Glencoe Science

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Glencoe Science, Copyright by the McGraw Hill Companies Inc All rights reserved Permission is granted to reproduce. the material contained herein on the condition that such materials be reproduced only for classroom use . be provided to students teachers and families without charge and be used solely in conjunction with the. Glencoe Biology program Any other reproduction for sale or other use is expressly prohibited . Send all inquiries to ,Glencoe McGraw Hill,8787 Orion Place. Columbus OH 43240 4027,ISBN 13 978 0 07 874599 7,ISBN 10 0 07 874599 3. Printed in the United States of America,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 11 10 09 08 07 06. Table of Contents, To the Student vii, Dinah Zike s Foldables viii.
Chapter 1 The Study of Life, 1 1 Introduction to Biology 1. 1 2 The Nature of Science 4, 1 3 Methods of Science 7. Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology, 2 1 Organisms and Their Relationships 11. 2 2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem 16, 2 3 Cycling of Matter 19. Chapter 3 Communities Biomes and Ecosystems, 3 1 Community Ecology 23.
3 2 Terrestrial Biomes 26, 3 3 Aquatic Ecosystems 30. Chapter 4 Population Ecology, 4 1 Population Dynamics 35. 4 2 Human Population 40, Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation. 5 1 Biodiversity 43, 5 2 Threats to Biodiversity 46. 5 3 Conserving Biodiversity 51, Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc .
Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology, 6 1 Atoms Elements and Compounds 55. 6 2 Chemical Reactions 59, 6 3 Water and Solutions 62. 6 4 The Building Blocks of Life 65, Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function. 7 1 Cell Discovery and Theory 69, 7 2 The Plasma Membrane 72. 7 3 Structures and Organelles 75, 7 4 Cellular Transport 80.
Chapter 8 Cellular Energy, 8 1 How Organisms Obtain Energy 83. 8 2 Photosynthesis 86, 8 3 Cellular Respiration 90. Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction, 9 1 Cellular Growth 93. 9 2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis 96, 9 3 Cell Cycle Regulation 100. iii, Chapter 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics, 10 1 Meiosis 103.
10 2 Mendelian Genetics 109, 10 3 Gene Linkage and Polyploidy 113. Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity. 11 1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance 115, 11 2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance 119. 11 3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity 124, Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics. 12 1 DNA The Genetic Material 127, 12 2 Replication of DNA 132. 12 3 DNA RNA and Protein 134, 12 4 Gene Regulation and Mutations 139.
Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology, 13 1 Applied Genetics 143. 13 2 DNA Technology 146, 13 3 The Human Genome 152. Chapter 14 The History of Life, 14 1 Fossil Evidence of Change 157. 14 2 The Origin of Life 164, Chapter 15 Evolution. 15 1 Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection 169, 15 2 Evidence of Evolution 172.
15 3 Shaping Evolutionary Theory 176, Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . Chapter 16 Primate Evolution, 16 1 Primates 183, 16 2 Hominoids to Hominins 189. 16 3 Human Ancestry 193, Chapter 17 Organizing Life s Diversity. 17 1 The History of Classification 197, 17 2 Modern Classification 202. 17 3 Domains and Kingdoms 208, Chapter 18 Bacteria and Viruses.
18 1 Bacteria 213, 18 2 Viruses and Prions 219, Chapter 19 Protists. 19 1 Introduction to Protists 223, 19 2 Protozoans Animal like Protists 225. 19 3 Algae Plantlike Protists 229, 19 4 Funguslike Protists 234. Chapter 20 Fungi, 20 1 Introduction to Fungi 237, 20 2 Diversity of Fungi 240. 20 3 Ecology of Fungi 244,iv, Chapter 21 Introduction to Plants.
