Grade 11 November 2012 Geography P1 Memorandum-Free PDF

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2 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo NOVEMBER 2012, SECTION A PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY THE SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER AND. ECOSYSTEMS,Answer at least ONE question from this section. QUESTION 1 LO 1 2 LO 1 5 LO 2 1 LO 2 4 LO 3 1 LO 3 2. 1 1 1 1 1 run off 2,1 1 2 hydroelectric power 2,1 1 3 ria 2. 1 1 4 abrasion 2,1 1 5 sandbar 2,1 2 1 2 1 C Habitat 2. 1 2 2 D Biodiversity 2,1 2 3 F Predation 2,1 2 4 H Competition 2.
1 2 5 I Foodweb 2, 1 3 1 3 1 The farming of fish shellfish or seaweed in an enclosed area of the. 1 3 2 Mussels abalone etc depend on cold nutrient rich water Pollutants. raise the temperature of the water, Pollutants deplete nutrients that affect their growth Any 1x2 2. 1 3 3 The mill makes Saldanha Bay an industrial area and spoils its. natural beauty,Makes it less appealing to tourists Any 1x2 2. 1 3 4 Strong tides and seepage of fresh water from the swamp areas. around the bay and lagoon 1x2 2, The northern bay and the ore loading quay together almost enclose. the bay 2x2 4,1 4 1 4 1 Lake Nasser 1x1 1,1 4 2 Crops were irrigated by the annual flooding.
Fertile alluvial soil was deposited in the river valley 2x2 4. 1 4 3 Crops are no longer dependant on annual flooding. A range of different crops can be grown throughout the year. Crops are not washed away and destroyed Any 2x1 2,NOVEMBER 2012 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo 3. 1 4 4 Negative impact, Many people living in the area now surrounded by the water of. Lake Nasser were displaced from their homes, The dam traps the nutrient rich alluvial soil that used to be. deposited in the river valley more fertilisers are now used which. pollutes the river, The growth of water plants in the still water of the lake supports the. water snails and lead to an increase in the disease bilharzia. The dam has reduced the strength of the flow of the Nile River. downstream, Sea water now seeps into the groundwater of the Nile spoiling the.
soil for agriculture, The stock of fish in the Mediterranean Sea has diminished because. the marine ecosystem depended on the nutrient rich deposits from. Flooding of the area upstream results in a loss of plants animals. and insects, Fertile silt is deposited in the dam which reduces the capacity of. The loss of sand deposits at the river mouth can erode the. ACCEPT OTHERS Any 3x2 6,Control flooding, A dam can store flood water if water is released from the dam. before heavy rains to drop the water level, Control the outflow of floodwater to reduce flooding downstream. Changes the flow pattern of the river which affects the intensity and. duration of floods, It changes the seasonal flow of the river making it easier to control.
flooding of the river,ACCEPT OTHERS Any 3x2 6 12, 1 5 1 5 1 Is the process through which sand and other beach material is. moved along the length of the beach or shore, When waves break at an oblique angle and the back wash is. perpendicular at right hand angle to the beach resulting in beach. migration 2x2 4, 1 5 2 a It is threatening the buildings along the shoreline because. there is hardly any beach left in some places 1x2 2. b It affects tourism activities negatively as the beach is being. eroded and moving towards the south 1x2 2, 1 5 3 To build a groyne pier sea wall to block the movement of sand. along the beach 1x1 1,4 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo NOVEMBER 2012.
1 6 1 6 1 Biotic plants animals mushroom fish insects. Abiotic sunlight soil water oil 2,1 6 2 fungi 1x2 2. 1 6 3 Decomposers are important as nature s recyclers because they. break down dead plant and animal matter releasing nutrients back. into the soil,They are at the top of the food chain 2x2 4. 1 6 4 warmth,moisture 2x2 4,1 6 5 Pollination of the flower by the bee 1x2 2. 1 7 1 7 1 Disrupting the food chain, By adding a link e g foreign plant or animal into the ecosystem. there are less resources for the indigenous plants and animals. Removing a link in the ecosystem e g plants or animals killed or. permanently removed leads to an increase in certain species that. disrupt the food chain 2x2 4,1 7 2 Poisoning the food chain.
