Framing Biodiversity Conservation Discourses in South

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Framing Biodiversity Conservation Discourses in South Africa Emerging Realities and Conflicting Agendas. within the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area. DPhil Institute for Poverty Land and Agrarian Studies University of the Western Cape. This dissertation explores local people s framing of externally driven biodiversity conservation approaches in the. context of transfrontier conservation initiatives It uses data from the Madimbo corridor a specific locality. within the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area situated to the northeast of South Africa along the. South Africa Zimbabwe boundary It shows that livelihoods historical experiences with external interventions. and exclusion from policy making processes and programme implementation influence local strategies for. engaging with external interventions Thus an analysis of framing of external interventions at a local level. should establish the following i the role of natural resources in sustaining local livelihoods ii local historical. experiences with an external intervention iii the nature of multi level actor interactions from local resource. dependent people to national regional and global actors involved in or affected by an intervention. The study uses a detailed case study of Bennde Mutale village to trace local people s ideas ways of speaking. and actions in response to the implementation of a large scale transfrontier conservation initiative The study. finds that local livelihoods play a central role in local responses to the changes that transfrontier conservation. bring upon people s lives Many see further exclusion while some also see and hope for a restoration of the. socio cultural border region The globally significant biodiversity to be conserved for future generations at. the same time constitutes the natural resources that sustain local people s livelihoods Further local livelihoods. are more diverse than is commonly acknowledged in literature advocating for transfrontier conservation This. lack of acknowledgement of local diversification contributes to the main observation made in this study that. current processes of transfrontier conservation end up replicating and re inventing the multiple forms of. exclusion that have characterised state conservation practices for over a century While transfrontier. conservation enables the freer movement of wildlife it in fact further constrains the movements of people whose. mobility within less closely controlled border regions remains centrally important to survival At the same time. state actors come into the area with contradicting and conflicting demands ranging from the beneficial advocacy. role for land rights to the enforcement of conservation through fences and game rangers experienced as a direct. infringement on livelihood possibilities, The study concludes that there is a need to rethink transfrontier conservation interventions The diversity of local. livelihood approaches needs to be considered more centrally and clearer understanding needs to be developed of. how the promises of opportunities betterment of lives and increased human mobility actually unfold in practice. In order to succeed and deliver on site not only to high class tourists seeking to view unique biodiversity but to. local people transfrontier conservation efforts need to engage multiple actors directly from the ground up and. throughout the process of policy making programme conceptualisation and implementation. Declaration, I declare that Framing Biodiversity Conservation Discourses in South Africa Emerging Realities and. Conflicting Agendas within the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area is my own work that. it has not been submitted for any degree or examination in any other university and that all the sources. I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by complete references. Webster Whande Date,Acknowledgements, Like every other journey in life writing this dissertation has been full of stumbles doubts and. entangled pathways where its all too easy to get lost Despite the hardships of embarking on this. journey I have been fortunate to have family friends and colleagues who have guided me when I was. in doubt provided maps of alternative routes when I was lost and stretched a hand and words of advice. when I stumbled, I want to first of all acknowledge and thank my wife Undine Whande whose love presence and. encouragement pushed me to the end of this journey I hope that we continue to inspire one another. and to travel the valleys and gorges of life together continuing to learn and grow together My family. my mother brothers and sisters were very supportive 1983 the world came tumbling for us when our. dad died but our mother did not give up To be woken up at 3am everyday to go bake bread was. perhaps not the best idea of entering my teenage years but it kept us all going and all of us in school I. draw strength from the dedication my mother showed and her drive to get the ten of us go to school In. many ways this dissertation belongs to her and I can not thank her enough as she continues to be a. source of inspiration In addition my brothers and sisters played an all important role in providing me. the support love and resources necessary to achieve this academic milestone The generation waiting in. the wings my children Mudiwa Sankara and Tawana suffered through it all and they registered their. dislike of moving cities and countries having new friends and getting used to new kindergartens but. they kept me going They also taught me to close my PhD files and relax to explore You Tube in. search of lions and golden eagles on the hunt, My supervisors Dr Frank Matose in Cape Town and Prof Michael Bollig in Cologne were patient in.
