Fundamentals of Communication Chapter 1 Introduction to

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Interactive Communication Model,Fundamentals of Communication. Chapter 10 Topic Selection and Audience Analysis,Choosing a Topic. Personal Inventory,Brainstorming,Narrowing a topic. What topics interests you audience, What topics do you know about your audience want to know. What topics are you committed to passion and conviction. What topics can you find research on,Visual Brainstorming.
Audience Analysis,Voluntary vs Captive,Demographics. Interest and Knowledge,Attitudes Values and Beliefs. Methods of Aud Analysis,Observation,Inferences,Questionnaires. Micro targeting,Adapting to an Audience,Verbal Nonverbal. Fundamentals of Communication,Chapter 11 Being Credible and Using Evidence.
Why are you telling us about this topic in this manner. You Speaker and Knowledge,Us Reason to Listen,Topic Appropriate. Manner Organization Strategy,Credibility,Competence. Trustworthiness,Common Ground,How do you establish credibility. Where would you go if your wanted to find information on a topic that interests you. 4 basic places,Interview and Authority,Yourself as Research Source. Own experience and knowledge,Can enhance credibility.
Libraries provide rich information on speech topics. Reference Desk,Internet as Research Source,Who s the author. Reliable source,Is it biased,Complete and accurate info. Intended audience,Up to date info,Good grammar and appropriate language. Web master identified,Make Research Easier,Have a clear purpose. Start early,Take notes and photo copy,Record all possible citation information.
Evidence is material used to support claims a speaker makes. Makes ideas more clear compelling and dramatic,Strengthens a speaker s opinions. Demonstrates ideas,Allows speaker s to achieve derived credibility. Evaluating Sources,Verifiable,Seven Types of Supporting Materials. Testimonials,Statistics,Explanations,Definitions, Instances used to make a point dramatize an idea or personalize information. Undetailed quick reference,Detailed in depth descriptions of instances.
Hypothetical identified clearly What If, Stories are extended examples in which a great deal of information is woven into a coherent. Reliable source,Broad sample,Who was included,Representative sample. Who performed the survey,Statistics, Numbers that summarize or demonstrate relationships. Should be limited in a speech, Round off numbers so listeners can understand and retain them. Select statistics that are not dated, North Americans make up only 6 of the world s population yet they consume 40 to.
60 of the planet s resources,Testimonials,Expert with opinions conclusions of worth. Subject expertise, Personal experience Study research First hand proof. More believable because of this source,Comparison of things. Clarification, Not proof but useful as a way to clarify or illustrate. Explanations and Definitions, Explanations Clarify an idea by using the audiences point of view.
Definitions meaning through description simplification examples analysis comparison. explanation or illustration,Ethics and Source Credibility. True to yourself,Ethical goals and purpose,Employ ethical means and be honest. Obligation to use accurate info,Cite the sources,Represent the source accurately and fairly. Using Evidence,Speech Anxiety, Jerry Seinfeld said that public speaking is the most people s biggest fear more than death So most people. would rather be in the casket than giving the eulogy. What happens to you when you get nervous,Big Seven Sources of Speech Anxiety.
Fear of Failure,Fear of Disapproval,Fear of Unknown. Fear of the Spotlight,Fear of the Audience,Fear of Breaking the Rules. Fear of Fear,Controlling Speech Anxiety, Goal is not to eliminate but to learn to CHANNEL that energy. Nervousness is NATURAL, Nervousness can benefit the speech by adding ENERGY and can ENLIVEN your delivery. Some Coping Strategies,Know how you react to stress.
Know your strengths and weaknesses,Know speech principles. Know your audience,Know your speech,Believe in the topic. View speech making positively,Project control,Test your message. Learn from Experience,Fundamentals of Communication. Chapter 4 Language and Meaning, A collection of symbols letters or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and.
used to communicate, Arbitrary they are not intrinsically connected to what they represent. Ambiguous their meanings are not clear cut or fixed. Abstract they are not concrete or tangible, Because symbols require interpretation communication is an ongoing process of creating. Language Use is Rule Guided,Culturally Bound,Organizes and Clarifies Reality. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis,Language is Arbitrary Abstract. Denotative Meaning,Connotative Meaning,Language Use Obstacle or Enhancement.
Grammatical Errors,Colloquialisms,Euphemisms Doublespeak. Regionalism,Sexist Racist and Heterosexist Language. Improving Language Skills,Avoid Intentional Confusion empty language. Use Descriptiveness,Be Concrete,Differentiate Observations Inferences. Cultural Competence, Each of us has an ethical responsibility to guard against engaging in uncivil speech as well.
as not tolerating it from others,Fundamentals of Communication. Chapter 3 Listening and Critical Thinking, A physiological activity that occurs when sound waves hit our eardrums. Active process,Receive and Constructing Meaning,Responding to Messages. Verbal and Nonverbal,4 types of Listening,Empathetic. Barriers to Listening,Perception of Others,Stereotypes.
Sights and Sounds,Egocentrism,Defensiveness,Experiential superiority. Personal Bias,Pseudolistening,Becoming a Better Listener. Listen and think critically,Use verbal communication effectively. Use nonverbal communication effectively,Listening in the Workplace. Be self aware,Monitor your nonverbal behaviors,Minimize interruptions.
