Geography and landscape science Semantic Scholar

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Geography and landscape science 1,Geography and landscape science. Marc Antrop,Introduction, 1 Once the study of landscape was a core topic of geography It was seen as a unique. synthesis between the natural and cultural characteristics of a region This synthesis. embraced geo ecological relations spatial patterns and aesthetical properties To study. landscape information was gathered from field surveys maps literature sketches and. photographs Since the Second World War aerial photography and from 1970 on also. satellite remote sensing gave a completely new approach in the study of landscape As in. the beginning the study of landscape was situated mainly in departments of regional. geography these new technical disciplines were introduced here as well They stimulated. the study of landscape on a more holistic basis and in a broader multidisciplinary field. The landscape became the common framework for regional geography historical. geography landscape ecology as well as more applied research in land classification and. evaluation for planning purposes Since the 1960s the quantitative approach in many. sciences initiated scientific specialisation and divergence between human and natural. sciences In geography this new orientation considered the purely descriptive. geography of regions and countries to be old fashioned and non scientific In many. countries the geographical curriculum was restructured and resulted in a definite split. between physical geography and social geography while regional geography including. the study of landscapes was abolished or became marginal At the same time. interdisciplinary relations were lost or became lost. 2 However soon this split and the loss of a holistic synthesis was missed especially by. geographers concerned with the landscape Geography ecology soil science history. archaeology psychology and aesthetics started to study landscape more independently A. new synthesis a new transdisciplinary approach emerged with landscape ecology. Landscape research no longer is restricted to geography alone Therefore it is not. appropriate any more to speak about the geography of landscapes but rather about what. Belgeo 1 2 3 4 2000,Geography and landscape science 2. geography can bring to the study of landscape The whole of the disciplines involved in. landscape research will be referred to as landscape science although this term was used. first in 1885 by the geographers Oppel and Troll Troll 1950 In most countries the. number of researchers studying the landscape is limited and fortunately this stimulated. in the development of an international network Many landscape researchers meet under. the umbrella of the International Association for Landscape Ecology IALE which has. national supra regional groups and thematic workshops Also important is the Standing. European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape Verhoeve Vervloet 1992. Landscape research is no longer restricted to local or regional interest groups but has. become really international For this reason this contribution will describe not only the. activities in Belgium but will try to present a more general overview of geography in. relation to the growing landscape science in an international context. Dealing with the landscape a history,The early beginnings. 3 Early geographical descriptions dealt with characteristics of foreign regions or countries. and focused upon the landscape and the people living there With the renaissance period. in the 15th century the first painting and pictures of landscape appeared in the Western. world Troll 1950 Kolen and Lemaire 1999 see this as the emergence of a landscape. conscience The systematic exploration and description of landscapes start with the Age. of Discovery characterised by a fast development of cartography and a growing interest. of naturalists Some locate the start of geography as a scientific discipline at the end of. the 19th century Claval 1976 Larnoe 1987 evolving from naturalists such as Alexander. von Humboldt and Darwin The physical determinism that characterised the German. approach was tempered and broadened by the French approach of the school of Vidal de. la Blache and with the concept of possibilism as paradigm. 4 It is not the purpose of this contribution to restart these old discussions about the true. nature of geography or whether landscape should be a core topic in geographical. research The main focus here is the landscape as studied nowadays and how geographers. approach this study Only the view upon the landscape of a few ancient geographers will. be discussed Carol 1956 Zonneveld 1971 and later Saey 1990 give a more elaborate. discussion of the relation between the study of landscape and geography. 5 Alexander von Humboldt gave a short and very to the point definition of landscape. Landschaft ist das Totalcharakter einer Erdgegend Zonneveld 1995 This definition. implies that regional diversification is expressed by the landscape and that landscape. should be considered as a holistic phenomenon that is perceived by humans Although. von Humboldt was a pioneer in biogeography physical geography and climatology he. always stressed in his writings the human and cultural aspects in the landscape and above. all the aesthetical qualities which he considered even as mentally healing von. Humboldt 1814, 6 Vidal de la Blache 1922 had a more literary approach of the landscape although he used.
