Bob Elliott at Wiley for contacting Jeff about reviv. ing the Handbook in the first place and Maureen Spears for managing the. developmental edit of a time tested resource with humor flexibility and. understanding, Finally I thank my friends and family for nodding politely and pouring. me a drink when I might have gone over the top on some point of usability. esoterica to them at the dinner table My parents Jan and Duane Chisnell. and Doris Ditner deserve special thanks for giving me time and space so I. could hole up and write,Acknowledgments xi,Foreword xxix. Preface to the Second Edition xxxiii,Part One Usability Testing An Overview. Chapter 1 What Makes Something Usable 3,What Do We Mean by Usable 4.
What Makes Something Less Usable 6,Five Reasons Why Products Are Hard to Use 6. Reason 1 Development Focuses on the Machine or System 7. Reason 2 Target Audiences Expand and Adapt 8,Reason 3 Designing Usable Products Is Difficult 9. Reason 4 Team Specialists Don t Always Work in,Integrated Ways 9. Reason 5 Design and Implementation Don t Always,What Makes Products More Usable 12. An Early Focus on Users and Tasks 13,Evaluation and Measurement of Product Usage 13.
Iterative Design and Testing 14,Attributes of Organizations That Practice UCD 14. Phases That Include User Input 14,A Multidisciplinary Team Approach 14. Concerned Enlightened Management 15,A Learn as You Go Perspective 15. Defined Usability Goals and Objectives 16,xvi Contents. What Are Techniques for Building in Usability 16,Ethnographic Research 16.
Participatory Design 17,Focus Group Research 17,Surveys 17. Walk Throughs 18,Open and Closed Card Sorting 18,Paper Prototyping 18. Expert or Heuristic Evaluations 19,Usability Testing 19. Follow Up Studies 20,Chapter 2 What Is Usability Testing 21. Why Test Goals of Testing 21,Informing Design 22,Eliminating Design Problems and Frustration 22.
Improving Profitability 22,Basics of the Methodology 23. Basic Elements of Usability Testing 25,Limitations of Testing 25. Chapter 3 When Should You Test 27,Our Types of Tests An Overview 27. Exploratory or Formative Study 29,Objective 29,Overview of the Methodology 30. Handbook of Usability Testing Second Edition How to Plan Design and Conduct Effective Tests Published by Wiley Publishing Inc 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard

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