Ask nonaggressive questions, Summarize what the other says to assure you understand. Listening in the Classroom,Use lecture listening,Find areas of interest. Remain open,Work at listening,Avoid distractions,Listen for and note main ideas. Take effective notes,Listen for lecture cues,Listening to Media. Become a critical consumer of media information,Develop information literacy.
Recognize when you need information,Know where to find the information you need. Check your perceptions of electronic messages,Critical Thinking Listening. Analyze situation and message,Communication Context. Speaker s Argument and Support Material,Speaker s Observations or Inferences. Speakers Credibility,Be an Ethical Listener, Recognize the sources of your own conversational style habits.
Monitor your communication, Apply general ethical principles to your responses. Adapt to others,Fundamentals of Communication,Chapter 12 Organizing Your Presentation. Overall Organization Strategy,Tell us what you are going to tell us. Tell us what you told us, Big difference is that a reader can reread Must make it easy for listener with clear organization. Defining Your Purpose,I want my speech to,At the end of my speech I want listeners to.
To achieve my goal I need to entertain narrate inform persuade. Thesis Statement,The main idea of the speech, Captures the key message in a short and precise sentence that listeners can remember easily. Is one listeners can grasp at the beginning of your talk and remember after you have finished. Refines what you ve already done in limiting your topic and defining your purpose. The Body is the Substance,Supports the central idea or thesis statement. 5 10 minute speeches should have no more that three main points. 11 20 minute speeches can have more points,Questions and answers need more time. Prepare the body of the speech prior to the introduction and conclusion. Organization Strategy,A M T O B U L,Motivation,Last Thought. Organization Patterns,Time Sequence,Cause Effect,Problem Solution.
Topical Sequence,Organize the Body Develop the Key Ideas. Summarize Transition,Designing the Introduction,Keys to a Good Conclusion. Be Memorable,Summarize the key points,Provide closure. Summarize Key Points,Review the major ideas, Listener s last chance to hear and remember the main points. Repetition reinforces the ideas,Helps build to the logical conclusion.
Provide Closure, If summary is the logical end then closure is the psychological end. DON T RESORT TO In conclusion,Circular conclusion,Satisfy questions. Call to Action,Ways to End,Personal Feelings,Refer to the Beginning. Outlines Provide a Clear Concise Profile of the Speech. A rough outline provides a basic map of the speech. A formal sentence outline includes all main points supporting materials transitions and. bibliographical sources, A key word speaking outline includes only key words and is used to trigger the speaker s memory. Principles of Outlining,Each number or letter should represent one idea.
Consistent numbering system I A 1 a,Must have at least 2 sub point. Complete sentences for each point,Parallel grammatical structure. Informative Sample Speech doc,Preparing a Works Cited Section. Name of the author or authors,Editor translator compiler if any. Edition if it is not the first,Place and date of the book s publication.
Name of the book s publisher,For example, Wood Julia T Communication in Our Lives 4th ed Belmont CA. Thompson Wadsworth 2006,Magazine or Journal,Name of the author or authors. Title or the article,Title of the periodical,Date of the issue. Pages on which the article appear,For example, Prin Dinah Marriage in the 90 s New York 2 June 1990 40 45. Fundamentals of Communication,Chapter 14 Informative Presentations.
Characteristics of Informative Speeches,To impart knowledge. To enhance understanding,To facilitate the application of information. What do you need to know to inform others,Know your goal and intent. Know the appropriateness of the topic,Know your purpose. What your audience should know or do,Describe Distinguish Compare Define State Show.
How will you gauge success,How does a class do this. Informative Speaking Strategies,Create information hunger or a need. Relate the information to the audience,Use extrinsic motivation and use it early. Shaping Informative Content,Limit main points,Limit of generalizations. Select language aud Understands,Use specifics to illustrate abstract.
Include appropriate humor but caution,Reveal how info meets aud Needs. Avoid info overload,Organize for better understanding. Informative Presentation Skills,Define meanings,Describe using specific concrete language. Explain by clarifying and simplifying complex ideas. Narrate by using stories to illustrate,Demonstrate by showing process and procedure. Fundamentals of Communication,Chapter 2 Perception Self and Communication.
Perception,Process of becoming aware from senses,Active Perception. Subjective Perception,Perception,Physiological factors. Past experiences,Culture and co culture,Present feelings and circumstances. How do we perceive,Organization,Interpretation,Perception errors. Attribution errors,Fundamental attribution error,Self serving bias.
Perceptual errors,Stereotyping,First impressions,Guidelines for Improving Perception. Recognize that all perceptions are partial and subjective. Avoid mindreading,Check perceptions with others,Distinguish between facts and inferences. Guard against the self serving bias,Guard against the fundamental attribution error. Monitor labels,Who Are You,What do you know about yourself. Self perception,Personal identity,Who you are develops through.
Intrapersonal communication,Symbolic interactionism. Fundamentals of Communication Chapter 10 Topic Selection and Audience Analysis Choosing a Topic Personal Inventory Brainstorming Narrowing a topic What topics interests you amp audience What topics do you know about amp your audience want to know What topics are you committed to passion and conviction What topics can you find research on

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