FOOD AND systems in developing NUTRITION PAPER countries

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Globalization of food FAO,systems in developing NUTRITION. countries impact on food 83,security and nutrition. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 5IF EFTJHOBUJPOT FNQMPZFE BOE UIF QSFTFOUBUJPO PG NBUFSJBM. JO UIJT JOGPSNBUJPO QSPEVDU EP OPU JNQMZ UIF FYQSFTTJPO PG BOZ. PQJOJPO XIBUTPFWFS PO UIF QBSU PG UIF PPE BOE HSJDVMUVSF. 0SHBOJ BUJPO PG UIF 6OJUFE BUJPOT DPODFSOJOH UIF MFHBM PS. EFWFMPQNFOU TUBUVT PG BOZ DPVOUSZ UFSSJUPSZ DJUZ PS BSFB PS PG. JUT BVUIPSJUJFT PS DPODFSOJOH UIF EFMJNJUBUJPO PG JUT GSPOUJFST PS. CPVOEBSJFT,ISBN 92 5 105228 X, MM SJHIUT SFTFSWFE 3FQSPEVDUJPO BOE EJTTFNJOBUJPO PG NBUFSJBM JO UIJT. JOGPSNBUJPO QSPEVDU GPS FEVDBUJPOBM PS PUIFS OPO DPNNFSDJBM QVSQPTFT BSF. BVUIPSJ FE XJUIPVU BOZ QSJPS XSJUUFO QFSNJTTJPO GSPN UIF DPQZSJHIU IPMEFST. QSPWJEFE UIF TPVSDF JT GVMMZ BDLOPXMFEHFE 3FQSPEVDUJPO PG NBUFSJBM JO UIJT. JOGPSNBUJPO QSPEVDU GPS SFTBMF PS PUIFS DPNNFSDJBM QVSQPTFT JT QSPIJCJUFE. XJUIPVU XSJUUFO QFSNJTTJPO PG UIF DPQZSJHIU IPMEFST QQMJDBUJPOT GPS TVDI. QFSNJTTJPO TIPVME CF BEESFTTFE UP UIF IJFG 1VCMJTIJOH BOBHFNFOU 4FSWJDF. OGPSNBUJPO JWJTJPO 0 7JBMF EFMMF 5FSNF EJ BSBDBMMB 3PNF UBMZ. PS CZ F NBJM UP DPQZSJHIU GBP PSH,Acknowledgements iv. Foreword v,Acronyms vi,I Overview papers, Globalization of food systems in developing countries.
a synthesis of country case studies 1,Gina Kennedy Guy Nantel and Prakash Shetty. Features of urban food and nutrition security and considerations. for successful urban programming 27,Marie Ruel and James Garrett. Globalization urbanization and nutritional change in the developing world 55. Michelle Mendez and Barry Popkin, The growing global obesity problem some policy options to address it 81. Josef Schmidhuber,II Country case studies, Impact of globalization on food consumption health and nutrition in Nigeria 99. Kolawole Olayiwola Adedoyin Soyibo and Tola Atinmo. Globalization urbanization and nutritional changes in South Africa 119. Mickey Chopra, Impact of globalization on food consumption health and nutrition in urban areas.
a case study of Dar es Salaam United Republic of Tanzania 135. Joyce Kinabo, Trends in health and nutrition indicators in the urban slums of three cities. in Bangladesh compared to its rural areas 155, Martin Bloem Regina Moench Pfanner Federico Graciano Gudrun Stalkamp. and Saskia de Pee, Urbanization income and the nutrition transition in China a case study 169. Michelle Mendez Shufa Du and Barry Popkin, Globalization urbanization and nutrition transition in a developing island country. a case study in Fiji 195,Jimaima Schultz, Impact of globalization on the food consumption of urban India 215.