Human activities put toxic substances poisons into the food chain. e g spraying pesticides to kill crop pests and insects. Release of industrial waste water that contain heavy metals which. contaminate rivers lakes and the sea, Toxic substances contaminate plants and insects which are often. eaten by other animals, These toxic substances concentrate at each level up the food chain. eventually destroying the food chain and disrupts the. ecosystem Any 2x2 4,1 7 3 Causing loss of habitat and biodiversity. Farming and development results in plants and animals losing their. Many plants and animals die out when new settlements are built. and become extinct, Loss of habitats for plants and animals means loss of. biodiversity Any 2x2 4,NOVEMBER 2012 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo 5.
1 8 1 8 1 Food energy nutrients 1x2 2,1 8 2 Food production through photosynthesis. Nutrient cycling, Decomposition of plant and animal matter Any 1x2 2. 1 8 3 Competition between living organisms for resources. Predation where one animal feeds on another, Symbiosis between two organisms where at least one of them. benefits Any 2x2 4, 1 8 4 The living organism will adjust themselves accordingly. The ecosystem will collapse be disrupted,A new ecosystem can develop.
Ecosystem can control the numbers biomass at each trophic. level Any 2x2 4,1 8 5 deforestation,development, climate change influence of humans on the climate Any 2x1 2. 6 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo NOVEMBER 2012, QUESTION 2 LO 1 2 LO 1 5 LO 2 1 LO 2 4 LO 3 1 LO 3 2. 2 1 2 1 1 True 2,2 1 2 False 2,2 1 3 True 2,2 1 4 False 2. 2 1 5 True 2,2 2 2 2 1 Indigenous 2,2 2 2 Logging 2. 2 2 3 Organic 2,2 2 4 Salination 2,2 2 5 Poaching 2.
2 3 2 3 1 B El Nino 1x1 1,2 3 2 A La Nina 1x1 1, 2 3 3 There is a larger upwelling of cold water from below. Coldwater is nutrient rich and supports large fish populations. 2 3 4 B El Nino, Trade winds which carry moisture in the direction of South Africa. blow less strongly, Low sea temperatures cause high pressure regions towards the east. and lower rainfall Any 2x2 4,2 3 5 Effect on farming activities. Reduced crop production yields livestock grazing animals causes. higher food prices,Agricultural products become more expensive.
Decrease in agricultural exports, Food shortages and import of food supplies at high prices. Job losses in agriculture and loss of income, Famine and malnutrition due to unemployment and poverty. Advise farmers to grow drought resistant crops,Reduce livestock. Make plans to store food and import alternative food supplies. Build water storage dams and transfer schemes,Implement water restrictions. Implement food preservation methods to maintain a reliable. nutritious food base e g sun drying salting and fermenting of. foodstuffs,Mulching the soil to prevent evaporation of water.
Use irrigation methods that involve less water loss and. evaporation Any 3x2 6 12,NOVEMBER 2012 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo 7. 2 4 2 4 1 Pietermaritzburg 1x1 1,2 4 2 Pietermaritzburg 1x1 1. 2 4 3 a Durban,12 C 23 C 11 C 1x2 2,b Pietermaritzburg. 19 C 22 C 3 C 1x2 2, 2 4 4 The difference between daily minimum and maximum temperature. and summer and winter are less extreme in Durban than. Pietermaritzburg,Durban lies on the coast maritime climate.
Pietermaritzburg is inland continental climate, The sea has a moderate effect on Durban s climate Any 1x2 2. 2 5 2 5 1 Destructive waves 1x1 1,2 5 2 Erosion 1x1 1. 2 5 3 Arch 1x2 2, 2 5 4 The roof of the arch will erode further by the action of the splashing. water and eventually collapse to form a stack 1x2 2. 2 5 5 Provide income for local communities who sell handcrafts and other. Provide job opportunities to the local people at hotels and other. places of accommodation, Is a source of foreign income that boost the economy Any 2x2 4. 2 6 2 6 1 R horizon 1x2 2,2 6 2 A horizon 1x2 2,2 6 3 A horizon 1x2 2.
2 6 4 B horizon 1x2 2,2 6 5 A leaching,B desalination calcification 2x1 2. 2 6 6 A leaching 1x2 2, 2 6 7 The salts minerals form a hard crust on the surface of the soil which. make it difficult for water to infiltrate 1x2 2, 2 6 8 Fertilisation can be a form of pollution and causes eutrophication. The nutrients wash from the soil into water bodies such as ponds. rivers or seas where they cause an explosion in the growth of. The algae block out sunlight for the water plants and animals. When algae die the decomposition process uses up oxygen thus. suffocating fish and other water animals Any 3x2 6. 8 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo NOVEMBER 2012,2 7 2 7 1 Highveld. Inland regions of KZN,Eastern Cape Any 1x2 2,2 7 2 South America Pampas.