21 1 Plant Evolution and Adaptations 247, 21 2 Nonvascular Plants 251. 21 3 Seedless Vascular Plants 253, 21 4 Vascular Seed Plants 255. Chapter 22 Plant Structure and Function, 22 1 Plant Cells and Tissues 259. 22 2 Roots Stems and Leaves 263, 22 3 Plant Hormones and Responses 267. Chapter 23 Reproduction in Plants, 23 1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction 269.
23 2 Flowers 274, 23 3 Flowering Plants 278, Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals. 24 1 Animal Characteristics 283, 24 2 Animal Body Plans 286. 24 3 Sponges and Cnidarians 290, Chapter 25 Worms and Mollusks. 25 1 Flatworms 295, 25 2 Roundworms and Rotifers 298. 25 3 Mollusks 301, 25 4 Segmented Worms 305, Chapter 26 Arthropods.
26 1 Arthropod Characteristics 309, 26 2 Arthropod Diversity 313. Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . 26 3 Insects and Their Relatives 316, Chapter 27 Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates. 27 1 Echinoderm Characteristics 321, 27 2 Invertebrate Chordates 326. Chapter 28 Fishes and Amphibians, 28 1 Fishes 329. 28 2 Diversity of Today s Fishes 336, 28 3 Amphibians 340.
Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds, 29 1 Reptiles 345, 29 2 Birds 350. Chapter 30 Mammals, 30 1 Mammalian Characteristics 355. 30 2 Diversity of Mammals 362, Chapter 31 Animal Behavior. 31 1 Basic Behaviors 367, 31 2 Ecological Behaviors 371. v, Chapter 32 Integumentary Skeletal and Muscular Systems.
32 1 The Integumentary System 375, 32 2 The Skeletal System 378. 32 3 The Muscular System 382, Chapter 33 Nervous System. 33 1 Structure of the Nervous System 385, 33 2 Organization of the Nervous System 389. 33 3 The Senses 392, 33 4 Effects of Drugs 395, Chapter 34 Circulatory Respiratory and Excretory Systems. 34 1 Circulatory System 399, 34 2 Respiratory System 405.
34 3 Excretory System 408, Chapter 35 Digestive and Endocrine Systems. 35 1 The Digestive System 411, 35 2 Nutrition 414. 35 3 The Endocrine System 417, Chapter 36 Human Reproduction and Development. 36 1 Reproductive Systems 421, 36 2 Human Development Before Birth 426. 36 3 Birth Growth and Aging 431, Chapter 37 Immune System.
37 1 Infectious Diseases 433, 37 2 The Immune System 438. Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . 37 3 Noninfectious Disorders 443,vi, To the Student. Reading Essentials for Biology takes the stress out of reading learning and. understanding biology This book covers important concepts in biology offers. ideas for how to learn the information and helps you review what you have. learned Understanding biology concepts will help you improve your critical . thinking skills solve problems effectively and make useful decisions . The chapters of Reading Essentials for Biology include the following elements . Before You Read sparks your interest in what you will learn and relates. it to your world The Main Idea and What You ll Learn statements help. focus on the most important concepts in the section . Read to Learn describes important biology concepts with words and. graphics Next to the text you can find a variety of study tips and ideas. for organizing and learning information , Study Coach and Mark the Text offer tips for getting the main ideas. out of the text , Foldables Study Organizers help you divide the information into. smaller easier to remember concepts , Reading Checks ask questions about key concepts The questions are.