their reading of my many drafts in listening to me rumbling about what I thought I was finding out. Frank s bird s eye view analysis helped me in taking a distance to the data when it was necessary while. Michael did the opposite questioned my methodologies and pushed me to dig deeper Its a. combination made in hell yet without the detail and contrasts it would have been difficult to achieve. what I have with this dissertation I want to thank them both for their guidance. My colleagues at PLAAS in Cape Town and in Cologne provided substantive as well as moral support. during my journey Ben Cousins at PLAAS was supportive and fatherly in worrying about financial. resources He also provided intellectual guidance and questioned what appeared to be obvious to me of. course until someone asks At PLAAS I want to thank everyone for their support but want to. specifically mention Thembela Kepe Moenieba Isaacs Barbara Tapela Munyaradzi Saruchera Carla. Henry Ursula Arends Lulekwa Gqiba and William Ellis In Cologne I want to thank Martin Solich and. Susanne Berzborn for listening and for their support. In Cape Town and Stellenbosch I would like to thank Lesley Fordred Green Maanda Mulaudzi and. Cherryl Walker for showing interest in my work and for the comments and questions at various stages. of this research Maanda Mulaudzi assisted in opening certain doors in the field by recommending me. to people in the Makhuya area and Lesley for organising a lecture with UCT students as well as. providing comments on earlier ideas of the thesis I also want to thank Maarit Laitinen at the Embassy. of Finland in Cape Town for giving me the opportunity to work on a Finnish funded livelihoods in. TFCAs project This work allowed me to continue conducting field work and write a research report. for which I thank Ben Cousins guidance, In Zimbabwe Giuseppe Daconto from Cesvi gave me access to their documents on livelihoods in. TFCAs and on the process in Zimbabwe Colleagues at IUCN in Harare James Murombedzi and. Maxwell Gomera provided comments to research ideas and I want to thank them for shaping my. research ideas At CASS Professor Marshall Murphree s enthusiasm for this research encouraged me. tremendously The AHEAD GLTFCA network provided a platform I could share my emerging research. findings and discuss with other doctoral candidates I would like to specifically thank Steve Osofsky. and Nicky Shongwe for facilitating my attendance at the annual AHEAD GLTFCA workshops The. South Africa National Parks People and Parks division provided a research permit which opened doors. in conducting interviews in Limpopo I thank them for that but most importantly for their research. committee s comments on a draft proposal, In Limpopo a number of people supported me with this research I want to specifically mention. Professor and Mrs Ralushai in Thohoyandou for historical insight and for taking me into their home. even at short rainy notices Mrs Ralushai worried about a skinny child who doesn t eat but coming. from the field I greatly enjoyed the meals I owe them my current understanding of the Venda history. and their home became a place to reflect on emerging findings Lufuno Reginald Kone at Tshikondeni. Mine pointed me to the appropriate area having listened to my research ideas for an hour I am grateful. for this and other assistance he provided I would also like to thank Shonisani Mphaphuli and Eric. Ramatsea for their support with seeing the relevant people in Polokwane but also for reflections and. interest in the research project Marubini Mughivhi and Francis Mbulungeni provided support and a lot. of their time as I continued returning to their offices for more and more information. Of course this research would not be there without the people of Bennde Mutale and others along the. Madimbo corridor Chief Mutele was highly supportive of this research and continues to provide. updates The Vhembe CPA though sceptical at first provided invaluable support in the end and access. to documentation regarding the land claim In Bennde Mutale I want to specifically thank and pay. tribute to Charles Munzhelele my research assistant whose grasp of local political dynamics often got. us out of sticky situations It is sad that a car accident dramatically ended his life and robbed the area of. an emerging leader I also want to thank Peter Mudzanani for conducting some of the interviews The. Guvhane family Mukegulu Frank Jane Dzivhu and Given for taking me in the family and let me stay. with them during the time of my research The fireside debates often illuminated my understanding of. local dynamics and I greatly enjoyed talking about rain and drought stars Being with the family. kindled an interest in astronomy perhaps also because the stars are so present and unpolluted by city. Finally I would like to thank my friends for being who they are Special mention to Achim Steiner and. Liz Rihoy for the support all these years Particularly Achim for picking on an essay by a high school. student my interest in natural resource issues clearly grew from that moment I have enjoyed the. reflections not only in terms of my academic career but in general I am grateful for the doors of. opportunities that have been facilitated by their belief in me I also want to thank Bram B scher for all. the friendship and debates we shared on our respective doctoral projects I want to thank Kule Chitepo. Chunky Phiri and Simon Anstey for their friendship and guidance From my very first year in Cape. Town I have shared great moments and held inspiring debates with my friends Lerothodi Leeuw. Carlos and Wendy Linden Steven Nakana Yuri Anderson and Imran Shiran I continue to draw. inspiration from an occasional email skype or visit and thank them for being there. List of Abbreviations and Acronyms,African National Congress ANC. Animal Health for Environment and Development in the. GLTFCA AHEAD GLTFCA,Bovine Tuberculosis BTB,Communal Areas Management Programme for. Indigenous Resources CAMPFIRE,Communal Property Association CPA.
Convention on Biological Diversity CBD, Community Based Natural Resources Management CBNRM. Contractual National Park CNP, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism DEAT. Foot and Mouth Disease FMD, Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area GLTFCA. Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park GLTP,Joint Management Board JMB. Kruger National Park KNP,Limpopo National Park LNP.
Limpopo Regional Land Claims Commission LRLCC,Organisation of African Unity OAU. Peace Parks Foundation PPF,Permission to Occupy PTO. Protected Area PA,Reconstruction and Development Programme RDP. South Africa Defence Force SADF,Southern Africa Development Community SADC. South Africa National Defence Force SANDF,South Africa National Parks SANPARKS.
South African Police Service SAPS,Spatial Development Initiatives SDI. The Employment Bureau for Africa TEBA, Transboundary Protected Areas Research Initiative TBPARI. Transfrontier Conservation Areas TFCAs,Transboundary Natural Resources Management TBNRM. Wildlife and Environment Society of Southern Africa WESSA. World Commission on Environment and Development WCED. Table of Contents,Abstract i,Declaration ii,Acknowledgements iii. List of Abbreviations and Acronyms vi,Table of Contents viii.
List of Tables and Figures xi, Setting the Scene Livelihoods Political and Social Characterisation of Bennde Mutale. CHAPTER ONE Setting the Research Agenda 6,1 1 Introduction 6. 1 2 Research Focus 9,1 2 2 Research Design 11, 1 2 2a Conservation policy practice and dynamics along the Madimbo corridor 11. 1 2 2b Understanding TFCAs as an external conservation intervention 15. 1 2 2c The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park and Transfrontier Conservation Area 17. Framing Biodiversity Conservation Discourses in South Africa Emerging Realities and Conflicting Agendas within the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area Webster Whande A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Institute for Poverty Land and Agrarian Studies School of Government University of the Western Cape i

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