North America Prairies 2x1 2,2 7 3 Frost, Grazing stop trees from establishing themselves Any 1x2 2. 2 7 4 The soil is fertile 1x2 2,2 7 5 Agriculture,Deforestation Cutting of trees. Urbanisation,Fires Any 2x1 2,2 7 6 Advantages, Fires clear the vegetation for the growth of new plants seedlings. The ash increases the nutrient content of the soil. Some seeds need the smoke of the fire to germinate. A fire is a way of renewing the biome by releasing minerals and. ACCEPT OTHER Any 3x2 6,Ways to address,Build fire breaks along sensitive areas. Do not throw burning cigarettes into the field, Carry out development in such a way that it does as little damage to.
the environment as possible,Create protected areas and parks. Promote environmental awareness,Obey the rules of areas that are at risk of fires. Build outdoor fires in a sandy area Any 3x2 6 12,NOVEMBER 2012 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo 9. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY PEOPLE AND THEIR NEEDS, SECTION B DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY PEOPLE AND THEIR. Answer at least ONE question from this section, QUESTION 3 LO 1 2 LO 1 5 LO 2 1 LO 2 4 LO 3 1 LO 3 2.
3 1 3 1 1 Natural resources 2,3 1 2 Raw materials 2. 3 1 3 Human resources 2,3 1 4 Financial 2,3 1 5 Non renewable 2. 3 2 3 2 1 The tertiary activities make use of quaternary activities like. information technology research etc 2, 3 2 2 The UN is in all of the developed countries assisting the developing. countries with aid 2, 3 2 3 Millennium development goal is to reduce extreme poverty and. 3 2 4 Providing a better life for people living in urban areas 2. 3 2 5 Gender equality is when men and women have equal conditions for. realising their potential 2,3 3 3 3 1 Brandt Line, The dividing link between northern rich developed and southern.
poor developing countries 1x2 2, 3 3 2 Developed countries rich industrialised economically more. developed countries in the world, Developing countries poor agricultural less developed countries. in the world 2x2 4,3 3 3 Developed countries,Global corporations. Stock exchanges,Currencies of the developed countries Any 1x2 2. Developing countries,Poor beggars,Third world Any 1x2 2 4.
3 3 4 Economic indicators,Employment data, Tertiary and secondary economic activities Any 2x2 4. 10 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo NOVEMBER 2012, 3 3 5 Third world countries are poor beggars who are excluded from the. global economy, First world countries enjoy all of the wealth and treats of a global. economy such as casinos Any 1x2 2, 3 3 6 Developed countries make most of the world s manufacturing. Income per capita is high Any 1x2 2, 3 4 3 4 1 The economic growth and development of rural areas 1x2 2.
3 4 2 North east of Mthatha in the Eastern Cape 1x1 1. 3 4 3 Primary activity,Agriculture Any 1x1 1,3 4 4 The area is poor. The low capacity of government involvement, The low involvement of community based organisations. 3 4 5 Bottom up approach means working with the people at grass roots. level 1x2 2,3 4 6 Why women have been uplifted, Women in the rural areas have been marginalised and excluded. from taking part in economic activities, Women generally play the role of domesticated housewives. Women seldom contribute to the financial income of households. Women are poor and lacking in basic skills,Women lack education and low levels of literacy.
Women are influenced by traditional culture and religion. How programmes aim to improve the situation for women. Setting up food gardening projects,Training and support programmes. To reduce household food costs,To better levels of family nutrition. To enhance self worth and personal confidence,More opportunities to turn surplus into income. Working with and consulting local government Any 3x2 6 12. NOVEMBER 2012 GEOGRAPHY P1 Memo 11, 3 5 3 5 1 Competition for living space because of the increase in the world. population, People are poor and depend on natural resources to survive e g.
wood for fuel, Competition for food and water e g kill animals for food sharing of. water a scarce resource,Crop damage by grazing wildlife. Wild life are dangerous and cause injury and death of locals. 3 5 2 Increased visitors and traffic can damage the. environment environment degradation, Destroy the natural vegetation for the development of roads and. accommodation, Loss of natural habitat and biodiversity as a result of establishment. of tourist facilities, They contribute to higher levels of littering and pollut.

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