placed so you know whether you understand the material . Think It Over elements help you consider the material in depth . giving you an opportunity to use your critical thinking skills . Picture This questions relate to the illustrations used with the text . Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . The questions will help get you actively involved in illustrating the. important concepts , Applying Math reinforces the connection between math and science . vii, Dinah Zike s FoldablesTM, A Foldable is a 3 D interactive graphic organizer By using Foldables . you can quickly organize and retain information Every chapter in Reading. Essentials for Biology includes a Foldable that can be used to organize. important ideas in the chapter Later the Foldable can be used as a study guide. for main ideas and key points in the chapter Foldables can also be used for a. more in depth investigation of the key terms concepts or ideas presented in. the chapter , The Foldables for this book can be created using notebook paper or plain. sheets of paper Some will require scissors to cut the tabs The Foldables. created for this book can be stored in a plastic bag a box or sheet protectors. in a three ring binder By keeping your Foldables organized you will have a. ready study tool You will also be creating a portfolio of your work . Your teacher might ask you to make the Foldables found on the Start Up. Activities pages in the Student Edition in addition to the Foldables you will. make for Reading Essentials for Biology As you become familiar with Foldables . you might see other opportunities to use Foldables to create additional study. tools Keep together all the Foldables you make for a chapter Use them as you. review the chapter and study for assessments , Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . viii, chapter, 1 The Study of Life, section , 1 Introduction to Biology.
Before You Read DEA, All living things share the, What does it mean to be alive On the lines below list characteristics of life . characteristics that you think living things have Then read What You ll Learn. the section to learn what you have in common with other the de nition of biology. living things possible bene ts from studying, biology. characteristics of living things, Read to Learn 3TUDY OACH. Make Flash Cards Make a, The Science of Life ash card for each key term in. Biology is the science of life In biology you will learn the this section Write the term on. origins and history of life and once living things You will also one side of the card Write the. Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . de nition on the other side Use, learn structures functions and interactions of living things the ash cards to review what.
you have learned , What do biologists do , Biologists make discoveries and look for explanations by. performing laboratory and eld studies Some biologists. study animals in their natural environment For example Jane. Goodall s observations helped scientists know how best to. protect chimpanzees , Other biologists research diseases to develop new medicines . Many biologists work to develop new technology Technology. is the application of scienti c knowledge to solve human needs Summarize Information. and to extend human capabilities For example Dr Charles Make an eight tab Foldable from. Drew developed methods to separate blood plasma for a sheet of paper Label the tabs. with the question heads in this, transfusions His research led to blood banks section As you read summarize. Some biologists study genetic engineering of plants They the answers under the tabs . try to develop plants that can grow in poor soils and resist. insects and disease Environmental biologists try to protect. s do , biologist do, What, animals and plants from extinction by developing ways to. protect them , Reading Essentials Chapter 1 The Study of Life 1.
Picture This The Characteristics of Life, 1 Highlight each From many observations biologists concluded that all. characteristic of life in the living things have certain characteristics The characteristics of. table as you read about, it in the section Use the life are listed in the table below An organism is anything that. descriptions in the table to has or once had all these characteristics . review what you have learned , Characteristic of Life Description. Made of one or The cell is the basic unit of life Some organisms have one cell only Others have. more cells many cells , Displays organization The organization of a biological system begins with atoms and molecules Each. organized structure in an organism has a speci c function For example an. anteater s snout is long because it functions as a container for the long tongue . Grows and develops Growth results in an increase in mass Development results in different abilities . For example a tadpole grows larger and develops into an adult frog . Reproduces Organisms reproduce and pass on traits to the next generation Reproduction must. occur for a species to continue to exist , Responds to stimuli Reactions to stimuli from inside and outside the body are called responses For.
example a cheetah responds to the need for food by chasing a gazelle The. gazelle responds by running away , Requires energy Energy is needed for life processes Many organisms get energy by taking in. food Other organisms make their own food , Copyright Glencoe McGraw Hill a division of The McGraw Hill Companies Inc . Maintains homeostasis Homeostasis is the process that keeps conditions inside the bodies of all organisms. stable For example humans perspire when hot to lower body temperature . Adaptations evolve Adaptations are inherited changes that occur over time and help the species. over time survive , What determines a cell s structure . Cells are the basic units of structure and function in. all living things Some organisms such as bacteria . Some biologists study genetic engineering of plants They try to develop plants that can grow in poor soils and resist insects and disease Environmental biologists try to protect animals and plants from extinction by developing ways to protect them Read to Learn 3TUDY OACH Make Flash Cards Make a ash card for each key term in this section

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