similar techniques of annotated sketches and his prose was not so different from von. Humboldt s The main difference is the recognition of the importance of a local society in. organising the landscape which results in a regional differentiation not only based upon. natural conditions but also upon settlement patterns and territories Also here landscape. Belgeo 1 2 3 4 2000,Geography and landscape science 3. is seen as a holistic unity as well expressed in the recognition of pays each one having a. proper name The description of regions became synthetic tableaux of idealistic. landscapes Giblin 1978 Both von Humboldt and Vidal de la Blache implicitly include the. perception of landscape and its aesthetic qualities in their work. 7 Later Carl Troll elaborates this view and gives it a more sound methodological basis and. integrates aerial photography as the new way of observing the landscape at that time. Troll 1939 1950 1959 1963 He called Luftbildforschung ist zu einem sehr hohen Grade. Landschafts kologie aerial photography is in a high degree landscape ecology Troll. called the approach of landscape ecology an Anschauungsweis a way of looking at the. subject and he explained the birth of this idea as a marriage between biology and. geography Zonneveld 1995 The introduction of the term landscape ecology in this. sense promoted a new holistic synthesis in landscape research and also reconfirmed the. perception as an integral part of the concept of landscape At the same time Richard. Hartshorne in his The Nature of Geography 1939 considers the term landscape with its. multiple semantic meanings too confusing and abandons it at the object of study in. geography in favour of concepts as region and space Muir 1999 During the 1960s and. 1970s a deductive and rationalistic approach dominated the new orientation in. geography Based upon the optimistic development in economy and technology the. common focus of geographers upon landscape was lost and a divergence and. specialisation in geography started Gradually geographers in Western Europe lost their. interest in the visual appearance and aesthetics of the landscape as subject of study. temporarily, The renewed interest and the rebirth of landscape ecology. 8 Zonneveld 1980 defined the loss of the regional holistic synthesis of landscape research. in geography clearly in a paper entitled Het gat in de geografie the hole in geography. He stimulated the landscape ecological thinking mainly from the German and Central. European schools in the education of geography students in the Netherlands The. missing of a transdisciplinary and holistic based approach of landscape study became. rapidly clear in the fast changing environment in crisis with new challenges in natural. ecological cultural and social issues The changing attitude towards landscape was also. clearly expressed in philosophical essays such as Filosofie van het landschap. Philosophy of landscape by Lemaire 1970 and The angst voor het nieuwe landschap. The fear of the new landscape by L rzing 1982 The first attempt to restore the. interdisciplinary approach of landscape research was made in the Netherlands with the. creation in 1972 of the Working group landscape ecological research Werkgroep Land. schapsecologisch Onderzoek WLO Zonneveld 1972 It grouped geographers of different. kind biologists and ecologists as well as social scientists and planners Less involved. were historical landscape geographers who did however important work in the field of. settlement geography Renes 1981 and the mapping and classification of historical. cultural landscapes in the Netherlands Vervloet 1984. 9 It was the WLO that took the initiative in 1981 for an international and multidisci plinary. meeting in Veldhoven to reflect upon the future of landscape research Basically the. broken link with the tradition of landscape ecology as defined by Troll in 1939 was re. established and led to the formal creation of the discipline of landscape ecology Also. contacts between the West European approach with the schools of landscape science of. Belgeo 1 2 3 4 2000,Geography and landscape science 4. the Central and East European countries was renewed Besides more national journals. such as Landschap and Landscape Research two new international journals were. published focusing upon the landscape Landscape and Urban Planning in 1986 and. Landscape Ecology in 1987 In 1988 the International Association of Landscape Ecology. IALE was created Since then landscape research expanded over many different. disciplines Debates are still going on about the specificity of landscape ecology and the. definition of landscape Moss 1999 p 138 gives a simple and practical approach To me. landscape ecology is simply about the study of landscapes and of the need to derive. understanding about landscapes in order to enhance our abilities to manage them more. effectively Landscape ecology is not the only field to focus on the landscape but it has. emerged in the last few decades because quite clearly existing approaches that sought to. address a whole range of landscape scale environmental issues were proving to be. inadequate Indeed many new environmental problems demand a better understanding. of the functioning of landscape and ask for rapid solutions. 10 The new transdisciplinary approach is mainly found in the domain of the new emerging. landscape ecology Moss 2000 Wiens Moss 1999 Brandt 1999 Zonneveld 1995 Naveh. Lieberman 1994 Anyhow landscape research is widening new fundamental. knowledge is needed as well as more practical applications The integration is achieved by. multiple exchanges of ideas and methods Landscape ecology is seen by some as a. transdisciplinary science Naveh Lieberman 1984 Zonneveld 1995 Moss 1998 This. means that landscape ecology is not just combining sciences multidisciplinary nor is in. between sciences interdisciplinary but is situated above different sciences trying to. integrate them with a common way of looking, 11 Figure 1 gives an impression of the historical evolution in landscape research and the. interaction between disciplines Disciplines in square boxes are the actual ones that. contribute actively to the development of landscape science The ones in bold are. disciplines mainly geography and ecology that made the basics for the actual landscape. sciences The concepts techniques and methods that were important for this. development are underlined Some important persons that stimulated the development. are given in italics,Belgeo 1 2 3 4 2000,Geography and landscape science 5.
Figure 1 The study of the landscape during history influences upon the actual disciplines that. form the landscape science landscape ecology landscape geography land evaluation and. landscape architecture,Different developments in the world. 12 When in the Western world after the Second World War most interest for the study of. landscape was lost it continued to develop in Central Europe and the Soviet Union. Different schools for landscape study emerged during the post war period In Russia. many new concepts related to landscape classification and landscape ecology were. developed Pedroli 1983 In Eastern Germany it was geographers who developed the. theoretical concepts of what the called Landschaftslehre Neef 1967 Haase 1977. Richter and Sch nfelder 1986 give a more physical geographical approach to the study. of landscape while Smith sen stimulated the link with biogeography In Poland and the. former Czechoslovakia emerged the Geoecology as an ecological approach of physical. geography Richling 1996 Drdo 1983 Besides the Geoecology there was also an. approach more oriented to human geography and problems related to urbanisation. Bartkowski 1982 Ruzi ka and Miklos 1990 succeeded to introduce landscape. ecological principles in the environmental legislation of Slovakia Mazure 1983 and. Drdo 1983 stimulated the idea of landscape synthesis within a working group of the. International Geographical Union a working group which is now active within the. DOI 10 4000 belgeo 13975 ISSN 2294 9135 Publisher Soci t Royale Belge de G ographie Printed version Date of publication 30 d cembre 2000 Number of pages 9 36 ISSN 1377 2368 Electronic reference Marc Antrop Geography and landscape science Belgeo Online 1 2 3 4 2000 Online since 12 July 2015 connection on 30 September

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