Swarna Vepa, Globalization food consumption health and nutrition in urban areas. a case study from the Philippines 231, Maria Regina Pedro Corazon Barba and Luz Candelaria. Impact of globalization on food consumption health and nutrition in urban areas. a case study of Brazil 253, Ana Lydia Sawaya Paula Andrea Martins and Vinic us Jose Baccin Martins. Nutrition transition in Chile a case study 275,Fernando Vio and Cecilia Albala. Impact of globalization on food consumption health and nutrition in urban areas. of Colombia 285,Luis Fajardo,Acknowledgements, Special thanks go to all of the authors whose papers appear in this publication Additionally thanks.
are due to the following persons for their assistance in reviewing one or more of the papers in this. volume Ruth Charrondiere Margarita Flores Stuart Gillespie Lawrence Haddad Yasmeen. Khwaja Tim Lang Christian Romer Lovendal Philip McMichael Carlos Monteiro Mark. Montgomery Barry Popkin and Ricardo Uauy Special note goes to Nicolas Lemery Nantel for the. cover design which was also used as the workshop logo. The workshop Globalization of food systems impact on food security and nutrition was. held at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO in Rome Italy from 8 to 10 October 2003 The workshop was convened to gain a. better understanding of the influence of globalization and urbanization on food systems. food supply marketing and distribution in developing countries and to analyse the effects. of these changes on smallholders and small firms on food consumption patterns and on. nutrition and health outcomes The event was jointly organized by two divisions within. FAO representing two sectors the Agricultural and Development Economics Division. examining key economic issues and the Food and Nutrition Division addressing health. and nutrition outcomes Thus two parallel themes were explored i the transformation of. food systems and its effect on small farmers in developing countries and ii the impact of. globalization largely influenced by urbanization on dietary patterns and the nutritional. status of urban populations The workshop was partially funded through the FAO. Netherlands Partnership Programme, This publication examines in detail the second theme related to features of globalization. changes in dietary patterns and shifts in the burden of malnutrition and diet related chronic. diseases It comprises a synthesis paper bringing together the salient features of the impact of the. globalization process on nutrition and reflecting some of the discussions at the workshop three. overview papers and 11 country case studies that were presented at the workshop The overview. papers describe shifts in food availability food consumption and food and nutrition security in. the urban environment The topics are further explored through a series of 11 country case. studies from Africa Nigeria the United Republic of Tanzania and South Africa Asia. Bangladesh China India and the Philippines and the Pacific Fiji and Latin America Brazil. Chile and Colombia Each case study presents unique insights on different aspects of. globalization including urbanization access to services and technologies evolution of the. workforce and impact of government decentralization on dietary changes and alterations in. population health and nutritional status, The compilation of the 11 case studies represents each individual author s perspective using. the best available national data to highlight those features thought to be most important to. changes in food systems nutrition and health in each country covered Some case studies explore. the issues from an economic perspective India Nigeria while others are more focused on. nutrition and health outcomes Bangladesh Chile The purpose of this collection of papers is not. to provide a value judgment of the differing forces related to globalization but to contribute to. the body of knowledge by documenting the pace and spread of change. The overview papers appearing in the first part of this publication will also be. published in the electronic Journal of Agriculture and Development Economics which can. be found at www fao org es ESA en ejade htm,Dr Kraisid Tontisirin. Food and Nutrition Division,AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. APIN AIDS Prevention Initiatives in Nigeria,ARMM Administrative Region of Muslim Mindanao.
ASFs animal source foods,BMI body mass index,CBN Central Bank of Nigeria. CHD coronary heart disease,CHNS China Health and Nutrition Survey. CHS community health worker, CREN Centro de Recupera o e Educa o Nutritional Centre for Nutritional. Recovery and Education Brazil,DALYs disability adjusted life years. DES dietary energy supply,DHS Demographic and Health Survey.
EBF exclusive breastfeeding, FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FGN Federal Government of Nigeria,FMoH Federal Ministry of Health Nigeria. FOS Federal Office of Statistics Nigeria,GDP gross domestic product. GNP gross national product,HIES Household Income and Expenditure Survey Fiji. HIV human immunodeficiency virus,HKI Helen Keller International.
HTN hypertension,ICMR Indian Council of Medical Research. ICT information and communication technologies,IDA iron deficiency anaemia. IDD iodine deficiency disorder,IMR infant mortality rate. IOTF International Obesity Task Force, IPHN Institute of Public Health Nutrition Bangladesh. LSMS Living Standards Measurement Study,MDGs Millennium Development Goals.
NAFDAC National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control. NCDs non communicable diseases, NCFN National Committee on Food and Nutrition Nigeria. NGO non governmental organization,NPC National Planning Commission Nigeria. NSP Nutrition Surveillance Project Bangladesh,NSS National Sample Surveys India. OECD Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development. OFW overseas Filipino workers, RDA recommended daily allowance China recommended dietary allowance. Philippines and South Africa,SAP Structural Adjustment Programme.
SES socio economic status,STDs sexually transmitted diseases. STIs sexually transmitted infections,TTD type 2 diabetes. UNDP United Nations Development Programme,UNICEF United Nations Children s Fund. UWC University of the Western Cape South Africa,VAD vitamin A deficiency. VAT value added tax,WHO World Health Organization,WTO World Trade Organization.
YLL years of life lost, Globalization of food systems in developing countries impact on food security and nutrition 1. Globalization of food systems in,developing countries. a synthesis of country case studies,Gina Kennedy1 Guy Nantel and Prakash Shetty. INTRODUCTION, The phenomenon of globalization is having a major impact on food systems around the. world Food systems are changing resulting in greater availability and diversity of food. although access to this food is by no means universal Many of these changes are closely. associated with urbanization increasing incomes market liberalization and foreign direct. investment Competition for a market share of food purchases tends to intensify with entry. into the system of powerful new players such as large multinational fast food and. supermarket chains The losers tend to be the small local agents and traditional food. markets and to some extent merchants selling street foods as well as other food items. The supermarkets bring with them significant improvements in standards of food quality. and safety at competitive prices and convenience factors which are highly attractive to an. increasingly sophisticated consumer Thus these changes in food systems affect availability. and access to food through changes to the food production procurement and distribution. systems and the food trade environment In turn this is bringing about a gradual shift in. food culture towards a more universal one with consequent changes in dietary. consumption patterns and nutritional status that vary with the socio economic strata. Indeed the lower socio economic population groups drift towards poor quality energy. dense but cheap and affordable foods, The main drivers to changes in food systems and dietary patterns such as urbanization.
increased income capital flow and market liberalization have been discussed by others de. Haan et al 2003 Haddad 2003 Popkin 2003 Reardon et al 2003 Lang and Heasman. in press This paper looks at the impact of globalization and increasing urbanization on. dietary and physical activity patterns and their effect on nutritional status and health. First a conceptual framework of the determinants of these profound changes to food. systems in the societies of developing countries is provided The remainder of the paper. draws upon and summarizes observed dietary changes and their resulting impact on. nutritional status from 11 case studies in Latin America Brazil Chile and Colombia Asia. Bangladesh China India and the Philippines Africa Nigeria the United Republic of. Tanzania and South Africa and the Pacific Fiji,Gina Kennedy Guy Nantel and Prakash Shetty. Nutrition Planning Assessment and Evaluation Service. Food and Nutrition Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,Rome Italy,E mail gina kennedy fao org. 2 Globalization of food systems in developing countries a synthesis of country case studies. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK, The conceptual framework shown in Figure 1 was elaborated in an attempt to illustrate the. major driving forces behind the observed changes in food systems. Changes in food systems,Changes in food systems,Economic drivers Social drivers.
Urbanization Rural to urban migration,Market liberalization and Employment of women. foreign direct investment,Sedentary lifestyles,Increase in incomes. Food supply Diets,Food production based Convergence of diets. on intensive agriculture,Outcome Affordability drives food. Long product shelf life choice,Supermarkets replacing Increased intake of fat.
wet markets sugar and salt,Year round availability of. Changes in nutritional status towards overweight and obesity. Rapidly increasing rates of non communicable disease. Increase in social inequities,Loss of biodiversity. Figure 1 highlights urbanization increasing incomes and foreign direct investment in. markets of developing countries as the main economic drivers influencing changes in food. supply and diet In addition to the economic forces concomitant social changes are taking. place such as more women entering the workforce and increasingly sedentary lifestyles. Accompanying these trends are changes in nutritional status and disease burden The. Special note goes to Nicolas Lemery Nantel for the cover design which was also used as the workshop logo v Foreword The workshop Globalization of food systems impact on food security and nutrition was held at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO in Rome Italy from 8 to 10 October 2003 The workshop was convened to gain a better

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